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LSOF(8)                    System Manager's Manual                   LSOF(8)

NAME         top

       lsof - list open files

SYNOPSIS         top

       lsof [ -?abChKlnNOPRtUvVX ] [ -A A ] [ -c c ] [ +c c ] [ +|-d d ] [
       +|-D D ] [ +|-e s ] [ +|-E ] [ +|-f [cfgGn] ] [ -F [f] ] [ -g [s] ] [
       -i [i] ] [ -k k ] [ +|-L [l] ] [ +|-m m ] [ +|-M ] [ -o [o] ] [ -p s
       ] [ +|-r [t[m<fmt>]] ] [ -s [p:s] ] [ -S [t] ] [ -T [t] ] [ -u s ] [
       +|-w ] [ -x [fl] ] [ -z [z] ] [ -Z [Z] ] [ -- ] [names]

DESCRIPTION         top

       Lsof revision 4.89 lists on its standard output file information
       about files opened by processes for the following UNIX dialects:

            Apple Darwin 9 and Mac OS X 10.[567]
            FreeBSD 8.[234], 9.0, 10.0 and 11.0 for AMD64-based systems
            Linux 2.1.72 and above for x86-based systems
            Solaris 9, 10 and 11

       (See the DISTRIBUTION section of this manual page for information on
       how to obtain the latest lsof revision.)

       An open file may be a regular file, a directory, a block special
       file, a character special file, an executing text reference, a
       library, a stream or a network file (Internet socket, NFS file or
       UNIX domain socket.)  A specific file or all the files in a file
       system may be selected by path.

       Instead of a formatted display, lsof will produce output that can be
       parsed by other programs.  See the -F, option description, and the
       OUTPUT FOR OTHER PROGRAMS section for more information.

       In addition to producing a single output list, lsof will run in
       repeat mode.  In repeat mode it will produce output, delay, then
       repeat the output operation until stopped with an interrupt or quit
       signal.  See the +|-r [t[m<fmt>]] option description for more
       information.

OPTIONS         top

       In the absence of any options, lsof lists all open files belonging to
       all active processes.

       If any list request option is specified, other list requests must be
       specifically requested - e.g., if -U is specified for the listing of
       UNIX socket files, NFS files won't be listed unless -N is also
       specified; or if a user list is specified with the -u option, UNIX
       domain socket files, belonging to users not in the list, won't be
       listed unless the -U option is also specified.

       Normally list options that are specifically stated are ORed - i.e.,
       specifying the -i option without an address and the -ufoo option
       produces a listing of all network files OR files belonging to
       processes owned by user ``foo''.  The exceptions are:

       1) the `^' (negated) login name or user ID (UID), specified with the
          -u option;

       2) the `^' (negated) process ID (PID), specified with the -p option;

       3) the `^' (negated) process group ID (PGID), specified with the -g
          option;

       4) the `^' (negated) command, specified with the -c option;

       5) the (`^') negated TCP or UDP protocol state names, specified with
          the -s [p:s] option.

       Since they represent exclusions, they are applied without ORing or
       ANDing and take effect before any other selection criteria are
       applied.

       The -a option may be used to AND the selections.  For example,
       specifying -a, -U, and -ufoo produces a listing of only UNIX socket
       files that belong to processes owned by user ``foo''.

       Caution: the -a option causes all list selection options to be ANDed;
       it can't be used to cause ANDing of selected pairs of selection
       options by placing it between them, even though its placement there
       is acceptable.  Wherever -a is placed, it causes the ANDing of all
       selection options.

       Items of the same selection set - command names, file descriptors,
       network addresses, process identifiers, user identifiers, zone names,
       security contexts - are joined in a single ORed set and applied
       before the result participates in ANDing.  Thus, for example,
       specifying -i@aaa.bbb, -i@ccc.ddd, -a, and -ufff,ggg will select the
       listing of files that belong to either login ``fff'' OR ``ggg'' AND
       have network connections to either host aaa.bbb OR ccc.ddd.

       Options may be grouped together following a single prefix -- e.g.,
       the option set ``-a -b -C'' may be stated as -abC.  However, since
       values are optional following +|-f, -F, -g, -i, +|-L, -o, +|-r, -s,
       -S, -T, -x and -z.  when you have no values for them be careful that
       the following character isn't ambiguous.  For example, -Fn might
       represent the -F and -n options, or it might represent the n field
       identifier character following the -F option.  When ambiguity is
       possible, start a new option with a `-' character - e.g., ``-F -n''.
       If the next option is a file name, follow the possibly ambiguous
       option with ``--'' - e.g., ``-F -- name''.

       Either the `+' or the `-' prefix may be applied to a group of
       options.  Options that don't take on separate meanings for each
       prefix - e.g., -i - may be grouped under either prefix.  Thus, for
       example, ``+M -i'' may be stated as ``+Mi'' and the group means the
       same as the separate options.  Be careful of prefix grouping when one
       or more options in the group does take on separate meanings under
       different prefixes - e.g., +|-M; ``-iM'' is not the same request as
       ``-i +M''.  When in doubt, use separate options with appropriate
       prefixes.

       -? -h    These two equivalent options select a usage (help) output
                list.  Lsof displays a shortened form of this output when it
                detects an error in the options supplied to it, after it has
                displayed messages explaining each error.  (Escape the `?'
                character as your shell requires.)

       -a       causes list selection options to be ANDed, as described
                above.

       -A A     is available on systems configured for AFS whose AFS kernel
                code is implemented via dynamic modules.  It allows the lsof
                user to specify A as an alternate name list file where the
                kernel addresses of the dynamic modules might be found.  See
                the lsof FAQ (The FAQ section gives its location.)  for more
                information about dynamic modules, their symbols, and how
                they affect lsof.

       -b       causes lsof to avoid kernel functions that might block -
                lstat(2), readlink(2), and stat(2).

                See the BLOCKS AND TIMEOUTS and AVOIDING KERNEL BLOCKS
                sections for information on using this option.

       -c c     selects the listing of files for processes executing the
                command that begins with the characters of c.  Multiple
                commands may be specified, using multiple -c options.  They
                are joined in a single ORed set before participating in AND
                option selection.

                If c begins with a `^', then the following characters
                specify a command name whose processes are to be ignored
                (excluded.)

                If c begins and ends with a slash ('/'), the characters
                between the slashes are interpreted as a regular expression.
                Shell meta-characters in the regular expression must be
                quoted to prevent their interpretation by the shell.  The
                closing slash may be followed by these modifiers:

                     b    the regular expression is a basic one.
                     i    ignore the case of letters.
                     x    the regular expression is an extended one
                          (default).

                See the lsof FAQ (The FAQ section gives its location.)  for
                more information on basic and extended regular expressions.

                The simple command specification is tested first.  If that
                test fails, the command regular expression is applied.  If
                the simple command test succeeds, the command regular
                expression test isn't made.  This may result in ``no command
                found for regex:'' messages when lsof's -V option is
                specified.

       +c w     defines the maximum number of initial characters of the
                name, supplied by the UNIX dialect, of the UNIX command
                associated with a process to be printed in the COMMAND
                column.  (The lsof default is nine.)

                Note that many UNIX dialects do not supply all command name
                characters to lsof in the files and structures from which
                lsof obtains command name.  Often dialects limit the number
                of characters supplied in those sources.  For example, Linux
                2.4.27 and Solaris 9 both limit command name length to 16
                characters.

                If w is zero ('0'), all command characters supplied to lsof
                by the UNIX dialect will be printed.

                If w is less than the length of the column title,
                ``COMMAND'', it will be raised to that length.

       -C       disables the reporting of any path name components from the
                kernel's name cache.  See the KERNEL NAME CACHE section for
                more information.

       +d s     causes lsof to search for all open instances of directory s
                and the files and directories it contains at its top level.
                +d does NOT descend the directory tree, rooted at s.  The +D
                D option may be used to request a full-descent directory
                tree search, rooted at directory D.

