NAME | SYNOPSIS | DESCRIPTION | COLORS | INTERACTIVE COMMANDS | PCP DATA STORAGE | OUTPUT DESCRIPTION | OUTPUT DESCRIPTION - SYSTEM LEVEL | OUTPUT DESCRIPTION - PROCESS LEVEL | PARSEABLE OUTPUT | EXAMPLES | FILES | NOTES | SEE ALSO | COLOPHON

PCP-ATOP(1)                General Commands Manual               PCP-ATOP(1)

NAME         top

       pcp-atop, pmatop - Advanced System and Process Monitor

SYNOPSIS         top

       Interactive Usage:

       pcp [pcp options] atop [-g|-m|-d|-n|-u|-p|-s|-c|-v|-o|-y]
       [-C|-M|-D|-N|-A] [-afFG1xR] [-L linelen] [-Plabel[,label]...]
       [interval [samples]]

       Writing and reading raw logfiles:

       pcp atop -w rawfile [-a] [-S] [interval [samples]]
       pcp atop -r [ rawfile ] [-b hh:mm ] [-e hh:mm ]
       [-g|-m|-d|-n|-u|-p|-s|-c|-v|-o|-y] [-C|-M|-D|-N|-A] [-fFG1xR] [-L
       linelen] [-Plabel[,label]...]

DESCRIPTION         top

       The program pcp-atop is an interactive monitor to view various
       aspects of load on a system.  It shows the occupation of the most
       critical hardware resources (from a performance point of view) on
       system level, i.e. cpu, memory, disk and network.
       It also shows which processes are responsible for the indicated load
       with respect to cpu and memory load on process level.  Disk load is
       shown per process if "storage accounting" is active in the kernel.

       Every interval (default: 10 seconds) information is shown about the
       resource occupation on system level (cpu, memory, disks and network
       layers), followed by a list of processes which have been active
       during the last interval (note that all processes that were unchanged
       during the last interval are not shown, unless the key 'a' has been
       pressed).  If the list of active processes does not entirely fit on
       the screen, only the top of the list is shown (sorted in order of
       activity).
       The intervals are repeated till the number of samples (specified as
       command argument) is reached, or till the key 'q' is pressed in
       interactive mode.

       When invoked via the pcp(1) command, the PCPIntro(1) options
       -h/--host, -a/--archive, -O/--origin, -s/--samples, -t/--interval,
       -Z/--timezone and several other pcp options become indirectly
       available.

       When pcp-atop is started, it checks whether the standard output
       channel is connected to a screen, or to a file/pipe. In the first
       case it produces screen control codes (via the ncurses library) and
       behaves interactively; in the second case it produces flat ASCII-
       output.

       In interactive mode, the output of pcp-atop scales dynamically to the
       current dimensions of the screen/window.
       If the window is resized horizontally, columns will be added or
       removed automatically. For this purpose, every column has a
       particular weight. The columns with the highest weights that fit
       within the current width will be shown.
       If the window is resized vertically, lines of the process/thread list
       will be added or removed automatically.

       Furthermore in interactive mode the output of pcp-atop can be
       controlled by pressing particular keys.  However it is also possible
       to specify such key as flag on the command line. In that case pcp-
       atop switches to the indicated mode on beforehand; this mode can be
       modified again interactively. Specifying such key as flag is
       especially useful when running pcp-atop with output to a pipe or file
       (non-interactively).  These flags are the same as the keys that can
       be pressed in interactive mode (see section INTERACTIVE COMMANDS).
       Additional flags are available to support storage of pcp-atop data in
       PCP archive format (see section PCP DATA STORAGE).

COLORS         top

       For the resource consumption on system level, pcp-atop uses colors to
       indicate that a critical occupation percentage has been (almost)
       reached.  A critical occupation percentage means that is likely that
       this load causes a noticeable negative performance influence for
       applications using this resource. The critical percentage depends on
       the type of resource: e.g. the performance influence of a disk with a
       busy percentage of 80% might be more noticeable for applications/user
       than a CPU with a busy percentage of 90%.
       Currently pcp-atop uses the following default values to calculate a
       weighted percentage per resource:

        Processor
            A busy percentage of 90% or higher is considered `critical'.

        Disk
            A busy percentage of 70% or higher is considered `critical'.

        Network
            A busy percentage of 90% or higher for the load of an interface
            is considered `critical'.

        Memory
            An occupation percentage of 90% is considered `critical'.
            Notice that this occupation percentage is the accumulated memory
            consumption of the kernel (including slab) and all processes;
            the memory for the page cache (`cache' and `buff' in the MEM-
            line) and the reclaimable part of the slab (`slrec`) is not
            implied!
            If the number of pages swapped out (`swout' in the PAG-line) is
            larger than 10 per second, the memory resource is considered
            `critical'.  A value of at least 1 per second is considered
            `almost critical'.
            If the committed virtual memory exceeds the limit (`vmcom' and
            `vmlim' in the SWP-line), the SWP-line is colored due to
            overcommitting the system.

        Swap
            An occupation percentage of 80% is considered `critical' because
            swap space might be completely exhausted in the near future; it
            is not critical from a performance point-of-view.

       These default values can be modified in the configuration file (see
       separate man-page of pcp-atoprc).

       When a resource exceeds its critical occupation percentage, the
       concerning values in the screen line are colored red by default.
       When a resource exceeded (default) 80% of its critical percentage (so
       it is almost critical), the concerning values in the screen line are
       colored cyan by default. This `almost critical percentage' (one value
       for all resources) can be modified in the configuration file (see
       separate man-page of pcp-atoprc).
       The default colors red and cyan can be modified in the configuration
       file as well (see separate man-page of pcp-atoprc).

       With the key 'x' (or flag -x), the use of colors can be suppressed.

INTERACTIVE COMMANDS         top

       When running pcp-atop interactively (no output redirection), keys can
       be pressed to control the output. In general, lower case keys can be
       used to show other information for the active processes and upper
       case keys can be used to influence the sort order of the active
       process/thread list.

       g    Show generic output (default).

            Per process the following fields are shown in case of a window-
            width of 80 positions: process-id, cpu consumption during the
            last interval in system and user mode, the virtual and resident
            memory growth of the process.

