NAME | DESCRIPTION | FILES | CONFORMING TO | NOTES | SEE ALSO | COLOPHON

LOCALE(5)                     Linux User Manual                    LOCALE(5)

NAME         top

       locale - describes a locale definition file

DESCRIPTION         top

       The locale definition file contains all the information that the
       localedef(1) command needs to convert it into the binary locale
       database.

       The definition files consist of sections which each describe a locale
       category in detail.  See locale(7) for additional details for these
       categories.

   Syntax
       The locale definition file starts with a header that may consist of
       the following keywords:

       <escape_char>
              is followed by a character that should be used as the escape-
              character for the rest of the file to mark characters that
              should be interpreted in a special way.  It defaults to the
              backslash (\).

       <comment_char>
              is followed by a character that will be used as the comment-
              character for the rest of the file.  It defaults to the number
              sign (#).

       The locale definition has one part for each locale category.  Each
       part can be copied from another existing locale or can be defined
       from scratch.  If the category should be copied, the only valid
       keyword in the definition is copy followed by the name of the locale
       in double quotes which should be copied.  The exceptions for this
       rule are LC_COLLATE and LC_CTYPE where a copy statement can be
       followed by locale-specific rules and selected overrides.

       When defining a category from scratch, all field descriptors and
       strings should be defined as Unicode code points in angle brackets,
       unless otherwise stated below.  For example, "€" is to be presented
       as "<U20AC>", "%a" as "<U0025><U0061>", and "Monday" as
       "<U0053><U0075><U006E><U0064><U0061><U0079>".  Values defined as
       Unicode code points must be in double quotes, plain number values are
       not quoted (but LC_CTYPE and LC_COLLATE follow special formatting,
       see the system-provided locale files for examples).

   Locale category sections
       The following category sections are defined by POSIX:

       *  LC_CTYPE

       *  LC_COLLATE

       *  LC_MESSAGES

       *  LC_MONETARY

       *  LC_NUMERIC

       *  LC_TIME

       In addition, since version 2.2, the GNU C library supports the
       following nonstandard categories:

       *  LC_ADDRESS

       *  LC_IDENTIFICATION

       *  LC_MEASUREMENT

       *  LC_NAME

       *  LC_PAPER

       *  LC_TELEPHONE

       See locale(7) for a more detailed description of each category.

   LC_ADDRESS
       The definition starts with the string LC_ADDRESS in the first column.

       The following keywords are allowed:

       postal_fmt
              followed by a string containing field descriptors that define
              the format used for postal addresses in the locale.  The
              following field descriptors are recognized:

              %a  Care of person, or organization.

              %f  Firm name.

              %d  Department name.

              %b  Building name.

              %s  Street or block (e.g., Japanese) name.

              %h  House number or designation.

              %N  Insert an end-of-line if the previous descriptor's value
                  was not an empty string; otherwise ignore.

              %t  Insert a space if the previous descriptor's value was not
                  an empty string; otherwise ignore.

              %r  Room number, door designation.

              %e  Floor number.

              %C  Country designation, from the <country_post> keyword.

              %z  Zip number, postal code.

              %T  Town, city.

              %S  State, province, or prefecture.

              %c  Country, as taken from data record.

              Each field descriptor may have an 'R' after the '%' to specify
              that the information is taken from a Romanized version string
              of the entity.

       country_name
              followed by the country name in the language of the current
              document (e.g., "Deutschland" for the de_DE locale).

       country_post
              followed by the abbreviation of the country (see
              CERT_MAILCODES).

       country_ab2
              followed by the two-letter abbreviation of the country (ISO
              3166).

       country_ab3
              followed by the three-letter abbreviation of the country (ISO
              3166).

       country_num
              followed by the numeric country code as plain numbers (ISO
              3166).

       country_car
              followed by the code for the country car number.

       country_isbn
              followed by the ISBN code (for books).

       lang_name
              followed by the language name in the language of the current
              document.

       lang_ab
              followed by the two-letter abbreviation of the language (ISO
              639).

       lang_term
              followed by the three-letter abbreviation of the language (ISO
              639-2/T).

       lang_lib
              followed by the three-letter abbreviation of the language for
              library use (ISO 639-2/B).  Applications should in general
              prefer lang_term over lang_lib.