                Processing of the +d option does not follow symbolic links
                within s unless the -x or -x  l option is also specified.
                Nor does it search for open files on file system mount
                points on subdirectories of s unless the -x or -x  f option
                is also specified.

                Note: the authority of the user of this option limits it to
                searching for files that the user has permission to examine
                with the system stat(2) function.

       -d s     specifies a list of file descriptors (FDs) to exclude from
                or include in the output listing.  The file descriptors are
                specified in the comma-separated set s - e.g., ``cwd,1,3'',
                ``^6,^2''.  (There should be no spaces in the set.)

                The list is an exclusion list if all entries of the set
                begin with `^'.  It is an inclusion list if no entry begins
                with `^'.  Mixed lists are not permitted.

                A file descriptor number range may be in the set as long as
                neither member is empty, both members are numbers, and the
                ending member is larger than the starting one - e.g.,
                ``0-7'' or ``3-10''.  Ranges may be specified for exclusion
                if they have the `^' prefix - e.g., ``^0-7'' excludes all
                file descriptors 0 through 7.

                Multiple file descriptor numbers are joined in a single ORed
                set before participating in AND option selection.

                When there are exclusion and inclusion members in the set,
                lsof reports them as errors and exits with a non-zero return
                code.

                See the description of File Descriptor (FD) output values in
                the OUTPUT section for more information on file descriptor
                names.

       +D D     causes lsof to search for all open instances of directory D
                and all the files and directories it contains to its
                complete depth.

                Processing of the +D option does not follow symbolic links
                within D unless the -x or -x  l option is also specified.
                Nor does it search for open files on file system mount
                points on subdirectories of D unless the -x or -x  f option
                is also specified.

                Note: the authority of the user of this option limits it to
                searching for files that the user has permission to examine
                with the system stat(2) function.

                Further note: lsof may process this option slowly and
                require a large amount of dynamic memory to do it.  This is
                because it must descend the entire directory tree, rooted at
                D, calling stat(2) for each file and directory, building a
                list of all the files it finds, and searching that list for
                a match with every open file.  When directory D is large,
                these steps can take a long time, so use this option
                prudently.

       -D D     directs lsof's use of the device cache file.  The use of
                this option is sometimes restricted.  See the DEVICE CACHE
                FILE section and the sections that follow it for more
                information on this option.

                -D must be followed by a function letter; the function
                letter may optionally be followed by a path name.  Lsof
                recognizes these function letters:

                     ? - report device cache file paths
                     b - build the device cache file
                     i - ignore the device cache file
                     r - read the device cache file
                     u - read and update the device cache file

                The b, r, and u functions, accompanied by a path name, are
                sometimes restricted.  When these functions are restricted,
                they will not appear in the description of the -D option
                that accompanies -h or -?  option output.  See the DEVICE
                CACHE FILE section and the sections that follow it for more
                information on these functions and when they're restricted.

                The ?  function reports the read-only and write paths that
                lsof can use for the device cache file, the names of any
                environment variables whose values lsof will examine when
                forming the device cache file path, and the format for the
                personal device cache file path.  (Escape the `?' character
                as your shell requires.)

                When available, the b, r, and u functions may be followed by
                the device cache file's path.  The standard default is
                .lsof_hostname in the home directory of the real user ID
                that executes lsof, but this could have been changed when
                lsof was configured and compiled.  (The output of the -h and
                -?  options show the current default prefix - e.g.,
                ``.lsof''.)  The suffix, hostname, is the first component of
                the host's name returned by gethostname(2).

                When available, the b function directs lsof to build a new
                device cache file at the default or specified path.

                The i function directs lsof to ignore the default device
                cache file and obtain its information about devices via
                direct calls to the kernel.

                The r function directs lsof to read the device cache at the
                default or specified path, but prevents it from creating a
                new device cache file when none exists or the existing one
                is improperly structured.  The r function, when specified
                without a path name, prevents lsof from updating an
                incorrect or outdated device cache file, or creating a new
                one in its place.  The r function is always available when
                it is specified without a path name argument; it may be
                restricted by the permissions of the lsof process.

                When available, the u function directs lsof to read the
                device cache file at the default or specified path, if
                possible, and to rebuild it, if necessary.  This is the
                default device cache file function when no -D option has
                been specified.

       +|-e s   exempts the file system whose path name is s from being
                subjected to kernel function calls that might block.  The +e
                option exempts stat(2), lstat(2) and most readlink(2) kernel
                function calls.  The -e option exempts only stat(2) and
                lstat(2) kernel function calls.  Multiple file systems may
                be specified with separate +|-e specifications and each may
                have readlink(2) calls exempted or not.

                This option is currently implemented only for Linux.

                CAUTION: this option can easily be mis-applied to other than
                the file system of interest, because it uses path name
                rather than the more reliable device and inode numbers.
                (Device and inode numbers are acquired via the potentially
                blocking stat(2) kernel call and are thus not available, but
                see the +|-m m option as a possible alternative way to
                supply device numbers.)  Use this option with great care and
                fully specify the path name of the file system to be
                exempted.

                When open files on exempted file systems are reported, it
                may not be possible to obtain all their information.
                Therefore, some information columns will be blank, the
                characters ``UNKN'' preface the values in the TYPE column,
                and the applicable exemption option is added in parentheses
                to the end of the NAME column.  (Some device number
                information might be made available via the +|-m m option.)

       +|-E     +E specifies that Linux pipe and Linux UNIX socket files
                should be displayed with endpoint information and the files
                of the endpoints should also be displayed.  Note: UNIX
                socket file endpoint information is available only when the
                compile flags line of -v output contains HASUXSOCKEPT.

                Pipe endpoint information is displayed in the NAME column in
                the form ``PID,cmd,FDmode'', where PID is the endpoint
                process ID; cmd is the endpoint process command; FD is the
                endpoint file's descriptor; and mode is the endpoint file's
                access mode.

                UNIX socket file endpoint information is displayed in the
                NAME column in the form
                ``type=TYPE ->INO=INODE PID,cmd,FDmode'', where TYPE is the
                socket type; INODE is the i-node number of the connected
                socket; and PID, cmd, FD, and mode are the same as with pipe
                endpoint information.  Note: UNIX socket file endpoint
                information is available only when the compile flags line of
                -v output contains HASUXSOCKEPT.

                Multiple occurrences of this information can appear in a
                file's NAME column.

                -E specfies that Linux pipe and Linux UNIX socket files
                should be displayed with endpoint information, but not the
                files of the endpoints.

       +|-f [cfgGn]
                f by itself clarifies how path name arguments are to be
                interpreted.  When followed by c, f, g, G, or n in any
                combination it specifies that the listing of kernel file
                structure information is to be enabled (`+') or inhibited
                (`-').

                Normally a path name argument is taken to be a file system
                name if it matches a mounted-on directory name reported by
                mount(8), or if it represents a block device, named in the
                mount output and associated with a mounted directory name.
                When +f is specified, all path name arguments will be taken
                to be file system names, and lsof will complain if any are
                not.  This can be useful, for example, when the file system
                name (mounted-on device) isn't a block device.  This happens
                for some CD-ROM file systems.

                When -f is specified by itself, all path name arguments will
                be taken to be simple files.  Thus, for example, the ``-f --
                /'' arguments direct lsof to search for open files with a
                `/' path name, not all open files in the `/' (root) file
                system.

                Be careful to make sure +f and -f are properly terminated
                and aren't followed by a character (e.g., of the file or
                file system name) that might be taken as a parameter.  For
                example, use ``--'' after +f and -f as in these examples.

                     $ lsof +f -- /file/system/name
                     $ lsof -f -- /file/name

                The listing of information from kernel file structures,
                requested with the +f [cfgGn] option form, is normally
                inhibited, and is not available in whole or part for some
                dialects - e.g., /proc-based Linux kernels below 2.6.22.
                When the prefix to f is a plus sign (`+'), these characters
                request file structure information:

                     c    file structure use count (not Linux)
                     f    file structure address (not Linux)
                     g    file flag abbreviations (Linux 2.6.22 and up)
                     G    file flags in hexadecimal (Linux 2.6.22 and up)
                     n    file structure node address (not Linux)

                When the prefix is minus (`-') the same characters disable
                the listing of the indicated values.

