LAST(1) General Commands Manual LAST(1)
last - list logins on the system
last [ -num | -n num | --lines num ] [ -f filename | --file filename ] [ people ... ] [ ttys ... ] [ --complain ] [ --no-truncate-ftp-entries ] [ -x | --more-records ] [ -a | --all-records ] [ --tw-leniency num ] [ --tw-suspicious num ] [ -i | --ip-address ] [ --debug ] [ -w | --wide ] [ -s | --print-seconds ] [ -y | --print-year ] [ -V | --version ] [ -h | --help ]
last looks through the file wtmp (which records all logins/logouts) and prints information about connect times of users. Records are printed from most recent to least recent. Records can be specified by tty and username. tty names can be abbreviated: last 0 is equivalent to last tty0. Multiple arguments can be specified: last root console will print all of the entries for the user root and all entries logged in on the console tty. The special users reboot and shutdown log in when the system reboots or (surprise) shuts down. last reboot will produce a record of reboot times. If last is interrupted by a quit signal, it prints out how far its search in the wtmp file had reached and then quits.
-n num, --lines num Limit the number of lines that last outputs. This is different from u*x last, which lets you specify the number right after a dash. -f filename, --file filename Read from the file filename instead of the system's wtmp file. --complain When the wtmp file has a problem (a time-warp, missing record, or whatever), print out an appropriate error. --tw-leniency num Set the time warp leniency to num seconds. Records in wtmp files might be slightly out of order (most notably when two logins occur within a one-second period - the second one gets written first). By default, this value is set to 60. If the program notices this problem, time is not assigned to users unless the --timewarps flag is used. --tw-suspicious num Set the time warp suspicious value to num seconds. If two records in the wtmp file are farther than this number of seconds apart, there is a problem with the wtmp file (or your machine hasn't been used in a year). If the program notices this problem, time is not assigned to users unless the --timewarps flag is used. --no-truncate-ftp-entries When printing out the information, don't chop the number part off of `ftp'XXXX entries. -x, --more-records Print out run level changes, shutdowns, and time changes in addition to the normal records. -a, --all-records Print out all records in the wtmp file. -i, --ip-address Some machines store the IP address of a connection in a utmp record. Enabling this option makes last print the IP address instead of the hostname. -w, --wide By default, last tries to print each entry within in 80 columns. Use this option to instruct last to print out the fields in the wtmp file with full field widths. --debug Print verbose internal information. -s, --print-seconds Print seconds when displaying dates. -y, --print-year Print year when displaying dates. -V, --version Print last's version number. -h, --help Prints the usage string and default locations of system files to standard output and exits.
wtmp The system wide login record file. See wtmp(5) for further details.
The GNU accounting utilities were written by Noel Cragg <email@example.com>. The man page was added by Dirk Eddelbuettel <firstname.lastname@example.org>.
This page is part of the psacct (process accounting utilities) project. Information about the project can be found at ⟨http://www.gnu.org/software/acct/⟩. If you have a bug report for this manual page, see ⟨http://www.gnu.org/software/acct/⟩. This page was obtained from the tarball acct-6.6.4.tar.gz fetched from ⟨http://ftp.gnu.org/gnu/acct/⟩ on 2020-07-14. If you discover any rendering problems in this HTML version of the page, or you believe there is a better or more up-to-date source for the page, or you have corrections or improvements to the information in this COLOPHON (which is not part of the original manual page), send a mail to email@example.com 1997 August 19 LAST(1)
Pages that refer to this page: lastcomm(1), utmpdump(1), utmp(5), utmpx(5), wtmp(5)