            The subsequent columns depend on the used kernel:
            When the kernel supports "storage accounting" (>= 2.6.20), the
            data transfer for read/write on disk, the status and exit code
            are shown for each process.  When the kernel does not support
            "storage accounting", the username, number of threads in the
            thread group, the status and exit code are shown.
            The last columns contain the state, the occupation percentage
            for the chosen resource (default: cpu) and the process name.

            When more than 80 positions are available, other information is
            added.

       m    Show memory related output.

            Per process the following fields are shown in case of a window-
            width of 80 positions: process-id, minor and major memory
            faults, size of virtual shared text, total virtual process size,
            total resident process size, virtual and resident growth during
            last interval, memory occupation percentage and process name.

            When more than 80 positions are available, other information is
            added.

       d    Show disk-related output.

            When "storage accounting" is active in the kernel, the following
            fields are shown: process-id, amount of data read from disk,
            amount of data written to disk, amount of data that was written
            but has been withdrawn again (WCANCL), disk occupation
            percentage and process name.

       s    Show scheduling characteristics.

            Per process the following fields are shown in case of a window-
            width of 80 positions: process-id, number of threads in state
            'running' (R), number of threads in state 'interruptible
            sleeping' (S), number of threads in state 'uninterruptible
            sleeping' (D), scheduling policy (normal timesharing, realtime
            round-robin, realtime fifo), nice value, priority, realtime
            priority, current processor, status, exit code, state, the
            occupation percentage for the chosen resource and the process
            name.

            When more than 80 positions are available, other information is
            added.

       v    Show various process characteristics.

            Per process the following fields are shown in case of a window-
            width of 80 positions: process-id, user name and group, start
            date and time, status (e.g. exit code if the process has
            finished), state, the occupation percentage for the chosen
            resource and the process name.

            When more than 80 positions are available, other information is
            added.

       c    Show the command line of the process.

            Per process the following fields are shown: process-id, the
            occupation percentage for the chosen resource and the command
            line including arguments.

       o    Show the user-defined line of the process.

            In the configuration file the keyword ownprocline can be
            specified with the description of a user-defined output-line.
            Refer to the man-page of pcp-atoprc for a detailed description.

       y    Show the individual threads within a process (toggle).

            Single-threaded processes are still shown as one line.
            For multi-threaded processes, one line represents the process
            while additional lines show the activity per individual thread
            (in a different color). Depending on the option 'a' (all or
            active toggle), all threads are shown or only the threads that
            were active during the last interval.
            Whether this key is active or not can be seen in the header
            line.

       u    Show the process activity accumulated per user.

            Per user the following fields are shown: number of processes
            active or terminated during last interval (or in total if
            combined with command `a'), accumulated cpu consumption during
            last interval in system and user mode, the current virtual and
            resident memory space consumed by active processes (or all
            processes of the user if combined with command `a').
            When "storage accounting" is active in the kernel, the
            accumulated read and write throughput on disk is shown.  When
            the kernel module `netatop' has been installed, the number of
            received and sent network packets are shown.
            The last columns contain the accumulated occupation percentage
            for the chosen resource (default: cpu) and the user name.

       p    Show the process activity accumulated per program (i.e. process
            name).

            Per program the following fields are shown: number of processes
            active or terminated during last interval (or in total if
            combined with command `a'), accumulated cpu consumption during
            last interval in system and user mode, the current virtual and
            resident memory space consumed by active processes (or all
            processes of the user if combined with command `a').
            When "storage accounting" is active in the kernel, the
            accumulated read and write throughput on disk is shown.  When
            the kernel module `netatop' has been installed, the number of
            received and sent network packets are shown.
            The last columns contain the accumulated occupation percentage
            for the chosen resource (default: cpu) and the program name.

       C    Sort the current list in the order of cpu consumption (default).
            The one-but-last column changes to ``CPU''.

       M    Sort the current list in the order of resident memory
            consumption.  The one-but-last column changes to ``MEM''.

       D    Sort the current list in the order of disk accesses issued.  The
            one-but-last column changes to ``DSK''.

       N    Sort the current list in the order of network bandwidth
            (received and transmitted).  The one-but-last column changes to
            ``NET''.

       A    Sort the current list automatically in the order of the most
            busy system resource during this interval.  The one-but-last
            column shows either ``ACPU'', ``AMEM'', ``ADSK'' or ``ANET''
            (the preceding 'A' indicates automatic sorting-order).  The most
            busy resource is determined by comparing the weighted busy-
            percentages of the system resources, as described earlier in the
            section COLORS.
            This option remains valid until another sorting-order is
            explicitly selected again.
            A sorting-order for disk is only possible when "storage
            accounting" is active.  A sorting-order for network is only
            possible when the kernel module `netatop' is loaded.

       Miscellaneous interactive commands:

       ?    Request for help information (also the key 'h' can be pressed).

       V    Request for version information (version number and date).

       R    Gather and calculate the proportional set size of processes
            (toggle).  Gathering of all values that are needed to calculate
            the PSIZE of a process is a relatively time-consuming task, so
            this key should only be active when analyzing the resident
            memory consumption of processes.

       x    Suppress colors to highlight critical resources (toggle).
            Whether this key is active or not can be seen in the header
            line.

       z    The pause key can be used to freeze the current situation in
            order to investigate the output on the screen. While pcp-atop is
            paused, the keys described above can be pressed to show other
            information about the current list of processes.  Whenever the
            pause key is pressed again, pcp-atop will continue with a next
            sample.

       i    Modify the interval timer (default: 10 seconds). If an interval
            timer of 0 is entered, the interval timer is switched off. In
            that case a new sample can only be triggered manually by
            pressing the key 't'.

       t    Trigger a new sample manually. This key can be pressed if the
            current sample should be finished before the timer has exceeded,
            or if no timer is set at all (interval timer defined as 0). In
            the latter case pcp-atop can be used as a stopwatch to measure
            the load being caused by a particular application transaction,
            without knowing on beforehand how many seconds this transaction
            will last.

            When viewing the contents of a raw file, this key can be used to
            show the next sample from the file.

       T    When viewing the contents of a raw file, this key can be used to
            show the previous sample from the file.

       b    When viewing the contents of a raw file, this key can be used to
            branch to a certain timestamp within the file (either forward or
            backward).

       r    Reset all counters to zero to see the system and process
            activity since boot again.

            When viewing the contents of a raw file, this key can be used to
            rewind to the beginning of the file again.