                File structure addresses, use counts, flags, and node
                addresses may be used to detect more readily identical files
                inherited by child processes and identical files in use by
                different processes.  Lsof column output can be sorted by
                output columns holding the values and listed to identify
                identical file use, or lsof field output can be parsed by an
                AWK or Perl post-filter script, or by a C program.

       -F f     specifies a character list, f, that selects the fields to be
                output for processing by another program, and the character
                that terminates each output field.  Each field to be output
                is specified with a single character in f.  The field
                terminator defaults to NL, but may be changed to NUL (000).
                See the OUTPUT FOR OTHER PROGRAMS section for a description
                of the field identification characters and the field output
                process.

                When the field selection character list is empty, all
                standard fields are selected (except the raw device field,
                security context and zone field for compatibility reasons)
                and the NL field terminator is used.

                When the field selection character list contains only a zero
                (`0'), all fields are selected (except the raw device field
                for compatibility reasons) and the NUL terminator character
                is used.

                Other combinations of fields and their associated field
                terminator character must be set with explicit entries in f,
                as described in the OUTPUT FOR OTHER PROGRAMS section.

                When a field selection character identifies an item lsof
                does not normally list - e.g., PPID, selected with -R -
                specification of the field character - e.g., ``-FR'' - also
                selects the listing of the item.

                When the field selection character list contains the single
                character `?', lsof will display a help list of the field
                identification characters.  (Escape the `?' character as
                your shell requires.)

       -g [s]   excludes or selects the listing of files for the processes
                whose optional process group IDentification (PGID) numbers
                are in the comma-separated set s - e.g., ``123'' or
                ``123,^456''.  (There should be no spaces in the set.)

                PGID numbers that begin with `^' (negation) represent
                exclusions.

                Multiple PGID numbers are joined in a single ORed set before
                participating in AND option selection.  However, PGID
                exclusions are applied without ORing or ANDing and take
                effect before other selection criteria are applied.

                The -g option also enables the output display of PGID
                numbers.  When specified without a PGID set that's all it
                does.

       -i [i]   selects the listing of files any of whose Internet address
                matches the address specified in i.  If no address is
                specified, this option selects the listing of all Internet
                and x.25 (HP-UX) network files.

                If -i4 or -i6 is specified with no following address, only
                files of the indicated IP version, IPv4 or IPv6, are
                displayed.  (An IPv6 specification may be used only if the
                dialects supports IPv6, as indicated by ``[46]'' and
                ``IPv[46]'' in lsof's -h or -?  output.)  Sequentially
                specifying -i4, followed by -i6 is the same as specifying
                -i, and vice-versa.  Specifying -i4, or -i6 after -i is the
                same as specifying -i4 or -i6 by itself.

                Multiple addresses (up to a limit of 100) may be specified
                with multiple -i options.  (A port number or service name
                range is counted as one address.)  They are joined in a
                single ORed set before participating in AND option
                selection.

                An Internet address is specified in the form (Items in
                square brackets are optional.):

                [46][protocol][@hostname|hostaddr][:service|port]

                where:
                     46 specifies the IP version, IPv4 or IPv6
                          that applies to the following address.
                          '6' may be be specified only if the UNIX
                          dialect supports IPv6.  If neither '4' nor
                          '6' is specified, the following address
                          applies to all IP versions.
                     protocol is a protocol name - TCP, UDP
                     hostname is an Internet host name.  Unless a
                          specific IP version is specified, open
                          network files associated with host names
                          of all versions will be selected.
                     hostaddr is a numeric Internet IPv4 address in
                          dot form; or an IPv6 numeric address in
                          colon form, enclosed in brackets, if the
                          UNIX dialect supports IPv6.  When an IP
                          version is selected, only its numeric
                          addresses may be specified.
                     service is an /etc/services name - e.g., smtp -
                          or a list of them.
                     port is a port number, or a list of them.

                IPv6 options may be used only if the UNIX dialect supports
                IPv6.  To see if the dialect supports IPv6, run lsof and
                specify the -h or -?  (help) option.  If the displayed
                description of the -i option contains ``[46]'' and
                ``IPv[46]'', IPv6 is supported.

                IPv4 host names and addresses may not be specified if
                network file selection is limited to IPv6 with -i 6.  IPv6
                host names and addresses may not be specified if network
                file selection is limited to IPv4 with -i 4.  When an open
                IPv4 network file's address is mapped in an IPv6 address,
                the open file's type will be IPv6, not IPv4, and its display
                will be selected by '6', not '4'.

                At least one address component - 4, 6, protocol, hostname,
                hostaddr, or service - must be supplied.  The `@' character,
                leading the host specification, is always required; as is
                the `:', leading the port specification.  Specify either
                hostname or hostaddr.  Specify either service name list or
                port number list.  If a service name list is specified, the
                protocol may also need to be specified if the TCP, UDP and
                UDPLITE port numbers for the service name are different.
                Use any case - lower or upper - for protocol.

                Service names and port numbers may be combined in a list
                whose entries are separated by commas and whose numeric
                range entries are separated by minus signs.  There may be no
                embedded spaces, and all service names must belong to the
                specified protocol.  Since service names may contain
                embedded minus signs, the starting entry of a range can't be
                a service name; it can be a port number, however.

                Here are some sample addresses:

                     -i6 - IPv6 only
                     TCP:25 - TCP and port 25
                     @1.2.3.4 - Internet IPv4 host address 1.2.3.4
                     @[3ffe:1ebc::1]:1234 - Internet IPv6 host address
                          3ffe:1ebc::1, port 1234
                     UDP:who - UDP who service port
                     TCP@lsof.itap:513 - TCP, port 513 and host name lsof.itap
                     tcp@foo:1-10,smtp,99 - TCP, ports 1 through 10,
                          service name smtp, port 99, host name foo
                     tcp@bar:1-smtp - TCP, ports 1 through smtp, host bar
                     :time - either TCP, UDP or UDPLITE time service port

       -K       selects the listing of tasks (threads) of processes, on
                dialects where task (thread) reporting is supported.  (If
                help output - i.e., the output of the -h or -?  options -
                shows this option, then task (thread) reporting is supported
                by the dialect.)

                When -K and -a are both specified on Linux, and the tasks of
                a main process are selected by other options, the main
                process will also be listed as though it were a task, but
                without a task ID.  (See the description of the TID column
                in the OUTPUT section.)

                Where the FreeBSD version supports threads, all threads will
                be listed with their IDs.

                In general threads and tasks inherit the files of the
                caller, but may close some and open others, so lsof always
                reports all the open files of threads and tasks.

       -k k     specifies a kernel name list file, k, in place of /vmunix,
                /mach, etc.  -k is not available under AIX on the IBM
                RISC/System 6000.

       -l       inhibits the conversion of user ID numbers to login names.
                It is also useful when login name lookup is working
                improperly or slowly.

       +|-L [l] enables (`+') or disables (`-') the listing of file link
                counts, where they are available - e.g., they aren't
                available for sockets, or most FIFOs and pipes.

                When +L is specified without a following number, all link
                counts will be listed.  When -L is specified (the default),
                no link counts will be listed.

                When +L is followed by a number, only files having a link
                count less than that number will be listed.  (No number may
                follow -L.)  A specification of the form ``+L1'' will select
                open files that have been unlinked.  A specification of the
                form ``+aL1 <file_system>'' will select unlinked open files
                on the specified file system.

                For other link count comparisons, use field output (-F) and
                a post-processing script or program.

       +|-m m   specifies an alternate kernel memory file or activates mount
                table supplement processing.

                The option form -m m specifies a kernel memory file, m, in
                place of /dev/kmem or /dev/mem - e.g., a crash dump file.

                The option form +m requests that a mount supplement file be
                written to the standard output file.  All other options are
                silently ignored.