       The LC_ADDRESS definition ends with the string END LC_ADDRESS.

   LC_CTYPE
       The definition starts with the string LC_CTYPE in the first column.

       The following keywords are allowed:

       upper  followed by a list of uppercase letters.  The letters A
              through Z are included automatically.  Characters also
              specified as cntrl, digit, punct, or space are not allowed.

       lower  followed by a list of lowercase letters.  The letters a
              through z are included automatically.  Characters also
              specified as cntrl, digit, punct, or space are not allowed.

       alpha  followed by a list of letters.  All character specified as
              either upper or lower are automatically included.  Characters
              also specified as cntrl, digit, punct, or space are not
              allowed.

       digit  followed by the characters classified as numeric digits.  Only
              the digits 0 through 9 are allowed.  They are included by
              default in this class.

       space  followed by a list of characters defined as white-space
              characters.  Characters also specified as upper, lower, alpha,
              digit, graph, or xdigit are not allowed.  The characters
              <space>, <form-feed>, <newline>, <carriage-return>, <tab>, and
              <vertical-tab> are automatically included.

       cntrl  followed by a list of control characters.  Characters also
              specified as upper, lower, alpha, digit, punct, graph, print,
              or xdigit are not allowed.

       punct  followed by a list of punctuation characters.  Characters also
              specified as upper, lower, alpha, digit, cntrl, xdigit, or the
              <space> character are not allowed.

       graph  followed by a list of printable characters, not including the
              <space> character.  The characters defined as upper, lower,
              alpha, digit, xdigit, and punct are automatically included.
              Characters also specified as cntrl are not allowed.

       print  followed by a list of printable characters, including the
              <space> character.  The characters defined as upper, lower,
              alpha, digit, xdigit, punct, and the <space> character are
              automatically included.  Characters also specified as cntrl
              are not allowed.

       xdigit followed by a list of characters classified as hexadecimal
              digits.  The decimal digits must be included followed by one
              or more set of six characters in ascending order.  The
              following characters are included by default: 0 through 9, a
              through f, A through F.

       blank  followed by a list of characters classified as blank.  The
              characters <space> and <tab> are automatically included.

       charclass
              followed by a list of locale-specific character class names
              which are then to be defined in the locale.

       toupper
              followed by a list of mappings from lowercase to uppercase
              letters.  Each mapping is a pair of a lowercase and an
              uppercase letter separated with a , and enclosed in
              parentheses.  The members of the list are separated with
              semicolons.

       tolower
              followed by a list of mappings from uppercase to lowercase
              letters.  If the keyword tolower is not present, the reverse
              of the toupper list is used.

       map totitle
              followed by a list of mapping pairs of characters and letters
              to be used in titles (headings).

       class  followed by a locale-specific character class definition,
              starting with the class name followed by the characters
              belonging to the class.

       charconv
              followed by a list of locale-specific character mapping names
              which are then to be defined in the locale.

       outdigit
              followed by a list of alternate output digits for the locale.

       map to_inpunct
              followed by a list of mapping pairs of alternate digits and
              separators for input digits for the locale.

       map to_outpunct
              followed by a list of mapping pairs of alternate separators
              for output for the locale.

       translit_start
              marks the start of the transliteration rules section.  The
              section can contain the include keyword in the beginning
              followed by locale-specific rules and overrides.  Any rule
              specified in the locale file will override any rule copied or
              included from other files.  In case of duplicate rule
              definitions in the locale file, only the first rule is used.

              A transliteration rule consist of a character to be
              transliterated followed by a list of transliteration targets
              separated by semicolons.  The first target which can be
              presented in the target character set is used, if none of them
              can be used the default_missing character will be used
              instead.

       include
              in the transliteration rules section includes a
              transliteration rule file (and optionally a repertoire map
              file).

       default_missing
              in the transliteration rules section defines the default
              character to be used for transliteration where none of the
              targets cannot be presented in the target character set.

       translit_end
              marks the end of the transliteration rules.