       U    Specify a search string for specific user names as a regular
            expression.  From now on, only (active) processes will be shown
            from a user which matches the regular expression.  The system
            statistics are still system wide.  If the Enter-key is pressed
            without specifying a name, (active) processes of all users will
            be shown again.
            Whether this key is active or not can be seen in the header
            line.

       I    Specify a list with one or more PIDs to be selected.  From now
            on, only processes will be shown with a PID which matches one of
            the given list.  The system statistics are still system wide.
            If the Enter-key is pressed without specifying a PID, all
            (active) processes will be shown again.
            Whether this key is active or not can be seen in the header
            line.

       P    Specify a search string for specific process names as a regular
            expression.  From now on, only processes will be shown with a
            name which matches the regular expression.  The system
            statistics are still system wide.  If the Enter-key is pressed
            without specifying a name, all (active) processes will be shown
            again.
            Whether this key is active or not can be seen in the header
            line.

       /    Specify a specific command line search string as a regular
            expression.  From now on, only processes will be shown with a
            command line which matches the regular expression.  The system
            statistics are still system wide.  If the Enter-key is pressed
            without specifying a string, all (active) processes will be
            shown again.
            Whether this key is active or not can be seen in the header
            line.

       S    Specify search strings for specific logical volume names,
            specific disk names and specific network interface names. All
            search strings are interpreted as a regular expressions.  From
            now on, only those system resources are shown that match the
            concerning regular expression.  If the Enter-key is pressed
            without specifying a search string, all (active) system
            resources of that type will be shown again.
            Whether this key is active or not can be seen in the header
            line.

       a    The `all/active' key can be used to toggle between only
            showing/accumulating the processes that were active during the
            last interval (default) or showing/accumulating all processes.
            Whether this key is active or not can be seen in the header
            line.

       G    By default, pcp-atop shows/accumulates the processes that are
            alive and the processes that are exited during the last
            interval. With this key (toggle), showing/accumulating the
            processes that are exited can be suppressed.
            Whether this key is active or not can be seen in the header
            line.

       f    Show a fixed (maximum) number of header lines for system
            resources (toggle).  By default only the lines are shown about
            system resources (CPUs, paging, logical volumes, disks, network
            interfaces) that really have been active during the last
            interval.  With this key you can force pcp-atop to show lines of
            inactive resources as well.
            Whether this key is active or not can be seen in the header
            line.

       F    Suppress sorting of system resources (toggle).  By default
            system resources (CPUs, logical volumes, disks, network
            interfaces) are sorted on utilization.
            Whether this key is active or not can be seen in the header
            line.

       1    Show relevant counters as an average per second (in the format
            `..../s') instead of as a total during the interval (toggle).
            Whether this key is active or not can be seen in the header
            line.

       l    Limit the number of system level lines for the counters per-cpu,
            the active disks and the network interfaces.  By default lines
            are shown of all CPUs, disks and network interfaces which have
            been active during the last interval.  Limiting these lines can
            be useful on systems with huge number CPUs, disks or interfaces
            in order to be able to run pcp-atop on a screen/window with e.g.
            only 24 lines.
            For all mentioned resources the maximum number of lines can be
            specified interactively. When using the flag -l the maximum
            number of per-cpu lines is set to 0, the maximum number of disk
            lines to 5 and the maximum number of interface lines to 3.
            These values can be modified again in interactive mode.

       k    Send a signal to an active process (a.k.a. kill a process).

       q    Quit the program.

       PgDn Show the next page of the process/thread list.
            With the arrow-down key the list can be scrolled downwards with
            single lines.

       ^F   Show the next page of the process/thread list (forward).
            With the arrow-down key the list can be scrolled downwards with
            single lines.

       PgUp Show the previous page of the process/thread list.
            With the arrow-up key the list can be scrolled upwards with
            single lines.

       ^B   Show the previous page of the process/thread list (backward).
            With the arrow-up key the list can be scrolled upwards with
            single lines.

       ^L   Redraw the screen.

PCP DATA STORAGE         top

       In order to store system and process level statistics for long-term
       analysis (e.g. to check the system load and the active processes
       running yesterday between 3:00 and 4:00 PM), pcp-atop can store the
       system and process level statistics in the PCP archive format, as an
       archive folio (see mkaf(1)).
       By default only processes which have been active during the interval
       are stored in the raw file. When the flag -a is specified, all
       processes will be stored.
       The interval (default: 10 seconds) and number of samples (default:
       infinite) can be passed as last arguments. Instead of the number of
       samples, the flag -S can be used to indicate that pcp-atop should
       finish anyhow before midnight.

       A PCP archive can be read and visualized again with the flag -r .
       The argument is a comma-separated list of names, each of which may be
       the base name of an archive or the name of a directory containing one
       or more archives.  If no argument is specified, the file
       $PCP_LOG_DIR/pmlogger/HOST/YYYYMMDD is opened for input (where
       YYYYMMDD are digits representing the current date, and HOST is the
       hostname of the machine being logged).  If a filename is specified in
       the format YYYYMMDD (representing any valid date), the file
       $PCP_LOG_DIR/pmlogger/HOST/YYYYMMDD is opened.  If a filename with
       the symbolic name y is specified, yesterday's daily logfile is opened
       (this can be repeated so 'yyyy' indicates the logfile of four days
       ago).
       The samples from the file can be viewed interactively by using the
       key 't' to show the next sample, the key 'T' to show the previous
       sample, the key 'b' to branch to a particular time or the key 'r' to
       rewind to the begin of the file.
       When output is redirected to a file or pipe, pcp-atop prints all
       samples in plain ASCII. The default line length is 80 characters in
       that case; with the flag -L followed by an alternate line length,
       more (or less) columns will be shown.
       With the flag -b (begin time) and/or -e (end time) followed by a time
       argument of the form HH:MM, a certain time period within the raw file
       can be selected.

OUTPUT DESCRIPTION         top

       The first sample shows the system level activity since boot (the
       elapsed time in the header shows the time since boot).  Note that
       particular counters could have reached their maximum value (several
       times) and started by zero again, so do not rely on these figures.

       For every sample pcp-atop first shows the lines related to system
       level activity. If a particular system resource has not been used
       during the interval, the entire line related to this resource is
       suppressed. So the number of system level lines may vary for each
       sample.
       After that a list is shown of processes which have been active during
       the last interval. This list is by default sorted on cpu consumption,
       but this order can be changed by the keys which are previously
       described.