                There will be a line in the mount supplement file for each
                mounted file system, containing the mounted file system
                directory, followed by a single space, followed by the
                device number in hexadecimal "0x" format - e.g.,

                     / 0x801

                Lsof can use the mount supplement file to get device numbers
                for file systems when it can't get them via stat(2) or
                lstat(2).

                The option form +m m identifies m as a mount supplement
                file.

                Note: the +m and +m m options are not available for all
                supported dialects.  Check the output of lsof's -h or -?
                options to see if the +m and +m m options are available.

       +|-M     Enables (+) or disables (-) the reporting of portmapper
                registrations for local TCP, UDP and UDPLITE ports, where
                port mapping is supported.  (See the last paragraph of this
                option description for information about where portmapper
                registration reporting is supported.)

                The default reporting mode is set by the lsof builder with
                the HASPMAPENABLED #define in the dialect's machine.h header
                file; lsof is distributed with the HASPMAPENABLED #define
                deactivated, so portmapper reporting is disabled by default
                and must be requested with +M.  Specifying lsof's -h or -?
                option will report the default mode.  Disabling portmapper
                registration when it is already disabled or enabling it when
                already enabled is acceptable.  When portmapper registration
                reporting is enabled, lsof displays the portmapper
                registration (if any) for local TCP, UDP or UDPLITE ports in
                square brackets immediately following the port numbers or
                service names - e.g., ``:1234[name]'' or ``:name[100083]''.
                The registration information may be a name or number,
                depending on what the registering program supplied to the
                portmapper when it registered the port.

                When portmapper registration reporting is enabled, lsof may
                run a little more slowly or even become blocked when access
                to the portmapper becomes congested or stopped.  Reverse the
                reporting mode to determine if portmapper registration
                reporting is slowing or blocking lsof.

                For purposes of portmapper registration reporting lsof
                considers a TCP, UDP or UDPLITE port local if: it is found
                in the local part of its containing kernel structure; or if
                it is located in the foreign part of its containing kernel
                structure and the local and foreign Internet addresses are
                the same; or if it is located in the foreign part of its
                containing kernel structure and the foreign Internet address
                is INADDR_LOOPBACK (127.0.0.1).  This rule may make lsof
                ignore some foreign ports on machines with multiple
                interfaces when the foreign Internet address is on a
                different interface from the local one.

                See the lsof FAQ (The FAQ section gives its location.)  for
                further discussion of portmapper registration reporting
                issues.

                Portmapper registration reporting is supported only on
                dialects that have RPC header files.  (Some Linux
                distributions with GlibC 2.14 do not have them.)  When
                portmapper registration reporting is supported, the -h or -?
                help output will show the +|-M option.

       -n       inhibits the conversion of network numbers to host names for
                network files.  Inhibiting conversion may make lsof run
                faster.  It is also useful when host name lookup is not
                working properly.

       -N       selects the listing of NFS files.

       -o       directs lsof to display file offset at all times.  It causes
                the SIZE/OFF output column title to be changed to OFFSET.
                Note: on some UNIX dialects lsof can't obtain accurate or
                consistent file offset information from its kernel data
                sources, sometimes just for particular kinds of files (e.g.,
                socket files.)  Consult the lsof FAQ (The FAQ section gives
                its location.)  for more information.

                The -o and -s options are mutually exclusive; they can't
                both be specified.  When neither is specified, lsof displays
                whatever value - size or offset - is appropriate and
                available for the type of the file.

       -o o     defines the number of decimal digits (o) to be printed after
                the ``0t'' for a file offset before the form is switched to
                ``0x...''.  An o value of zero (unlimited) directs lsof to
                use the ``0t'' form for all offset output.

                This option does NOT direct lsof to display offset at all
                times; specify -o (without a trailing number) to do that.
                -o o only specifies the number of digits after ``0t'' in
                either mixed size and offset or offset-only output.  Thus,
                for example, to direct lsof to display offset at all times
                with a decimal digit count of 10, use:

                     -o -o 10
                or
                     -oo10

                The default number of digits allowed after ``0t'' is
                normally 8, but may have been changed by the lsof builder.
                Consult the description of the -o o option in the output of
                the -h or -?  option to determine the default that is in
                effect.

       -O       directs lsof to bypass the strategy it uses to avoid being
                blocked by some kernel operations - i.e., doing them in
                forked child processes.  See the BLOCKS AND TIMEOUTS and
                AVOIDING KERNEL BLOCKS sections for more information on
                kernel operations that may block lsof.

                While use of this option will reduce lsof startup overhead,
                it may also cause lsof to hang when the kernel doesn't
                respond to a function.  Use this option cautiously.

       -p s     excludes or selects the listing of files for the processes
                whose optional process IDentification (PID) numbers are in
                the comma-separated set s - e.g., ``123'' or ``123,^456''.
                (There should be no spaces in the set.)

                PID numbers that begin with `^' (negation) represent
                exclusions.

                Multiple process ID numbers are joined in a single ORed set
                before participating in AND option selection.  However, PID
                exclusions are applied without ORing or ANDing and take
                effect before other selection criteria are applied.

       -P       inhibits the conversion of port numbers to port names for
                network files.  Inhibiting the conversion may make lsof run
                a little faster.  It is also useful when port name lookup is
                not working properly.

       +|-r [t[m<fmt>]]
                puts lsof in repeat mode.  There lsof lists open files as
                selected by other options, delays t seconds (default
                fifteen), then repeats the listing, delaying and listing
                repetitively until stopped by a condition defined by the
                prefix to the option.

                If the prefix is a `-', repeat mode is endless.  Lsof must
                be terminated with an interrupt or quit signal.

                If the prefix is `+', repeat mode will end the first cycle
                no open files are listed - and of course when lsof is
                stopped with an interrupt or quit signal.  When repeat mode
                ends because no files are listed, the process exit code will
                be zero if any open files were ever listed; one, if none
                were ever listed.

                Lsof marks the end of each listing: if field output is in
                progress (the -F, option has been specified), the default
                marker is `m'; otherwise the default marker is ``========''.
                The marker is followed by a NL character.

                The optional "m<fmt>" argument specifies a format for the
                marker line.  The <fmt> characters following `m' are
                interpreted as a format specification to the strftime(3)
                function, when both it and the localtime(3) function are
                available in the dialect's C library.  Consult the
                strftime(3) documentation for what may appear in its format
                specification.  Note that when field output is requested
                with the -F option, <fmt> cannot contain the NL format,
                ``%n''.  Note also that when <fmt> contains spaces or other
                characters that affect the shell's interpretation of
                arguments, <fmt> must be quoted appropriately.

                Repeat mode reduces lsof startup overhead, so it is more
                efficient to use this mode than to call lsof repetitively
                from a shell script, for example.

                To use repeat mode most efficiently, accompany +|-r with
                specification of other lsof selection options, so the amount
                of kernel memory access lsof does will be kept to a minimum.
                Options that filter at the process level - e.g., -c, -g, -p,
                -u - are the most efficient selectors.

                Repeat mode is useful when coupled with field output (see
                the -F, option description) and a supervising awk or Perl
                script, or a C program.

       -R       directs lsof to list the Parent Process IDentification
                number in the PPID column.

       -s [p:s] s alone directs lsof to display file size at all times.  It
                causes the SIZE/OFF output column title to be changed to
                SIZE.  If the file does not have a size, nothing is
                displayed.

                The optional -s p:s form is available only for selected
                dialects, and only when the -h or -?  help output lists it.

                When the optional form is available, the s may be followed
                by a protocol name (p), either TCP or UDP, a colon (`:') and
                a comma-separated protocol state name list, the option
                causes open TCP and UDP files to be excluded if their state
                name(s) are in the list (s) preceded by a `^'; or included
                if their name(s) are not preceded by a `^'.

                When an inclusion list is defined, only network files with
                state names in the list will be present in the lsof output.
                Thus, specifying one state name means that only network
                files with that lone state name will be listed.