       The LC_CTYPE definition ends with the string END LC_CTYPE.

   LC_COLLATE
       Due to limitations of glibc not all POSIX-options are implemented.

       The definition starts with the string LC_COLLATE in the first column.

       The following keywords are allowed:

       collating-element
              followed by the definition of a collating-element symbol
              representing a multicharacter collating element.

       collating-symbol
              followed by the definition of a collating symbol that can be
              used in collation order statements.

       The order-definition starts with a line:

       order_start
              followed by a list of keywords chosen from forward, backward,
              or position.  The order definition consists of lines that
              describe the order and is terminated with the keyword
              order_end.

       The LC_COLLATE definition ends with the string END LC_COLLATE.

   LC_IDENTIFICATION
       The definition starts with the string LC_IDENTIFICATION in the first
       column.

       The values in this category are defined as plain strings.

       The following keywords are allowed:

       title  followed by the title of the locale document (e.g., "Maori
              language locale for New Zealand").

       source followed by the name of the organization that maintains this
              document.

       address
              followed by the address of the organization that maintains
              this document.

       contact
              followed by the name of the contact person at the organization
              that maintains this document.

       email  followed by the email address of the person or organization
              that maintains this document.

       tel    followed by the telephone number (in international format) of
              the organization that maintains this document.

       fax    followed by the fax number (in international format) of the
              organization that maintains this document.

       language
              followed by the name of the language to which this document
              applies.

       territory
              followed by the name of the country/geographic extent to which
              this document applies.

       audience
              followed by a description of the audience for which this
              document is intended.

       application
              followed by a description of any special application for which
              this document is intended.

       abbreviation
              followed by the short name for this document.

       revision
              followed by the revision number of this document.

       date   followed by the revision date of this document.

       In addition, for each of the categories defined by the document,
       there should be a line starting with the keyword category, followed
       by:

       *  a string that identifies this locale category definition,

       *  a semicolon, and

       *  one of the LC_* identifiers.

       The LC_IDENTIFICATION definition ends with the string END
       LC_IDENTIFICATION.

   LC_MESSAGES
       The definition starts with the string LC_MESSAGES in the first
       column.

       The following keywords are allowed:

       yesexpr
              followed by a regular expression that describes possible yes-
              responses.

       noexpr followed by a regular expression that describes possible no-
              responses.

       yesstr followed by the output string corresponding to "yes".

       nostr  followed by the output string corresponding to "no".

       The LC_MESSAGES definition ends with the string END LC_MESSAGES.

   LC_MEASUREMENT
       The definition starts with the string LC_MEASUREMENT in the first
       column.

       The following keywords are allowed:

       measurement
              followed by number identifying the standard used for
              measurement.  The following values are recognized:

              1   Metric.

              2   US customary measurements.

       The LC_MEASUREMENT definition ends with the string END
       LC_MEASUREMENT.

   LC_MONETARY
       The definition starts with the string LC_MONETARY in the first
       column.

       Values for int_curr_symbol, currency_symbol, mon_decimal_point,
       mon_thousands_sep, positive_sign, and negative_sign are defined as
       Unicode code points, the others as plain numbers.

       The following keywords are allowed:

       int_curr_symbol
              followed by the international currency symbol.  This must be a
              4-character string containing the international currency
              symbol as defined by the ISO 4217 standard (three characters)
              followed by a separator.

       currency_symbol
              followed by the local currency symbol.

       mon_decimal_point
              followed by the string that will be used as the decimal
              delimiter when formatting monetary quantities.

       mon_thousands_sep
              followed by the string that will be used as a group separator
              when formatting monetary quantities.

       mon_grouping
              followed by a sequence of integers separated by semicolons
              that describe the formatting of monetary quantities.  See
              grouping below for details.

       positive_sign
              followed by a string that is used to indicate a positive sign
              for monetary quantities.

       negative_sign
              followed by a string that is used to indicate a negative sign
              for monetary quantities.

       int_frac_digits
              followed by the number of fractional digits that should be
              used when formatting with the int_curr_symbol.

       frac_digits
              followed by the number of fractional digits that should be
              used when formatting with the currency_symbol.

       p_cs_precedes
              followed by an integer that indicates the placement of
              currency_symbol for a nonnegative formatted monetary quantity:

              0   the symbol succeeds the value.