       If values have to be shown by pcp-atop which do not fit in the column
       width, another format is used. If e.g. a cpu-consumption of 233216
       milliseconds should be shown in a column width of 4 positions, it is
       shown as `233s' (in seconds).  For large memory figures, another unit
       is chosen if the value does not fit (Mb instead of Kb, Gb instead of
       Mb, Tb instead of Gb, ...).  For other values, a kind of exponent
       notation is used (value 123456789 shown in a column of 5 positions
       gives 123e6).

OUTPUT DESCRIPTION - SYSTEM LEVEL         top

       The system level information consists of the following output lines:

       PRC  Process and thread level totals.
            This line contains the total cpu time consumed in system mode
            (`sys') and in user mode (`user'), the total number of processes
            present at this moment (`#proc'), the total number of threads
            present at this moment in state `running' (`#trun'), `sleeping
            interruptible' (`#tslpi') and `sleeping uninterruptible'
            (`#tslpu'), the number of zombie processes (`#zombie'), the
            number of clone system calls (`clones'), and the number of
            processes that ended during the interval (`#exit') when process
            accounting is used. Instead of `#exit` the last column may
            indicate that process accounting could not be activated (`no
            procacct`).
            If the screen-width does not allow all of these counters, only a
            relevant subset is shown.

       CPU  CPU utilization.
            At least one line is shown for the total occupation of all CPUs
            together.
            In case of a multi-processor system, an additional line is shown
            for every individual processor (with `cpu' in lower case),
            sorted on activity. Inactive CPUs will not be shown by default.
            The lines showing the per-cpu occupation contain the cpu number
            in the last field.

            Every line contains the percentage of cpu time spent in kernel
            mode by all active processes (`sys'), the percentage of cpu time
            consumed in user mode (`user') for all active processes
            (including processes running with a nice value larger than
            zero), the percentage of cpu time spent for interrupt handling
            (`irq') including softirq, the percentage of unused cpu time
            while no processes were waiting for disk-I/O (`idle'), and the
            percentage of unused cpu time while at least one process was
            waiting for disk-I/O (`wait').
            In case of per-cpu occupation, the last column shows the cpu
            number and the wait percentage (`w') for that cpu.  The number
            of lines showing the per-cpu occupation can be limited.

            For virtual machines the steal-percentage is shown (`steal'),
            reflecting the percentage of cpu time stolen by other virtual
            machines running on the same hardware.
            For physical machines hosting one or more virtual machines, the
            guest-percentage is shown (`guest'), reflecting the percentage
            of cpu time used by the virtual machines. Notice that this
            percentage overlaps the user-percentage.

            In case of frequency-scaling, all previously mentioned CPU-
            percentages are relative to the used scaling of the CPU during
            the interval.  If a CPU has been active for e.g. 50% in user
            mode during the interval while the frequency-scaling of that CPU
            was 40%, only 20% of the full capacity of the CPU has been used
            in user mode.

            If the screen-width does not allow all of these counters, only a
            relevant subset is shown.

       CPL  CPU load information.
            This line contains the load average figures reflecting the
            number of threads that are available to run on a CPU (i.e. part
            of the runqueue) or that are waiting for disk I/O. These figures
            are averaged over 1 (`avg1'), 5 (`avg5') and 15 (`avg15')
            minutes.
            Furthermore the number of context switches (`csw'), the number
            of serviced interrupts (`intr') and the number of available CPUs
            are shown.

            If the screen-width does not allow all of these counters, only a
            relevant subset is shown.

       MEM  Memory occupation.
            This line contains the total amount of physical memory (`tot'),
            the amount of memory which is currently free (`free'), the
            amount of memory in use as page cache including the total
            resident shared memory (`cache'), the amount of memory within
            the page cache that has to be flushed to disk (`dirty'), the
            amount of memory used for filesystem meta data (`buff'), the
            amount of memory being used for kernel mallocs (`slab'), the
            amount of slab memory that is reclaimable (`slrec'), the
            resident size of shared memory including tmpfs (`shmem`), the
            resident size of shared memory (`shrss`) the amount of shared
            memory that is currently swapped (`shswp`), the amount of memory
            that is currently claimed by vmware's balloon driver (`vmbal`),
            the amount of memory that is claimed for huge pages (`hptot`),
            and the amount of huge page memory that is really in use
            (`hpuse`).

            If the screen-width does not allow all of these counters, only a
            relevant subset is shown.

       SWP  Swap occupation and overcommit info.
            This line contains the total amount of swap space on disk
            (`tot') and the amount of free swap space (`free').
            Furthermore the committed virtual memory space (`vmcom') and the
            maximum limit of the committed space (`vmlim', which is by
            default swap size plus 50% of memory size) is shown.  The
            committed space is the reserved virtual space for all
            allocations of private memory space for processes. The kernel
            only verifies whether the committed space exceeds the limit if
            strict overcommit handling is configured (vm.overcommit_memory
            is 2).

       PAG  Paging frequency.
            This line contains the number of scanned pages (`scan') due to
            the fact that free memory drops below a particular threshold and
            the number times that the kernel tries to reclaim pages due to
            an urgent need (`stall').
            Also the number of memory pages the system read from swap space
            (`swin') and the number of memory pages the system wrote to swap
            space (`swout') are shown.

       LVM/MDD/DSK
            Logical volume/multiple device/disk utilization.
            Per active unit one line is produced, sorted on unit activity.
            Such line shows the name (e.g. VolGroup00-lvtmp for a logical
            volume or sda for a hard disk), the busy percentage i.e. the
            portion of time that the unit was busy handling requests
            (`busy'), the number of read requests issued (`read'), the
            number of write requests issued (`write'), the number of KiBytes
            per read (`KiB/r'), the number of KiBytes per write (`KiB/w'),
            the number of MiBytes per second throughput for reads (`MBr/s'),
            the number of MiBytes per second throughput for writes
            (`MBw/s'), the average queue depth (`avq') and the average
            number of milliseconds needed by a request (`avio') for seek,
            latency and data transfer.
            If the screen-width does not allow all of these counters, only a
            relevant subset is shown.