                Case is unimportant in the protocol or state names, but
                there may be no spaces and the colon (`:') separating the
                protocol name (p) and the state name list (s) is required.

                If only TCP and UDP files are to be listed, as controlled by
                the specified exclusions and inclusions, the -i option must
                be specified, too.  If only a single protocol's files are to
                be listed, add its name as an argument to the -i option.

                For example, to list only network files with TCP state
                LISTEN, use:

                     -iTCP -sTCP:LISTEN

                Or, for example, to list network files with all UDP states
                except Idle, use:

                     -iUDP -sUDP:Idle

                State names vary with UNIX dialects, so it's not possible to
                provide a complete list.  Some common TCP state names are:
                CLOSED, IDLE, BOUND, LISTEN, ESTABLISHED, SYN_SENT,
                SYN_RCDV, ESTABLISHED, CLOSE_WAIT, FIN_WAIT1, CLOSING,
                LAST_ACK, FIN_WAIT_2, and TIME_WAIT.  Two common UDP state
                names are Unbound and Idle.

                See the lsof FAQ (The FAQ section gives its location.)  for
                more information on how to use protocol state exclusion and
                inclusion, including examples.

                The -o (without a following decimal digit count) and -s
                option (without a following protocol and state name list)
                are mutually exclusive; they can't both be specified.  When
                neither is specified, lsof displays whatever value - size or
                offset - is appropriate and available for the type of file.

                Since some types of files don't have true sizes - sockets,
                FIFOs, pipes, etc. - lsof displays for their sizes the
                content amounts in their associated kernel buffers, if
                possible.

       -S [t]   specifies an optional time-out seconds value for kernel
                functions - lstat(2), readlink(2), and stat(2) - that might
                otherwise deadlock.  The minimum for t is two; the default,
                fifteen; when no value is specified, the default is used.

                See the BLOCKS AND TIMEOUTS section for more information.

       -T [t]   controls the reporting of some TCP/TPI information, also
                reported by netstat(1), following the network addresses.  In
                normal output the information appears in parentheses, each
                item except TCP or TPI state name identified by a keyword,
                followed by `=', separated from others by a single space:

                     <TCP or TPI state name>
                     QR=<read queue length>
                     QS=<send queue length>
                     SO=<socket options and values>
                     SS=<socket states>
                     TF=<TCP flags and values>
                     WR=<window read length>
                     WW=<window write length>

                Not all values are reported for all UNIX dialects.  Items
                values (when available) are reported after the item name and
                '='.

                When the field output mode is in effect (See OUTPUT FOR
                OTHER PROGRAMS.)  each item appears as a field with a `T'
                leading character.

                -T with no following key characters disables TCP/TPI
                information reporting.

                -T with following characters selects the reporting of
                specific TCP/TPI information:

                     f    selects reporting of socket options,
                          states and values, and TCP flags and
                          values.
                     q    selects queue length reporting.
                     s    selects connection state reporting.
                     w    selects window size reporting.

                Not all selections are enabled for some UNIX dialects.
                State may be selected for all dialects and is reported by
                default.  The -h or -?  help output for the -T option will
                show what selections may be used with the UNIX dialect.

                When -T is used to select information - i.e., it is followed
                by one or more selection characters - the displaying of
                state is disabled by default, and it must be explicitly
                selected again in the characters following -T.  (In effect,
                then, the default is equivalent to -Ts.)  For example, if
                queue lengths and state are desired, use -Tqs.

                Socket options, socket states, some socket values, TCP flags
                and one TCP value may be reported (when available in the
                UNIX dialect) in the form of the names that commonly appear
                after SO_, so_, SS_, TCP_  and TF_ in the dialect's header
                files - most often <sys/socket.h>, <sys/socketvar.h> and
                <netinet/tcp_var.h>.  Consult those header files for the
                meaning of the flags, options, states and values.

                ``SO='' precedes socket options and values; ``SS='', socket
                states; and ``TF='', TCP flags and values.

                If a flag or option has a value, the value will follow an
                '=' and the name -- e.g., ``SO=LINGER=5'', ``SO=QLIM=5'',
                ``TF=MSS=512''.  The following seven values may be reported:

                     Name
                     Reported  Description (Common Symbol)

                     KEEPALIVE keep alive time (SO_KEEPALIVE)
                     LINGER    linger time (SO_LINGER)
                     MSS       maximum segment size (TCP_MAXSEG)
                     PQLEN          partial listen queue connections
                     QLEN      established listen queue connections
                     QLIM      established listen queue limit
                     RCVBUF    receive buffer length (SO_RCVBUF)
                     SNDBUF    send buffer length (SO_SNDBUF)

                Details on what socket options and values, socket states,
                and TCP flags and values may be displayed for particular
                UNIX dialects may be found in the answer to the ``Why
                doesn't lsof report socket options, socket states, and TCP
                flags and values for my dialect?'' and ``Why doesn't lsof
                report the partial listen queue connection count for my
                dialect?''  questions in the lsof FAQ (The FAQ section gives
                its location.)

       -t       specifies that lsof should produce terse output with process
                identifiers only and no header - e.g., so that the output
                may be piped to kill(1).  -t selects the -w option.

       -u s     selects the listing of files for the user whose login names
                or user ID numbers are in the comma-separated set s - e.g.,
                ``abe'', or ``548,root''.  (There should be no spaces in the
                set.)

                Multiple login names or user ID numbers are joined in a
                single ORed set before participating in AND option
                selection.

                If a login name or user ID is preceded by a `^', it becomes
                a negation - i.e., files of processes owned by the login
                name or user ID will never be listed.  A negated login name
                or user ID selection is neither ANDed nor ORed with other
                selections; it is applied before all other selections and
                absolutely excludes the listing of the files of the process.
                For example, to direct lsof to exclude the listing of files
                belonging to root processes, specify ``-u^root'' or
                ``-u^0''.

       -U       selects the listing of UNIX domain socket files.

       -v       selects the listing of lsof version information, including:
                revision number; when the lsof binary was constructed; who
                constructed the binary and where; the name of the compiler
                used to construct the lsof binary; the version number of the
                compiler when readily available; the compiler and loader
                flags used to construct the lsof binary; and system
                information, typically the output of uname's -a option.

       -V       directs lsof to indicate the items it was asked to list and
                failed to find - command names, file names, Internet
                addresses or files, login names, NFS files, PIDs, PGIDs, and
                UIDs.

                When other options are ANDed to search options, or
                compile-time options restrict the listing of some files,
                lsof may not report that it failed to find a search item
                when an ANDed option or compile-time option prevents the
                listing of the open file containing the located search item.

                For example, ``lsof -V -iTCP@foobar -a -d 999'' may not
                report a failure to locate open files at ``TCP@foobar'' and
                may not list any, if none have a file descriptor number of
                999.  A similar situation arises when HASSECURITY and
                HASNOSOCKSECURITY are defined at compile time and they
                prevent the listing of open files.

       +|-w     Enables (+) or disables (-) the suppression of warning
                messages.

                The lsof builder may choose to have warning messages
                disabled or enabled by default.  The default warning message
                state is indicated in the output of the -h or -?  option.
                Disabling warning messages when they are already disabled or
                enabling them when already enabled is acceptable.

                The -t option selects the -w option.

       -x [fl]  may accompany the +d and +D options to direct their
                processing to cross over symbolic links and|or file system
                mount points encountered when scanning the directory (+d) or
                directory tree (+D).

                If -x is specified by itself without a following parameter,
                cross-over processing of both symbolic links and file system
                mount points is enabled.  Note that when -x is specified
                without a parameter, the next argument must begin with '-'
                or '+'.

                The optional 'f' parameter enables file system mount point
                cross-over processing; 'l', symbolic link cross-over
                processing.

                The -x option may not be supplied without also supplying a
                +d or +D option.

       -X       This is a dialect-specific option.

           AIX:
                This IBM AIX RISC/System 6000 option requests the reporting
                of executed text file and shared library references.