              1   the symbol precedes the value.

       p_sep_by_space
              followed by an integer that indicates the separation of
              currency_symbol, the sign string, and the value for a
              nonnegative formatted monetary quantity.  The following values
              are recognized:

              0   No space separates the currency symbol and the value.

              1   If the currency symbol and the sign string are adjacent, a
                  space separates them from the value; otherwise a space
                  separates the currency symbol and the value.

              2   If the currency symbol and the sign string are adjacent, a
                  space separates them from the value; otherwise a space
                  separates the sign string and the value.

       n_cs_precedes
              followed by an integer that indicates the placement of
              currency_symbol for a negative formatted monetary quantity.
              The same values are recognized as for p_cs_precedes.

       n_sep_by_space
              followed by an integer that indicates the separation of
              currency_symbol, the sign string, and the value for a negative
              formatted monetary quantity.  The same values are recognized
              as for p_sep_by_space.

       p_sign_posn
              followed by an integer that indicates where the positive_sign
              should be placed for a nonnegative monetary quantity:

              0   Parentheses enclose the quantity and the currency_symbol
                  or int_curr_symbol.

              1   The sign string precedes the quantity and the
                  currency_symbol or the int_curr_symbol.

              2   The sign string succeeds the quantity and the
                  currency_symbol or the int_curr_symbol.

              3   The sign string precedes the currency_symbol or the
                  int_curr_symbol.

              4   The sign string succeeds the currency_symbol or the
                  int_curr_symbol.

       n_sign_posn
              followed by an integer that indicates where the negative_sign
              should be placed for a negative monetary quantity.  The same
              values are recognized as for p_sign_posn.

       int_p_cs_precedes
              followed by an integer that indicates the placement of
              int_currency_symbol for a nonnegative internationally
              formatted monetary quantity.  The same values are recognized
              as for p_cs_precedes.

       int_n_cs_precedes
              followed by an integer that indicates the placement of
              int_currency_symbol for a negative internationally formatted
              monetary quantity.  The same values are recognized as for
              p_cs_precedes.

       int_p_sep_by_space
              followed by an integer that indicates the separation of
              int_currency_symbol, the sign string, and the value for a
              nonnegative internationally formatted monetary quantity.  The
              same values are recognized as for p_sep_by_space.

       int_n_sep_by_space
              followed by an integer that indicates the separation of
              int_currency_symbol, the sign string, and the value for a
              negative internationally formatted monetary quantity.  The
              same values are recognized as for p_sep_by_space.

       int_p_sign_posn
              followed by an integer that indicates where the positive_sign
              should be placed for a nonnegative internationally formatted
              monetary quantity.  The same values are recognized as for
              p_sign_posn.

       int_n_sign_posn
              followed by an integer that indicates where the negative_sign
              should be placed for a negative internationally formatted
              monetary quantity.  The same values are recognized as for
              p_sign_posn.

       The LC_MONETARY definition ends with the string END LC_MONETARY.

   LC_NAME
       The definition starts with the string LC_NAME in the first column.

       Various keywords are allowed, but only name_fmt is mandatory.  Other
       keywords are needed only if there is common convention to use the
       corresponding salutation in this locale.  The allowed keywords are as
       follows:

       name_fmt
              followed by a string containing field descriptors that define
              the format used for names in the locale.  The following field
              descriptors are recognized:

              %f  Family name(s).

              %F  Family names in uppercase.

              %g  First given name.

              %G  First given initial.