            The number of lines showing the units can be limited per class
            (LVM, MDD or DSK) with the 'l' key or statically (see separate
            man-page of pcp-atoprc(5)).  By specifying the value 0 for a
            particular class, no lines will be shown any more for that
            class.

       NFM  Network Filesystem (NFS) mount at the client side.
            For each NFS-mounted filesystem, a line is shown that contains
            the mounted server directory, the name of the server (`srv'),
            the total number of bytes physically read from the server
            (`read') and the total number of bytes physically written to the
            server (`write').  Data transfer is subdivided in the number of
            bytes read via normal read() system calls (`nread'), the number
            of bytes written via normal read() system calls (`nwrit'), the
            number of bytes read via direct I/O (`dread'), the number of
            bytes written via direct I/O (`dwrit'), the number of bytes read
            via memory mapped I/O pages (`mread'), and the number of bytes
            written via memory mapped I/O pages (`mwrit').

       NFC  Network Filesystem (NFS) client side counters.
            This line contains the number of RPC calls issues by local
            processes (`rpc'), the number of read RPC calls (`read`) and
            write RPC calls (`rpwrite') issued to the NFS server, the number
            of RPC calls being retransmitted (`retxmit') and the number of
            authorization refreshes (`autref').

       NFS  Network Filesystem (NFS) server side counters.
            This line contains the number of RPC calls received from NFS
            clients (`rpc'), the number of read RPC calls received
            (`cread`), the number of write RPC calls received (`cwrit'), the
            number of network requests handled via TCP (`nettcp'), the
            number of network requests handled via UDP (`netudp'), the
            number of Megabytes/second returned to read requests by clients
            (`MBcr/s`), the number of Megabytes/second passed in write
            requests by clients (`MBcw/s`), the number of reply cache hits
            (`rchits'), the number of reply cache misses (`rcmiss') and the
            number of uncached requests (`rcnoca').  Furthermore some error
            counters indicating the number of requests with a bad format
            (`badfmt') or a bad authorization (`badaut'), and a counter
            indicating the number of bad clients (`badcln').  and the number
            of authorization refreshes (`autref').

       NET  Network utilization (TCP/IP).
            One line is shown for activity of the transport layer (TCP and
            UDP), one line for the IP layer and one line per active
            interface.
            For the transport layer, counters are shown concerning the
            number of received TCP segments including those received in
            error (`tcpi'), the number of transmitted TCP segments excluding
            those containing only retransmitted octets (`tcpo'), the number
            of UDP datagrams received (`udpi'), the number of UDP datagrams
            transmitted (`udpo'), the number of active TCP opens (`tcpao'),
            the number of passive TCP opens (`tcppo'), the number of TCP
            output retransmissions (`tcprs'), the number of TCP input errors
            (`tcpie'), the number of TCP output resets (`tcpor'), the number
            of UDP no ports (`udpnp'), and the number of UDP input errors
            (`udpie').
            If the screen-width does not allow all of these counters, only a
            relevant subset is shown.
            These counters are related to IPv4 and IPv6 combined.

            For the IP layer, counters are shown concerning the number of IP
            datagrams received from interfaces, including those received in
            error (`ipi'), the number of IP datagrams that local higher-
            layer protocols offered for transmission (`ipo'), the number of
            received IP datagrams which were forwarded to other interfaces
            (`ipfrw'), the number of IP datagrams which were delivered to
            local higher-layer protocols (`deliv'), the number of received
            ICMP datagrams (`icmpi'), and the number of transmitted ICMP
            datagrams (`icmpo').
            If the screen-width does not allow all of these counters, only a
            relevant subset is shown.
            These counters are related to IPv4 and IPv6 combined.

            For every active network interface one line is shown, sorted on
            the interface activity.  Such line shows the name of the
            interface and its busy percentage in the first column.  The busy
            percentage for half duplex is determined by comparing the
            interface speed with the number of bits transmitted and received
            per second; for full duplex the interface speed is compared with
            the highest of either the transmitted or the received bits.
            When the interface speed can not be determined (e.g. for the
            loopback interface), `---' is shown instead of the percentage.
            Furthermore the number of received packets (`pcki'), the number
            of transmitted packets (`pcko'), the line speed of the interface
            (`sp'), the effective amount of bits received per second (`si'),
            the effective amount of bits transmitted per second (`so'), the
            number of collisions (`coll'), the number of received multicast
            packets (`mlti'), the number of errors while receiving a packet
            (`erri'), the number of errors while transmitting a packet
            (`erro'), the number of received packets dropped (`drpi'), and
            the number of transmitted packets dropped (`drpo').
            If the screen-width does not allow all of these counters, only a
            relevant subset is shown.
            The number of lines showing the network interfaces can be
            limited.

OUTPUT DESCRIPTION - PROCESS LEVEL         top

       Following the system level information, the processes are shown from
       which the resource utilization has changed during the last interval.
       These processes might have used cpu time or issued disk or network
       requests. However a process is also shown if part of it has been
       paged out due to lack of memory (while the process itself was in
       sleep state).

       Per process the following fields may be shown (in alphabetical
       order), depending on the current output mode as described in the
       section INTERACTIVE COMMANDS and depending on the current width of
       your window:

       AVGRSZ   The average size of one read-action on disk.

       AVGWSZ   The average size of one write-action on disk.

       CMD      The name of the process.  This name can be surrounded by
                "less/greater than" signs (`<name>') which means that the
                process has finished during the last interval.
                Behind the abbreviation `CMD' in the header line, the
                current page number and the total number of pages of the
                process/thread list are shown.

       COMMAND-LINE
                The full command line of the process (including arguments).
                If the length of the command line exceeds the length of the
                screen line, the arrow keys -> and <- can be used for
                horizontal scroll.
                Behind the verb `COMMAND-LINE' in the header line, the
                current page number and the total number of pages of the
                process/thread list are shown.

       CPU      The occupation percentage of this process related to the
                available capacity for this resource on system level.

       CPUNR    The identification of the CPU the (main) thread is running
                on or has recently been running on.

       DSK      The occupation percentage of this process related to the
                total load that is produced by all processes (i.e. total
                disk accesses by all processes during the last interval).
                This information is shown when per process "storage
                accounting" is active in the kernel.

       EGID     Effective group-id under which this process executes.

       ENDATE   Date that the process has been finished. If the process is
                still running, this field shows `active'.