                WARNING: because this option uses the kernel readx()
                function, its use on a busy AIX system might cause an
                application process to hang so completely that it can
                neither be killed nor stopped.  I have never seen this
                happen or had a report of its happening, but I think there
                is a remote possibility it could happen.

                By default use of readx() is disabled.  On AIX 5L and above
                lsof may need setuid-root permission to perform the actions
                this option requests.

                The lsof builder may specify that the -X option be
                restricted to processes whose real UID is root.  If that has
                been done, the -X option will not appear in the -h or -?
                help output unless the real UID of the lsof process is root.
                The default lsof distribution allows any UID to specify -X,
                so by default it will appear in the help output.

                When AIX readx() use is disabled, lsof may not be able to
                report information for all text and loader file references,
                but it may also avoid exacerbating an AIX kernel directory
                search kernel error, known as the Stale Segment ID bug.

                The readx() function, used by lsof or any other program to
                access some sections of kernel virtual memory, can trigger
                the Stale Segment ID bug.  It can cause the kernel's
                dir_search() function to believe erroneously that part of an
                in-memory copy of a file system directory has been zeroed.
                Another application process, distinct from lsof, asking the
                kernel to search the directory - e.g., by using open(2) -
                can cause dir_search() to loop forever, thus hanging the
                application process.

                Consult the lsof FAQ (The FAQ section gives its location.)
                and the 00README file of the lsof distribution for a more
                complete description of the Stale Segment ID bug, its APAR,
                and methods for defining readx() use when compiling lsof.

           Linux:
                This Linux option requests that lsof skip the reporting of
                information on all open TCP, UDP and UDPLITE IPv4 and IPv6
                files.

                This Linux option is most useful when the system has an
                extremely large number of open TCP, UDP and UDPLITE files,
                the processing of whose information in the /proc/net/tcp*
                and /proc/net/udp* files would take lsof a long time, and
                whose reporting is not of interest.

                Use this option with care and only when you are sure that
                the information you want lsof to display isn't associated
                with open TCP, UDP or UDPLITE socket files.

           Solaris 10 and above:
                This Solaris 10 and above option requests the reporting of
                cached paths for files that have been deleted - i.e.,
                removed with rm(1) or unlink(2).

                The cached path is followed by the string `` (deleted)'' to
                indicate that the path by which the file was opened has been
                deleted.

                Because intervening changes made to the path - i.e., renames
                with mv(1) or rename(2) - are not recorded in the cached
                path, what lsof reports is only the path by which the file
                was opened, not its possibly different final path.

       -z [z]   specifies how Solaris 10 and higher zone information is to
                be handled.

                Without a following argument - e.g., NO z - the option
                specifies that zone names are to be listed in the ZONE
                output column.

                The -z option may be followed by a zone name, z.  That
                causes lsof to list only open files for processes in that
                zone.  Multiple -z z option and argument pairs may be
                specified to form a list of named zones.  Any open file of
                any process in any of the zones will be listed, subject to
                other conditions specified by other options and arguments.

       -Z [Z]   specifies how SELinux security contexts are to be handled.
                It and 'Z' field output character support are inhibited when
                SELinux is disabled in the running Linux kernel.  See OUTPUT
                FOR OTHER PROGRAMS for more information on the 'Z' field
                output character.

                Without a following argument - e.g., NO Z - the option
                specifies that security contexts are to be listed in the
                SECURITY-CONTEXT output column.

                The -Z option may be followed by a wildcard security context
                name, Z.  That causes lsof to list only open files for
                processes in that security context.  Multiple -Z Z option
                and argument pairs may be specified to form a list of
                security contexts.  Any open file of any process in any of
                the security contexts will be listed, subject to other
                conditions specified by other options and arguments.  Note
                that Z can be A:B:C or *:B:C or A:B:* or *:*:C to match
                against the A:B:C context.

       --       The double minus sign option is a marker that signals the
                end of the keyed options.  It may be used, for example, when
                the first file name begins with a minus sign.  It may also
                be used when the absence of a value for the last keyed
                option must be signified by the presence of a minus sign in
                the following option and before the start of the file names.

       names    These are path names of specific files to list.  Symbolic
                links are resolved before use.  The first name may be
                separated from the preceding options with the ``--'' option.

                If a name is the mounted-on directory of a file system or
                the device of the file system, lsof will list all the files
                open on the file system.  To be considered a file system,
                the name must match a mounted-on directory name in mount(8)
                output, or match the name of a block device associated with
                a mounted-on directory name.  The +|-f option may be used to
                force lsof to consider a name a file system identifier (+f)
                or a simple file (-f).

                If name is a path to a directory that is not the mounted-on
                directory name of a file system, it is treated just as a
                regular file is treated - i.e., its listing is restricted to
                processes that have it open as a file or as a
                process-specific directory, such as the root or current
                working directory.  To request that lsof look for open files
                inside a directory name, use the +d s and +D D options.

                If a name is the base name of a family of multiplexed files
                - e.g, AIX's /dev/pt[cs] - lsof will list all the associated
                multiplexed files on the device that are open - e.g.,
                /dev/pt[cs]/1, /dev/pt[cs]/2, etc.

                If a name is a UNIX domain socket name, lsof will usually
                search for it by the characters of the name alone - exactly
                as it is specified and is recorded in the kernel socket
                structure.  (See the next paragraph for an exception to that
                rule for Linux.)  Specifying a relative path - e.g., ./file
                - in place of the file's absolute path - e.g., /tmp/file -
                won't work because lsof must match the characters you
                specify with what it finds in the kernel UNIX domain socket
                structures.

                If a name is a Linux UNIX domain socket name, in one case
                lsof is able to search for it by its device and inode
                number, allowing name to be a relative path.  The case
                requires that the absolute path -- i.e., one beginning with
                a slash ('/') be used by the process that created the
                socket, and hence be stored in the /proc/net/unix file; and
                it requires that lsof be able to obtain the device and node
                numbers of both the absolute path in /proc/net/unix and name
                via successful stat(2) system calls.  When those conditions
                are met, lsof will be able to search for the UNIX domain
                socket when some path to it is is specified in name.  Thus,
                for example, if the path is /dev/log, and an lsof search is
                initiated when the working directory is /dev, then name
                could be ./log.

                If a name is none of the above, lsof will list any open
                files whose device and inode match that of the specified
                path name.

                If you have also specified the -b option, the only names you
                may safely specify are file systems for which your mount
                table supplies alternate device numbers.  See the AVOIDING
                KERNEL BLOCKS and ALTERNATE DEVICE NUMBERS sections for more
                information.

                Multiple file names are joined in a single ORed set before
                participating in AND option selection.

AFS         top

       Lsof supports the recognition of AFS files for these dialects (and
       AFS versions):

            AIX 4.1.4 (AFS 3.4a)
            HP-UX 9.0.5 (AFS 3.4a)
            Linux 1.2.13 (AFS 3.3)
            Solaris 2.[56] (AFS 3.4a)

       It may recognize AFS files on other versions of these dialects, but
       has not been tested there.  Depending on how AFS is implemented, lsof
       may recognize AFS files in other dialects, or may have difficulties
       recognizing AFS files in the supported dialects.

       Lsof may have trouble identifying all aspects of AFS files in
       supported dialects when AFS kernel support is implemented via dynamic
       modules whose addresses do not appear in the kernel's variable name
       list.  In that case, lsof may have to guess at the identity of AFS
       files, and might not be able to obtain volume information from the
       kernel that is needed for calculating AFS volume node numbers.  When
       lsof can't compute volume node numbers, it reports blank in the NODE
       column.

       The -A A option is available in some dialect implementations of lsof
       for specifying the name list file where dynamic module kernel
       addresses may be found.  When this option is available, it will be
       listed in the lsof help output, presented in response to the -h or -?

       See the lsof FAQ (The FAQ section gives its location.)  for more
       information about dynamic modules, their symbols, and how they affect
       lsof options.

       Because AFS path lookups don't seem to participate in the kernel's
       name cache operations, lsof can't identify path name components for
       AFS files.