              %l  First given name with Latin letters.

              %o  Other shorter name.

              %m  Additional given name(s).

              %M  Initials for additional given name(s).

              %p  Profession.

              %s  Salutation, such as "Doctor".

              %S  Abbreviated salutation, such as "Mr." or "Dr.".

              %d  Salutation, using the FDCC-sets conventions.

              %t  If the preceding field descriptor resulted in an empty
                  string, then the empty string, otherwise a space
                  character.

       name_gen
              followed by the general salutation for any gender.

       name_mr
              followed by the salutation for men.

       name_mrs
              followed by the salutation for married women.

       name_miss
              followed by the salutation for unmarried women.

       name_ms
              followed by the salutation valid for all women.

       The LC_NAME definition ends with the string END LC_NAME.

   LC_NUMERIC
       The definition starts with the string LC_NUMERIC in the first column.

       The following keywords are allowed:

       decimal_point
              followed by the string that will be used as the decimal
              delimiter when formatting numeric quantities.

       thousands_sep
              followed by the string that will be used as a group separator
              when formatting numeric quantities.

       grouping
              followed by a sequence of integers as plain numbers separated
              by semicolons that describe the formatting of numeric
              quantities.

              Each integer specifies the number of digits in a group.  The
              first integer defines the size of the group immediately to the
              left of the decimal delimiter.  Subsequent integers define
              succeeding groups to the left of the previous group.  If the
              last integer is not -1, then the size of the previous group
              (if any) is repeatedly used for the remainder of the digits.
              If the last integer is -1, then no further grouping is
              performed.

       The LC_NUMERIC definition ends with the string END LC_NUMERIC.

   LC_PAPER
       The definition starts with the string LC_PAPER in the first column.

       Values in this category are defined as plain numbers.

       The following keywords are allowed:

       height followed by the height, in millimeters, of the standard paper
              format.

       width  followed by the width, in millimeters, of the standard paper
              format.

       The LC_PAPER definition ends with the string END LC_PAPER.

   LC_TELEPHONE
       The definition starts with the string LC_TELEPHONE in the first
       column.

       The following keywords are allowed:

       tel_int_fmt
              followed by a string that contains field descriptors that
              identify the format used to dial international numbers.  The
              following field descriptors are recognized:

              %a  Area code without nationwide prefix (the prefix is often
                  "00").

              %A  Area code including nationwide prefix.

              %l  Local number (within area code).

              %e  Extension (to local number).

              %c  Country code.

              %C  Alternate carrier service code used for dialing abroad.

              %t  If the preceding field descriptor resulted in an empty
                  string, then the empty string, otherwise a space
                  character.

       tel_dom_fmt
              followed by a string that contains field descriptors that
              identify the format used to dial domestic numbers.  The
              recognized field descriptors are the same as for tel_int_fmt.

       int_select
              followed by the prefix used to call international phone
              numbers.

       int_prefix
              followed by the prefix used from other countries to dial this
              country.

       The LC_TELEPHONE definition ends with the string END LC_TELEPHONE.

   LC_TIME
       The definition starts with the string LC_TIME in the first column.

       The following keywords are allowed:

       abday  followed by a list of abbreviated names of the days of the
              week.  The list starts with the first day of the week as
              specified by week (Sunday by default).  See NOTES.

       day    followed by a list of names of the days of the week.  The list
              starts with the first day of the week as specified by week
              (Sunday by default).  See NOTES.

       abmon  followed by a list of abbreviated month names.

       mon    followed by a list of month names.

       d_t_fmt
              followed by the appropriate date and time format (for syntax,
              see strftime(3)).

       d_fmt  followed by the appropriate date format (for syntax, see
              strftime(3)).

       t_fmt  followed by the appropriate time format (for syntax, see
              strftime(3)).

       am_pm  followed by the appropriate representation of the am and pm
              strings.  This should be left empty for locales not using
              AM/PM convention.

       t_fmt_ampm
              followed by the appropriate time format (for syntax, see
              strftime(3)) when using 12h clock format.  This should be left
              empty for locales not using AM/PM convention.

