LS(1)                           User Commands                          LS(1)

NAME         top

       ls - list directory contents

SYNOPSIS         top

       ls [OPTION]... [FILE]...

DESCRIPTION         top

       List information about the FILEs (the current directory by default).
       Sort entries alphabetically if none of -cftuvSUX nor --sort is

       Mandatory arguments to long options are mandatory for short options

       -a, --all
              do not ignore entries starting with .

       -A, --almost-all
              do not list implied . and ..

              with -l, print the author of each file

       -b, --escape
              print C-style escapes for nongraphic characters

              scale sizes by SIZE before printing them; e.g.,
              '--block-size=M' prints sizes in units of 1,048,576 bytes; see
              SIZE format below

       -B, --ignore-backups
              do not list implied entries ending with ~

       -c     with -lt: sort by, and show, ctime (time of last modification
              of file status information); with -l: show ctime and sort by
              name; otherwise: sort by ctime, newest first

       -C     list entries by columns

              colorize the output; WHEN can be 'always' (default if
              omitted), 'auto', or 'never'; more info below

       -d, --directory
              list directories themselves, not their contents

       -D, --dired
              generate output designed for Emacs' dired mode

       -f     do not sort, enable -aU, disable -ls --color

       -F, --classify
              append indicator (one of */=>@|) to entries

              likewise, except do not append '*'

              across -x, commas -m, horizontal -x, long -l, single-column
              -1, verbose -l, vertical -C

              like -l --time-style=full-iso

       -g     like -l, but do not list owner

              group directories before files;

              can be augmented with a --sort option, but any use of
              --sort=none (-U) disables grouping

       -G, --no-group
              in a long listing, don't print group names

       -h, --human-readable
              with -l and/or -s, print human readable sizes (e.g., 1K 234M

       --si   likewise, but use powers of 1000 not 1024

       -H, --dereference-command-line
              follow symbolic links listed on the command line

              follow each command line symbolic link

              that points to a directory

              do not list implied entries matching shell PATTERN (overridden
              by -a or -A)

              append indicator with style WORD to entry names: none
              (default), slash (-p), file-type (--file-type), classify (-F)

       -i, --inode
              print the index number of each file

       -I, --ignore=PATTERN
              do not list implied entries matching shell PATTERN

       -k, --kibibytes
              default to 1024-byte blocks for disk usage

       -l     use a long listing format

       -L, --dereference
              when showing file information for a symbolic link, show
              information for the file the link references rather than for
              the link itself

       -m     fill width with a comma separated list of entries

       -n, --numeric-uid-gid
              like -l, but list numeric user and group IDs

       -N, --literal
              print raw entry names (don't treat e.g. control characters

       -o     like -l, but do not list group information

       -p, --indicator-style=slash
              append / indicator to directories

       -q, --hide-control-chars
              print ? instead of nongraphic characters

              show nongraphic characters as-is (the default, unless program
              is 'ls' and output is a terminal)

       -Q, --quote-name
              enclose entry names in double quotes

              use quoting style WORD for entry names: literal, locale,
              shell, shell-always, c, escape

       -r, --reverse
              reverse order while sorting

       -R, --recursive
              list subdirectories recursively

       -s, --size
              print the allocated size of each file, in blocks

       -S     sort by file size, largest first

              sort by WORD instead of name: none (-U), size (-S), time (-t),
              version (-v), extension (-X)

              with -l, show time as WORD instead of default modification
              time: atime or access or use (-u); ctime or status (-c); also
              use specified time as sort key if --sort=time (newest first)

              with -l, show times using style STYLE: full-iso, long-iso,
              iso, locale, or +FORMAT; FORMAT is interpreted like in 'date';
              if FORMAT is FORMAT1<newline>FORMAT2, then FORMAT1 applies to
              non-recent files and FORMAT2 to recent files; if STYLE is
              prefixed with 'posix-', STYLE takes effect only outside the
              POSIX locale

       -t     sort by modification time, newest first

       -T, --tabsize=COLS
              assume tab stops at each COLS instead of 8

       -u     with -lt: sort by, and show, access time; with -l: show access
              time and sort by name; otherwise: sort by access time, newest

       -U     do not sort; list entries in directory order

       -v     natural sort of (version) numbers within text

       -w, --width=COLS
              assume screen width instead of current value

       -x     list entries by lines instead of by columns

       -X     sort alphabetically by entry extension

       -Z, --context
              print any security context of each file

       -1     list one file per line.  Avoid '\n' with -q or -b

       --help display this help and exit

              output version information and exit

       The SIZE argument is an integer and optional unit (example: 10K is
       10*1024).  Units are K,M,G,T,P,E,Z,Y (powers of 1024) or KB,MB,...
       (powers of 1000).

       Using color to distinguish file types is disabled both by default and
       with --color=never.  With --color=auto, ls emits color codes only
       when standard output is connected to a terminal.  The LS_COLORS
       environment variable can change the settings.  Use the dircolors
       command to set it.

   Exit status:
       0      if OK,

       1      if minor problems (e.g., cannot access subdirectory),

       2      if serious trouble (e.g., cannot access command-line

AUTHOR         top

       Written by Richard M. Stallman and David MacKenzie.

REPORTING BUGS         top

       GNU coreutils online help: <>
       Report ls translation bugs to <>

COPYRIGHT         top

       Copyright © 2015 Free Software Foundation, Inc.  License GPLv3+: GNU
       GPL version 3 or later <>.
       This is free software: you are free to change and redistribute it.
       There is NO WARRANTY, to the extent permitted by law.

SEE ALSO         top

       Full documentation at: <>
       or available locally via: info '(coreutils) ls invocation'

COLOPHON         top

       This page is part of the coreutils (basic file, shell and text
       manipulation utilities) project.  Information about the project can
       be found at ⟨⟩.  If you have a
       bug report for this manual page, see 
       ⟨⟩.  This page was obtained from
       the tarball coreutils-8.24.tar.xz fetched from 
       ⟨⟩ on 2015-10-19.  If you discover
       any rendering problems in this HTML version of the page, or you
       believe there is a better or more up-to-date source for the page, or
       you have corrections or improvements to the information in this
       COLOPHON (which is not part of the original manual page), send a mail

GNU coreutils 8.24              October 2015                           LS(1)