ldd(1) — Linux manual page


ldd(1)                   General Commands Manual                  ldd(1)

NAME         top

       ldd - print shared object dependencies

SYNOPSIS         top

       ldd [option]... file...

DESCRIPTION         top

       ldd prints the shared objects (shared libraries) required by each
       program or shared object specified on the command line.  An
       example of its use and output is the following:

           $ ldd /bin/ls
               linux-vdso.so.1 (0x00007ffcc3563000)
               libselinux.so.1 => /lib64/libselinux.so.1 (0x00007f87e5459000)
               libcap.so.2 => /lib64/libcap.so.2 (0x00007f87e5254000)
               libc.so.6 => /lib64/libc.so.6 (0x00007f87e4e92000)
               libpcre.so.1 => /lib64/libpcre.so.1 (0x00007f87e4c22000)
               libdl.so.2 => /lib64/libdl.so.2 (0x00007f87e4a1e000)
               /lib64/ld-linux-x86-64.so.2 (0x00005574bf12e000)
               libattr.so.1 => /lib64/libattr.so.1 (0x00007f87e4817000)
               libpthread.so.0 => /lib64/libpthread.so.0 (0x00007f87e45fa000)

       In the usual case, ldd invokes the standard dynamic linker (see
       ld.so(8)) with the LD_TRACE_LOADED_OBJECTS environment variable
       set to 1.  This causes the dynamic linker to inspect the
       program's dynamic dependencies, and find (according to the rules
       described in ld.so(8)) and load the objects that satisfy those
       dependencies.  For each dependency, ldd displays the location of
       the matching object and the (hexadecimal) address at which it is
       loaded.  (The linux-vdso and ld-linux shared dependencies are
       special; see vdso(7) and ld.so(8).)

       Be aware that in some circumstances (e.g., where the program
       specifies an ELF interpreter other than ld-linux.so), some
       versions of ldd may attempt to obtain the dependency information
       by attempting to directly execute the program, which may lead to
       the execution of whatever code is defined in the program's ELF
       interpreter, and perhaps to execution of the program itself.
       (Before glibc 2.27, the upstream ldd implementation did this for
       example, although most distributions provided a modified version
       that did not.)

       Thus, you should never employ ldd on an untrusted executable,
       since this may result in the execution of arbitrary code.  A
       safer alternative when dealing with untrusted executables is:

           $ objdump -p /path/to/program | grep NEEDED

       Note, however, that this alternative shows only the direct
       dependencies of the executable, while ldd shows the entire
       dependency tree of the executable.

OPTIONS         top

              Print the version number of ldd.

       -v     Print all information, including, for example, symbol
              versioning information.

       -u     Print unused direct dependencies.  (Since glibc 2.3.4.)

       -d     Perform relocations and report any missing objects (ELF

       -r     Perform relocations for both data objects and functions,
              and report any missing objects or functions (ELF only).

       --help Usage information.

BUGS         top

       ldd does not work on a.out shared libraries.

       ldd does not work with some extremely old a.out programs which
       were built before ldd support was added to the compiler releases.
       If you use ldd on one of these programs, the program will attempt
       to run with argc = 0 and the results will be unpredictable.

SEE ALSO         top

       pldd(1), sprof(1), ld.so(8), ldconfig(8)

COLOPHON         top

       This page is part of the man-pages (Linux kernel and C library
       user-space interface documentation) project.  Information about
       the project can be found at 
       ⟨https://www.kernel.org/doc/man-pages/⟩.  If you have a bug report
       for this manual page, see
       This page was obtained from the tarball man-pages-6.9.1.tar.gz
       fetched from
       ⟨https://mirrors.edge.kernel.org/pub/linux/docs/man-pages/⟩ on
       2024-06-26.  If you discover any rendering problems in this HTML
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       part of the original manual page), send a mail to

Linux man-pages 6.9.1          2024-05-02                         ldd(1)

Pages that refer to this page: pldd(1)sprof(1)uselib(2)dl_iterate_phdr(3)dlopen(3)babeltrace2-filter.lttng-utils.debug-info(7)rtld-audit(7)vdso(7)ldconfig(8)ld.so(8)prelink(8)