       era    followed by semicolon-separated strings that define how years
              are counted and displayed for each era in the locale.  Each
              string has the following format:

              direction:offset:start_date:end_date:era_name:era_format

              The fields are to be defined as follows:

              direction
                  Either + or -.  + means the years closer to start_date
                  have lower numbers than years closer to end_date.  - means
                  the opposite.

              offset
                  The number of the year closest to start_date in the era,
                  corresponding to the %Ey descriptor (see strptime(3)).

              start_date
                  The start of the era in the form of yyyy/mm/dd.  Years
                  prior AD 1 are represented as negative numbers.

              end_date
                  The end of the era in the form of yyyy/mm/dd, or one of
                  the two special values of -* or +*.  -* means the ending
                  date is the beginning of time.  +* means the ending date
                  is the end of time.

              era_name
                  The name of the era corresponding to the %EC descriptor
                  (see strptime(3)).

              era_format
                  The format of the year in the era corresponding to the %EY
                  descriptor (see strptime(3)).

       era_d_fmt
              followed by the format of the date in alternative era
              notation, corresponding to the %Ex descriptor (see
              strptime(3)).

       era_t_fmt
              followed by the format of the time in alternative era
              notation, corresponding to the %EX descriptor (see
              strptime(3)).

       era_d_t_fmt
              followed by the format of the date and time in alternative era
              notation, corresponding to the %Ec descriptor (see
              strptime(3)).

       alt_digits
              followed by the alternative digits used for date and time in
              the locale.

       week   followed by a list of three values as plain numbers: The
              number of days in a week (by default 7), a date of beginning
              of the week (by default corresponds to Sunday), and the
              minimal length of the first week in year (by default 4).
              Regarding the start of the week, 19971130 shall be used for
              Sunday and 19971201 shall be used for Monday.  See NOTES.

       first_weekday (since glibc 2.2)
              followed by the number of the first day from the day list to
              be shown in calendar applications.  The default value of 1
              (plain number) corresponds to either Sunday or Monday
              depending on the value of the second week list item.  See
              NOTES.

       first_workday (since glibc 2.2)
              followed by the number of the first working day from the day
              list.  The default value is 2 (plain number).  See NOTES.

       cal_direction
              followed by a plain number value that indicates the direction
              for the display of calendar dates, as follows:

              1   Left-right from top.

              2   Top-down from left.

              3   Right-left from top.

       date_fmt
              followed by the appropriate date representation for date(1)
              (for syntax, see strftime(3)).

       The LC_TIME definition ends with the string END LC_TIME.

FILES         top

       /usr/lib/locale/locale-archive
              Usual default locale archive location.

       /usr/share/i18n/locales
              Usual default path for locale definition files.

CONFORMING TO         top

       POSIX.2, ISO/IEC TR 14652.

NOTES         top

       The collective GNU C library community wisdom regarding abday, day,
       week, first_weekday, and first_workday states at
       https://sourceware.org/glibc/wiki/Locales the following:

       *  The value of the second week list item specifies the base of the
          abday and day lists.

       *  first_weekday specifies the offset of the first day-of-week in the
          abday and day lists.

       *  For compatibility reasons, all glibc locales should set the value
          of the second week list item to 19971130 (Sunday) and base the
          abday and day lists appropriately, and set first_weekday and
          first_workday to 1 or 2, depending on whether the week and work
          week actually starts on Sunday or Monday for the locale.

SEE ALSO         top

       iconv(1), locale(1), localedef(1), localeconv(3), newlocale(3),
       setlocale(3), strftime(3), strptime(3), uselocale(3), charmap(5),
       charsets(7), locale(7), unicode(7), utf-8(7)

COLOPHON         top

       This page is part of release 4.02 of the Linux man-pages project.  A
       description of the project, information about reporting bugs, and the
       latest version of this page, can be found at
       http://www.kernel.org/doc/man-pages/.

Linux                            2015-07-23                        LOCALE(5)