NAME | SYNOPSIS | DESCRIPTION | OPTIONS | EXIT STATUS | ENVIRONMENT | FILES | CONFORMING TO | EXAMPLE | SEE ALSO | COLOPHON

ICONV(1)                      Linux User Manual                     ICONV(1)

NAME         top

       iconv - convert text from one character encoding to another

SYNOPSIS         top

       iconv [options] [-f from-encoding] [-t to-encoding] [inputfile]...

DESCRIPTION         top

       The iconv program reads in text in one encoding and outputs the text
       in another encoding.  If no input files are given, or if it is given
       as a dash (-), iconv reads from standard input.  If no output file is
       given, iconv writes to standard output.

       If no from-encoding is given, the default is derived from the current
       locale's character encoding.  If no to-encoding is given, the default
       is derived from the current locale's character encoding.

OPTIONS         top

       -f from-encoding, --from-code=from-encoding
              Use from-encoding for input characters.

       -t to-encoding, --to-code=to-encoding
              Use to-encoding for output characters.

              If the string //IGNORE is appended to to-encoding, characters
              that cannot be converted are discarded and an error is printed
              after conversion.

              If the string //TRANSLIT is appended to to-encoding,
              characters being converted are transliterated when needed and
              possible.  This means that when a character cannot be
              represented in the target character set, it can be
              approximated through one or several similar looking
              characters.  Characters that are outside of the target
              character set and cannot be transliterated are replaced with a
              question mark (?) in the output.

       -l, --list
              List all known character set encodings.

       -c     Silently discard characters that cannot be converted instead
              of terminating when encountering such characters.

       -o outputfile, --output=outputfile
              Use outputfile for output.

       -s, --silent
              This option is ignored; it is provided only for compatibility.

       --verbose
              Print progress information on standard error when processing
              multiple files.

       -?, --help
              Print a usage summary and exit.

       --usage
              Print a short usage summary and exit.

       -V, --version
              Print the version number, license, and disclaimer of warranty
              for iconv.

EXIT STATUS         top

       Zero on success, non-zero on errors.

ENVIRONMENT         top

       Internally, the iconv program uses the iconv(3) function which in
       turn uses gconv modules (dynamically loaded shared libraries) to
       convert to and from a character set.  Before calling iconv(3), the
       iconv program must first allocate a conversion descriptor using
       iconv_open(3).  The operation of the latter function is influenced by
       the setting of the GCONV_PATH environment variable:

       *  If GCONV_PATH is not set, iconv_open(3) loads the system gconv
          module configuration cache file created by iconvconfig(8) and
          then, based on the configuration, loads the gconv modules needed
          to perform the conversion.  If the system gconv module
          configuration cache file is not available then the system gconv
          module configuration file is used.

       *  If GCONV_PATH is defined (as a colon-separated list of pathnames),
          the system gconv module configuration cache is not used.  Instead,
          iconv_open(3) first tries to load the configuration files by
          searching the directories in GCONV_PATH in order, followed by the
          system default gconv module configuration file.  If a directory
          does not contain a gconv module configuration file, any gconv
          modules that it may contain are ignored.  If a directory contains
          a gconv module configuration file and it is determined that a
          module needed for this conversion is available in the directory,
          then the needed module is loaded from that directory, the order
          being such that the first suitable module found in GCONV_PATH is
          used.  This allows users to use custom modules and even replace
          system-provided modules by providing such modules in GCONV_PATH
          directories.

FILES         top

       /usr/lib/gconv
              Usual default gconv module path.

       /usr/lib/gconv/gconv-modules
              Usual system default gconv module configuration file.

       /usr/lib/gconv/gconv-modules.cache
              Usual system gconv module configuration cache.

CONFORMING TO         top

       POSIX.1-2001.

EXAMPLE         top

       Convert text from the ISO 8859-15 character encoding to UTF-8:

           $ iconv -f ISO-8859-15 -t UTF-8 < input.txt > output.txt

       The next example converts from UTF-8 to ASCII, transliterating when
       possible:

           $ echo abc ß α € àḃç | iconv -f UTF-8 -t ASCII//TRANSLIT
           abc ss ? EUR abc

SEE ALSO         top

       locale(1), iconv(3), nl_langinfo(3), charsets(7), iconvconfig(8)

COLOPHON         top

       This page is part of release 4.07 of the Linux man-pages project.  A
       description of the project, information about reporting bugs, and the
       latest version of this page, can be found at
       https://www.kernel.org/doc/man-pages/.

GNU                              2014-07-08                         ICONV(1)