SECURITY         top

       Lsof has three features that may cause security concerns.  First, its
       default compilation mode allows anyone to list all open files with
       it.  Second, by default it creates a user-readable and user-writable
       device cache file in the home directory of the real user ID that
       executes lsof.  (The list-all-open-files and device cache features
       may be disabled when lsof is compiled.)  Third, its -k and -m options
       name alternate kernel name list or memory files.

       Restricting the listing of all open files is controlled by the
       compile-time HASSECURITY and HASNOSOCKSECURITY options.  When
       HASSECURITY is defined, lsof will allow only the root user to list
       all open files.  The non-root user may list only open files of
       processes with the same user IDentification number as the real user
       ID number of the lsof process (the one that its user logged on with).

       However, if HASSECURITY and HASNOSOCKSECURITY are both defined,
       anyone may list open socket files, provided they are selected with
       the -i option.

       When HASSECURITY is not defined, anyone may list all open files.

       Help output, presented in response to the -h or -?  option, gives the
       status of the HASSECURITY and HASNOSOCKSECURITY definitions.

       See the Security section of the 00README file of the lsof
       distribution for information on building lsof with the HASSECURITY
       and HASNOSOCKSECURITY options enabled.

       Creation and use of a user-readable and user-writable device cache
       file is controlled by the compile-time HASDCACHE option.  See the
       DEVICE CACHE FILE section and the sections that follow it for details
       on how its path is formed.  For security considerations it is
       important to note that in the default lsof distribution, if the real
       user ID under which lsof is executed is root, the device cache file
       will be written in root's home directory - e.g., / or /root.  When
       HASDCACHE is not defined, lsof does not write or attempt to read a
       device cache file.

       When HASDCACHE is defined, the lsof help output, presented in
       response to the -h, -D?, or -?  options, will provide device cache
       file handling information.  When HASDCACHE is not defined, the -h or
       -?  output will have no -D option description.

       Before you decide to disable the device cache file feature - enabling
       it improves the performance of lsof by reducing the startup overhead
       of examining all the nodes in /dev (or /devices) - read the
       discussion of it in the 00DCACHE file of the lsof distribution and
       the lsof FAQ (The FAQ section gives its location.)

       WHEN IN DOUBT, YOU CAN TEMPORARILY DISABLE THE USE OF THE DEVICE
       CACHE FILE WITH THE -Di OPTION.

       When lsof user declares alternate kernel name list or memory files
       with the -k and -m options, lsof checks the user's authority to read
       them with access(2).  This is intended to prevent whatever special
       power lsof's modes might confer on it from letting it read files not
       normally accessible via the authority of the real user ID.

OUTPUT         top

       This section describes the information lsof lists for each open file.
       See the OUTPUT FOR OTHER PROGRAMS section for additional information
       on output that can be processed by another program.

       Lsof only outputs printable (declared so by isprint(3)) 8 bit
       characters.  Non-printable characters are printed in one of three
       forms: the C ``\[bfrnt]'' form; the control character `^' form (e.g.,
       ``^@''); or hexadecimal leading ``\x'' form (e.g., ``\xab'').  Space
       is non-printable in the COMMAND column (``\x20'') and printable
       elsewhere.

       For some dialects - if HASSETLOCALE is defined in the dialect's
       machine.h header file - lsof will print the extended 8 bit characters
       of a language locale.  The lsof process must be supplied a language
       locale environment variable (e.g., LANG) whose value represents a
       known language locale in which the extended characters are considered
       printable by isprint(3).  Otherwise lsof considers the extended
       characters non-printable and prints them according to its rules for
       non-printable characters, stated above.  Consult your dialect's
       setlocale(3) man page for the names of other environment variables
       that may be used in place of LANG - e.g., LC_ALL, LC_CTYPE, etc.

       Lsof's language locale support for a dialect also covers wide
       characters - e.g., UTF-8 - when HASSETLOCALE and HASWIDECHAR are
       defined in the dialect's machine.h header file, and when a suitable
       language locale has been defined in the appropriate environment
       variable for the lsof process.  Wide characters are printable under
       those conditions if iswprint(3) reports them to be.  If HASSETLOCALE,
       HASWIDECHAR and a suitable language locale aren't defined, or if
       iswprint(3) reports wide characters that aren't printable, lsof
       considers the wide characters non-printable and prints each of their
       8 bits according to its rules for non-printable characters, stated
       above.

       Consult the answers to the "Language locale support" questions in the
       lsof FAQ (The FAQ section gives its location.) for more information.

       Lsof dynamically sizes the output columns each time it runs,
       guaranteeing that each column is a minimum size.  It also guarantees
       that each column is separated from its predecessor by at least one
       space.

       COMMAND    contains the first nine characters of the name of the UNIX
                  command associated with the process.  If a non-zero w
                  value is specified to the +c w option, the column contains
                  the first w characters of the name of the UNIX command
                  associated with the process up to the limit of characters
                  supplied to lsof by the UNIX dialect.  (See the
                  description of the +c w command or the lsof FAQ for more
                  information.  The FAQ section gives its location.)

                  If w is less than the length of the column title,
                  ``COMMAND'', it will be raised to that length.

                  If a zero w value is specified to the +c w option, the
                  column contains all the characters of the name of the UNIX
                  command associated with the process.

                  All command name characters maintained by the kernel in
                  its structures are displayed in field output when the
                  command name descriptor (`c') is specified.  See the
                  OUTPUT FOR OTHER COMMANDS section for information on
                  selecting field output and the associated command name
                  descriptor.

       PID        is the Process IDentification number of the process.

       TID        is the task (thread) IDentification number, if task
                  (thread) reporting is supported by the dialect and a task
                  (thread) is being listed.  (If help output - i.e., the
                  output of the -h or -?  options - shows this option, then
                  task (thread) reporting is supported by the dialect.)

                  A blank TID column in Linux indicates a process - i.e., a
                  non-task.

       ZONE       is the Solaris 10 and higher zone name.  This column must
                  be selected with the -z option.

       SECURITY-CONTEXT
                  is the SELinux security context.  This column must be
                  selected with the -Z option.  Note that the -Z option is
                  inhibited when SELinux is disabled in the running Linux
                  kernel.

       PPID       is the Parent Process IDentification number of the
                  process.  It is only displayed when the -R option has been
                  specified.

       PGID       is the process group IDentification number associated with
                  the process.  It is only displayed when the -g option has
                  been specified.

       USER       is the user ID number or login name of the user to whom
                  the process belongs, usually the same as reported by
                  ps(1).  However, on Linux USER is the user ID number or
                  login that owns the directory in /proc where lsof finds
                  information about the process.  Usually that is the same
                  value reported by ps(1), but may differ when the process
                  has changed its effective user ID.  (See the -l option
                  description for information on when a user ID number or
                  login name is displayed.)

       FD         is the File Descriptor number of the file or:

                       cwd  current working directory;
                       Lnn  library references (AIX);
                       err  FD information error (see NAME column);
                       jld  jail directory (FreeBSD);
                       ltx  shared library text (code and data);
                       Mxx  hex memory-mapped type number xx.
                       m86  DOS Merge mapped file;
                       mem  memory-mapped file;
                       mmap memory-mapped device;
                       pd   parent directory;
                       rtd  root directory;
                       tr   kernel trace file (OpenBSD);
                       txt  program text (code and data);
                       v86  VP/ix mapped file;

                  FD is followed by one of these characters, describing the
                  mode under which the file is open:

                       r for read access;
                       w for write access;
                       u for read and write access;
                       space if mode unknown and no lock
                            character follows;
                       `-' if mode unknown and lock
                            character follows.

                  The mode character is followed by one of these lock
                  characters, describing the type of lock applied to the
                  file:

                       N for a Solaris NFS lock of unknown type;
                       r for read lock on part of the file;
                       R for a read lock on the entire file;
                       w for a write lock on part of the file;
                       W for a write lock on the entire file;
                       u for a read and write lock of any length;
                       U for a lock of unknown type;
                       x for an SCO OpenServer Xenix lock on part      of
                  the file;
                       X for an SCO OpenServer Xenix lock on the entire
                  file;
                       space if there is no lock.