       ENTIME   Time that the process has been finished. If the process is
                still running, this field shows `active'.

       ENVID    Virtual environment identified (OpenVZ only).

       EUID     Effective user-id under which this process executes.

       EXC      The exit code of a terminated process (second position of
                column `ST' is E) or the fatal signal number (second
                position of column `ST' is S or C).

       FSGID    Filesystem group-id under which this process executes.

       FSUID    Filesystem user-id under which this process executes.

       MAJFLT   The number of page faults issued by this process that have
                been solved by creating/loading the requested memory page.

       MEM      The occupation percentage of this process related to the
                available capacity for this resource on system level.

       MINFLT   The number of page faults issued by this process that have
                been solved by reclaiming the requested memory page from the
                free list of pages.

       NET      The occupation percentage of this process related to the
                total load that is produced by all processes (i.e. consumed
                network bandwidth of all processes during the last
                interval).
                This information will only be shown when kernel module
                `netatop' is loaded.

       NICE     The more or less static priority that can be given to a
                process on a scale from -20 (high priority) to +19 (low
                priority).

       NPROCS   The number of active and terminated processes accumulated
                for this user or program.

       PID      Process-id.

       POLI     The policies 'norm' (normal, which is SCHED_OTHER), 'btch'
                (batch) and 'idle' refer to timesharing processes.  The
                policies 'fifo' (SCHED_FIFO) and 'rr' (round robin, which is
                SCHED_RR) refer to realtime processes.

       PPID     Parent process-id.

       PRI      The process' priority ranges from 0 (highest priority) to
                139 (lowest priority). Priority 0 to 99 are used for
                realtime processes (fixed priority independent of their
                behavior) and priority 100 to 139 for timesharing processes
                (variable priority depending on their recent CPU consumption
                and the nice value).

       PSIZE    The proportional memory size of this process (or user).
                Every process shares resident memory with other processes.
                E.g. when a particular program is started several times, the
                code pages (text) are only loaded once in memory and shared
                by all incarnations. Also the code of shared libraries is
                shared by all processes using that shared library, as well
                as shared memory and memory-mapped files.  For the PSIZE
                calculation of a process, the resident memory of a process
                that is shared with other processes is divided by the number
                of sharers.  This means, that every process is accounted for
                a proportional part of that memory. Accumulating the PSIZE
                values of all processes in the system gives a reliable
                impression of the total resident memory consumed by all
                processes.
                Since gathering of all values that are needed to calculate
                the PSIZE is a relatively time-consuming task, the 'R' key
                (or '-R' flag) should be active. Gathering these values also
                requires superuser privileges (otherwise '?K' is shown in
                the output).

       RDDSK    When the kernel maintains standard io statistics (>=
                2.6.20):
                The read data transfer issued physically on disk (so reading
                from the disk cache is not accounted for).
                Unfortunately, the kernel aggregates the data tranfer of a
                process to the data transfer of its parent process when
                terminating, so you might see transfers for (parent)
                processes like cron, bash or init, that are not really
                issued by them.

       RGID     The real group-id under which the process executes.

       RGROW    The amount of resident memory that the process has grown
                during the last interval. A resident growth can be caused by
                touching memory pages which were not physically
                created/loaded before (load-on-demand).  Note that a
                resident growth can also be negative e.g. when part of the
                process is paged out due to lack of memory or when the
                process frees dynamically allocated memory.  For a process
                which started during the last interval, the resident growth
                reflects the total resident size of the process at that
                moment.

       RSIZE    The total resident memory usage consumed by this process (or
                user).  Notice that the RSIZE of a process includes all
                resident memory used by that process, even if certain memory
                parts are shared with other processes (see also the
                explanation of PSIZE).

       RTPR     Realtime priority according the POSIX standard.  Value can
                be 0 for a timesharing process (policy 'norm', 'btch' or
                'idle') or ranges from 1 (lowest) till 99 (highest) for a
                realtime process (policy 'rr' or 'fifo').

       RUID     The real user-id under which the process executes.

       S        The current state of the (main) thread: `R' for running
                (currently processing or in the runqueue), `S' for sleeping
                interruptible (wait for an event to occur), `D' for sleeping
                non-interruptible, `Z' for zombie (waiting to be
                synchronized with its parent process), `T' for stopped
                (suspended or traced), `W' for swapping, and `E' (exit) for
                processes which have finished during the last interval.

       SGID     The saved group-id of the process.

       ST       The status of a process.
                The first position indicates if the process has been started
                during the last interval (the value N means 'new process').

                The second position indicates if the process has been
                finished during the last interval.
                The value E means 'exit' on the process' own initiative; the
                exit code is displayed in the column `EXC'.
                The value S means that the process has been terminated
                unvoluntarily by a signal; the signal number is displayed in
                the in the column `EXC'.
                The value C means that the process has been terminated
                unvoluntarily by a signal, producing a core dump in its
                current directory; the signal number is displayed in the
                column `EXC'.

       STDATE   The start date of the process.

       STTIME   The start time of the process.

       SUID     The saved user-id of the process.

       SWAPSZ   The swap space consumed by this process (or user).

       SYSCPU   CPU time consumption of this process in system mode (kernel
                mode), usually due to system call handling.

       THR      Total number of threads within this process.  All related
                threads are contained in a thread group, represented by pcp-
                atop as one line or as a separate line when the 'y' key (or
                -y flag) is active.

                On Linux 2.4 systems it is hardly possible to determine
                which threads (i.e. processes) are related to the same
                thread group.  Every thread is represented by pcp-atop as a
                separate line.

       TID      Thread-id.  All threads within a process run with the same
                PID but with a different TID. This value is shown for
                individual threads in multi-threaded processes (when using
                the key 'y').

       TRUN     Number of threads within this process that are in the state
                'running' (R).

       TSLPI    Number of threads within this process that are in the state
                'interruptible sleeping' (S).

       TSLPU    Number of threads within this process that are in the state
                'uninterruptible sleeping' (D).

       USRCPU   CPU time consumption of this process in user mode, due to
                processing the own program text.

       VDATA    The virtual memory size of the private data used by this
                process (including heap and shared library data).

       VGROW    The amount of virtual memory that the process has grown
                during the last interval. A virtual growth can be caused by
                e.g. issueing a malloc() or attaching a shared memory
                segment. Note that a virtual growth can also be negative by
                e.g. issueing a free() or detaching a shared memory segment.
                For a process which started during the last interval, the
                virtual growth reflects the total virtual size of the
                process at that moment.

       VSIZE    The total virtual memory usage consumed by this process (or
                user).

       VSLIBS   The virtual memory size of the (shared) text of all shared
                libraries used by this process.

       VSTACK   The virtual memory size of the (private) stack used by this
                process

       VSTEXT   The virtual memory size of the (shared) text of the
                executable program.

       WRDSK    When the kernel maintains standard io statistics (>=
                2.6.20):
                The write data transfer issued physically on disk (so
                writing to the disk cache is not accounted for).  This
                counter is maintained for the application process that
                writes its data to the cache (assuming that this data is
                physically transferred to disk later on). Notice that disk
                I/O needed for swapping is not taken into account.
                Unfortunately, the kernel aggregates the data tranfer of a
                process to the data transfer of its parent process when
                terminating, so you might see transfers for (parent)
                processes like cron, bash or init, that are not really
                issued by them.

       WCANCL   When the kernel maintains standard io statistics (>=
                2.6.20):
                The write data transfer previously accounted for this
                process or another process that has been cancelled.  Suppose
                that a process writes new data to a file and that data is
                removed again before the cache buffers have been flushed to
                disk.  Then the original process shows the written data as
                WRDSK, while the process that removes/truncates the file
                shows the unflushed removed data as WCANCL.

PARSEABLE OUTPUT         top

       With the flag -P followed by a list of one or more labels (comma-
       separated), parseable output is produced for each sample.  The labels
       that can be specified for system-level statistics correspond to the
       labels (first verb of each line) that can be found in the interactive
       output: "CPU", "cpu" "CPL" "MEM", "SWP", "PAG", "LVM", "MDD", "DSK",
       "NFM", "NFC", "NFS" and "NET".
       For process-level statistics special labels are introduced: "PRG"
       (general), "PRC" (cpu), "PRM" (memory), "PRD" (disk, only if "storage
       accounting" is active) and "PRN" (network, only if the kernel module
       'netatop' has been installed).
       With the label "ALL", all system and process level statistics are
       shown.

       For every interval all requested lines are shown whereafter pcp-atop
       shows a line just containing the label "SEP" as a separator before
       the lines for the next sample are generated.
       When a sample contains the values since boot, pcp-atop shows a line
       just containing the label "RESET" before the lines for this sample
       are generated.

       The first part of each output-line consists of the following six
       fields: label (the name of the label), host (the name of this
       machine), epoch (the time of this interval as number of seconds since
       1-1-1970), date (date of this interval in format YYYY/MM/DD), time
       (time of this interval in format HH:MM:SS), and interval (number of
       seconds elapsed for this interval).

       The subsequent fields of each output-line depend on the label:

       CPU      Subsequent fields: total number of clock-ticks per second
                for this machine, number of processors, consumption for all
                CPUs in system mode (clock-ticks), consumption for all CPUs
                in user mode (clock-ticks), consumption for all CPUs in user
                mode for niced processes (clock-ticks), consumption for all
                CPUs in idle mode (clock-ticks), consumption for all CPUs in
                wait mode (clock-ticks), consumption for all CPUs in irq
                mode (clock-ticks), consumption for all CPUs in softirq mode
                (clock-ticks), consumption for all CPUs in steal mode
                (clock-ticks), consumption for all CPUs in guest mode
                (clock-ticks) overlapping user mode, frequency of all CPUs
                and frequency percentage of all CPUs.

       cpu      Subsequent fields: total number of clock-ticks per second
                for this machine, processor-number, consumption for this CPU
                in system mode (clock-ticks), consumption for this CPU in
                user mode (clock-ticks), consumption for this CPU in user
                mode for niced processes (clock-ticks), consumption for this
                CPU in idle mode (clock-ticks), consumption for this CPU in
                wait mode (clock-ticks), consumption for this CPU in irq
                mode (clock-ticks), consumption for this CPU in softirq mode
                (clock-ticks), consumption for this CPU in steal mode
                (clock-ticks), consumption for this CPU in guest mode
                (clock-ticks) overlapping user mode, frequency of this CPU
                and frequency percentage of this CPU.

       CPL      Subsequent fields: number of processors, load average for
                last minute, load average for last five minutes, load
                average for last fifteen minutes, number of context-
                switches, and number of device interrupts.

       MEM      Subsequent fields: page size for this machine (in bytes),
                size of physical memory (pages), size of free memory
                (pages), size of page cache (pages), size of buffer cache
                (pages), size of slab (pages), dirty pages in cache (pages),
                reclaimable part of slab (pages), size of vmware's balloon
                pages (pages), total size of shared memory (pages), size of
                resident shared memory (pages), size of swapped shared
                memory (pages), huge page size (in bytes), total size of
                huge pages (huge pages), and size of free huge pages (huge
                pages).

       SWP      Subsequent fields: page size for this machine (in bytes),
                size of swap (pages), size of free swap (pages), 0 (future
                use), size of committed space (pages), and limit for
                committed space (pages).

       PAG      Subsequent fields: page size for this machine (in bytes),
                number of page scans, number of allocstalls, 0 (future use),
                number of swapins, and number of swapouts.

       LVM/MDD/DSK
                For every logical volume/multiple device/hard disk one line
                is shown.
                Subsequent fields: name, number of milliseconds spent for
                I/O, number of reads issued, number of sectors transferred
                for reads, number of writes issued, and number of sectors
                transferred for write.

       NFM      Subsequent fields: mounted NFS filesystem, total number of
                bytes read, total number of bytes written, number of bytes
                read by normal system calls, number of bytes written by
                normal system calls, number of bytes read by direct I/O,
                number of bytes written by direct I/O, number of pages read
                by memory-mapped I/O, and number of pages written by memory-
                mapped I/O.

       NFC      Subsequent fields: number of transmitted RPCs, number of
                transmitted read RPCs, number of transmitted write RPCs,
                number of RPC retransmissions, and number of authorization
                refreshes.

       NFS      Subsequent fields: number of handled RPCs, number of
                received read RPCs, number of received write RPCs, number of
                bytes read by clients, number of bytes written by clients,
                number of RPCs with bad format, number of RPCs with bad
                authorization, number of RPCs from bad client, total number
                of handled network requests, number of handled network
                requests via TCP, number of handled network requests via
                UDP, number of handled TCP connections, number of hits on
                reply cache, number of misses on reply cache, and number of
                uncached requests.

       NET      First one line is produced for the upper layers of the
                TCP/IP stack.
                Subsequent fields: the verb "upper", number of packets
                received by TCP, number of packets transmitted by TCP,
                number of packets received by UDP, number of packets
                transmitted by UDP, number of packets received by IP, number
                of packets transmitted by IP, number of packets delivered to
                higher layers by IP, and number of packets forwarded by IP.

                Next one line is shown for every interface.
                Subsequent fields: name of the interface, number of packets
                received by the interface, number of bytes received by the
                interface, number of packets transmitted by the interface,
                number of bytes transmitted by the interface, interface
                speed, and duplex mode (0=half, 1=full).

       PRG      For every process one line is shown.
                Subsequent fields: PID (unique ID of task), name (between
                brackets), state, real uid, real gid, TGID (group number of
                related tasks/threads), total number of threads, exit code,
                start time (epoch), full command line (between brackets),
                PPID, number of threads in state 'running' (R), number of
                threads in state 'interruptible sleeping' (S), number of
                threads in state 'uninterruptible sleeping' (D), effective
                uid, effective gid, saved uid, saved gid, filesystem uid,
                filesystem gid, elapsed time (hertz), is_process (y/n),
                virtual pid and container id.

       PRC      For every process one line is shown.
                Subsequent fields: PID, name (between brackets), state,
                total number of clock-ticks per second for this machine,
                CPU-consumption in user mode (clockticks), CPU-consumption
                in system mode (clockticks), nice value, priority, realtime
                priority, scheduling policy, current CPU, sleep average,
                TGID (group number of related tasks/threads) and is_process
                (y/n).

       PRM      For every process one line is shown.
                Subsequent fields: PID, name (between brackets), state, page
                size for this machine (in bytes), virtual memory size
                (Kbytes), resident memory size (Kbytes), shared text memory
                size (Kbytes), virtual memory growth (Kbytes), resident
                memory growth (Kbytes), number of minor page faults, number
                of major page faults, virtual library exec size (Kbytes),
                virtual data size (Kbytes), virtual stack size (Kbytes),
                swap space used (Kbytes), TGID (group number of related
                tasks/threads), is_process (y/n) and proportional set size
                (Kbytes) if in 'R' option is specified.

       PRD      For every process one line is shown.
                Subsequent fields: PID, name (between brackets), state,
                obsoleted kernel patch installed ('n'), standard io
                statistics used ('y' or 'n'), number of reads on disk,
                cumulative number of sectors read, number of writes on disk,
                cumulative number of sectors written, cancelled number of
                written sectors, TGID (group number of related
                tasks/threads) and is_process (y/n).
                If the standard I/O statistics (>= 2.6.20) are not used, the
                disk I/O counters per process are not relevant.  The
                counters 'number of reads on disk' and 'number of writes on
                disk' are obsoleted anyhow.

       PRN      For every process one line is shown.
                Subsequent fields: PID, name (between brackets), state,
                kernel module 'netatop' loaded ('y' or 'n'), number of TCP-
                packets transmitted, cumulative size of TCP-packets
                transmitted, number of TCP-packets received, cumulative size
                of TCP-packets received, number of UDP-packets transmitted,
                cumulative size of UDP-packets transmitted, number of UDP-
                packets received, cumulative size of UDP-packets
                transmitted, number of raw packets transmitted (obsolete,
                always 0), number of raw packets received (obsolete, always
                0), TGID (group number of related tasks/threads) and
                is_process (y/n).

EXAMPLES         top

       To monitor the current system load interactively with an interval of
       5 seconds:

         pcp atop 5

       To monitor the system load and write it to a file (in plain ASCII)
       with an interval of one minute during half an hour with active
       processes sorted on memory consumption:

         pcp atop -M 60 30 > /log/pcp-atop.mem

       Store information about the system and process activity in a PCP
       archive folio with an interval of ten minutes during an hour:

         pcp atop -w /tmp/pcp-atop 600 6

       View the contents of this file interactively:

         pcp atop -r /tmp/pcp-atop

       View the processor and disk utilization of this file in parseable
       format:

         pcp atop -PCPU,DSK -r /tmp/pcp-atop.raw

       View the contents of today's standard logfile interactively:

         pcp atop -r

       View the contents of the standard logfile of the day before yesterday
       interactively:

         pcp atop -r yy

       View the contents of the standard logfile of 2014, June 7 from 02:00
       PM onwards interactively:

         pcp atop -r 20140607 -b 14:00

FILES         top

       /etc/atoprc
            Configuration file containing system-wide default values.  See
            related man-page.

       ~/.atoprc
            Configuration file containing personal default values.  See
            related man-page.

NOTES         top

       pcp-atop is based on the source code of the atop(1) command from
       http://atoptool.nl  and aims to be command line and output compatible
       with it as much as possible.  Some features of that atop command are
       not available in pcp-atop.

       Some features of pcp-atop (such as reporting on the Apache HTTP
       daemon, and NFS client mounts) are only activated if the corresonding
       PCP metrics are available.  Refer to the documentation for
       pmdaapache(1) and pmdanfsclient(1) for further details on activating
       these metrics.

SEE ALSO         top

       pcp(1), pcp-atopsar(1), pmdaapache(1), pmdanfsclient(1), mkaf(1),
       pmlogger(1), pmlogger_daily(1), PCPIntro(1) and pcp-atoprc(5).

COLOPHON         top

       This page is part of the PCP (Performance Co-Pilot) project.
       Information about the project can be found at ⟨http://www.pcp.io/⟩.
       If you have a bug report for this manual page, send it to
       pcp@oss.sgi.com.  This page was obtained from the project's upstream
       Git repository ⟨git://git.pcp.io/pcp⟩ on 2017-04-25.  If you discover
       any rendering problems in this HTML version of the page, or you
       believe there is a better or more up-to-date source for the page, or
       you have corrections or improvements to the information in this
       COLOPHON (which is not part of the original manual page), send a mail
       to man-pages@man7.org

Performance Co-Pilot                 PCP                         PCP-ATOP(1)

Pages that refer to this page: pcp-atopsar(1)pmrep(1)pcp-atoprc(5)