                  See the LOCKS section for more information on the lock
                  information character.

                  The FD column contents constitutes a single field for
                  parsing in post-processing scripts.

       TYPE       is the type of the node associated with the file - e.g.,
                  GDIR, GREG, VDIR, VREG, etc.

                  or ``IPv4'' for an IPv4 socket;

                  or ``IPv6'' for an open IPv6 network file - even if its
                  address is IPv4, mapped in an IPv6 address;

                  or ``ax25'' for a Linux AX.25 socket;

                  or ``inet'' for an Internet domain socket;

                  or ``lla'' for a HP-UX link level access file;

                  or ``rte'' for an AF_ROUTE socket;

                  or ``sock'' for a socket of unknown domain;

                  or ``unix'' for a UNIX domain socket;

                  or ``x.25'' for an HP-UX x.25 socket;

                  or ``BLK'' for a block special file;

                  or ``CHR'' for a character special file;

                  or ``DEL'' for a Linux map file that has been deleted;

                  or ``DIR'' for a directory;

                  or ``DOOR'' for a VDOOR file;

                  or ``FIFO'' for a FIFO special file;

                  or ``KQUEUE'' for a BSD style kernel event queue file;

                  or ``LINK'' for a symbolic link file;

                  or ``MPB'' for a multiplexed block file;

                  or ``MPC'' for a multiplexed character file;

                  or ``NOFD'' for a Linux /proc/<PID>/fd directory that
                  can't be opened -- the directory path appears in the NAME
                  column, followed by an error message;

                  or ``PAS'' for a /proc/as file;

                  or ``PAXV'' for a /proc/auxv file;

                  or ``PCRE'' for a /proc/cred file;

                  or ``PCTL'' for a /proc control file;

                  or ``PCUR'' for the current /proc process;

                  or ``PCWD'' for a /proc current working directory;

                  or ``PDIR'' for a /proc directory;

                  or ``PETY'' for a /proc executable type (etype);

                  or ``PFD'' for a /proc file descriptor;

                  or ``PFDR'' for a /proc file descriptor directory;

                  or ``PFIL'' for an executable /proc file;

                  or ``PFPR'' for a /proc FP register set;

                  or ``PGD'' for a /proc/pagedata file;

                  or ``PGID'' for a /proc group notifier file;

                  or ``PIPE'' for pipes;

                  or ``PLC'' for a /proc/lwpctl file;

                  or ``PLDR'' for a /proc/lpw directory;

                  or ``PLDT'' for a /proc/ldt file;

                  or ``PLPI'' for a /proc/lpsinfo file;

                  or ``PLST'' for a /proc/lstatus file;

                  or ``PLU'' for a /proc/lusage file;

                  or ``PLWG'' for a /proc/gwindows file;

                  or ``PLWI'' for a /proc/lwpsinfo file;

                  or ``PLWS'' for a /proc/lwpstatus file;

                  or ``PLWU'' for a /proc/lwpusage file;

                  or ``PLWX'' for a /proc/xregs file;

                  or ``PMAP'' for a /proc map file (map);

                  or ``PMEM'' for a /proc memory image file;

                  or ``PNTF'' for a /proc process notifier file;

                  or ``POBJ'' for a /proc/object file;

                  or ``PODR'' for a /proc/object directory;

                  or ``POLP'' for an old format /proc light weight process
                  file;

                  or ``POPF'' for an old format /proc PID file;

                  or ``POPG'' for an old format /proc page data file;

                  or ``PORT'' for a SYSV named pipe;

                  or ``PREG'' for a /proc register file;

                  or ``PRMP'' for a /proc/rmap file;

                  or ``PRTD'' for a /proc root directory;

                  or ``PSGA'' for a /proc/sigact file;

                  or ``PSIN'' for a /proc/psinfo file;

                  or ``PSTA'' for a /proc status file;

                  or ``PSXSEM'' for a POSIX semaphore file;

                  or ``PSXSHM'' for a POSIX shared memory file;

                  or ``PUSG'' for a /proc/usage file;

                  or ``PW'' for a /proc/watch file;

                  or ``PXMP'' for a /proc/xmap file;

                  or ``REG'' for a regular file;

                  or ``SMT'' for a shared memory transport file;

                  or ``STSO'' for a stream socket;

                  or ``UNNM'' for an unnamed type file;

                  or ``XNAM'' for an OpenServer Xenix special file of
                  unknown type;

                  or ``XSEM'' for an OpenServer Xenix semaphore file;

                  or ``XSD'' for an OpenServer Xenix shared data file;

                  or the four type number octets if the corresponding name
                  isn't known.

       FILE-ADDR  contains the kernel file structure address when f has been
                  specified to +f;

       FCT        contains the file reference count from the kernel file
                  structure when c has been specified to +f;

       FILE-FLAG  when g or G has been specified to +f, this field contains
                  the contents of the f_flag[s] member of the kernel file
                  structure and the kernel's per-process open file flags (if
                  available); `G' causes them to be displayed in
                  hexadecimal; `g', as short-hand names; two lists may be
                  displayed with entries separated by commas, the lists
                  separated by a semicolon (`;'); the first list may contain
                  short-hand names for f_flag[s] values from the following
                  table:

                       AIO       asynchronous I/O (e.g., FAIO)
                       AP        append
                       ASYN      asynchronous I/O (e.g., FASYNC)
                       BAS       block, test, and set in use
                       BKIU      block if in use
                       BL        use block offsets
                       BSK       block seek
                       CA        copy avoid
                       CIO       concurrent I/O
                       CLON      clone
                       CLRD      CL read
                       CR        create
                       DF        defer
                       DFI       defer IND
                       DFLU      data flush
                       DIR       direct
                       DLY       delay
                       DOCL      do clone
                       DSYN      data-only integrity
                       DTY       must be a directory
                       EVO       event only
                       EX        open for exec
                       EXCL      exclusive open
                       FSYN      synchronous writes
                       GCDF      defer during unp_gc() (AIX)
                       GCMK      mark during unp_gc() (AIX)
                       GTTY      accessed via /dev/tty
                       HUP       HUP in progress
                       KERN      kernel
                       KIOC      kernel-issued ioctl
                       LCK       has lock
                       LG        large file
                       MBLK      stream message block
                       MK        mark
                       MNT       mount
                       MSYN      multiplex synchronization
                       NATM      don't update atime
                       NB        non-blocking I/O
                       NBDR      no BDRM check
                       NBIO      SYSV non-blocking I/O
                       NBF       n-buffering in effect
                       NC        no cache
                       ND        no delay
                       NDSY      no data synchronization
                       NET       network
                       NFLK      don't follow links
                       NMFS      NM file system
                       NOTO      disable background stop
                       NSH       no share
                       NTTY      no controlling TTY
                       OLRM      OLR mirror
                       PAIO      POSIX asynchronous I/O
                       PP        POSIX pipe
                       R         read
                       RC        file and record locking cache
                       REV       revoked
                       RSH       shared read
                       RSYN      read synchronization
                       RW        read and write access
                       SL        shared lock
                       SNAP      cooked snapshot
                       SOCK      socket
                       SQSH      Sequent shared set on open
                       SQSV      Sequent SVM set on open
                       SQR       Sequent set repair on open
                       SQS1      Sequent full shared open
                       SQS2      Sequent partial shared open
                       STPI      stop I/O
                       SWR       synchronous read
                       SYN       file integrity while writing
                       TCPM      avoid TCP collision
                       TR        truncate
                       W         write
                       WKUP      parallel I/O synchronization
                       WTG       parallel I/O synchronization
                       VH        vhangup pending
                       VTXT      virtual text
                       XL        exclusive lock

                  this list of names was derived from F* #define's in
                  dialect header files <fcntl.h>, <linux</fs.h>,
                  <sys/fcntl.c>, <sys/fcntlcom.h>, and <sys/file.h>; see the
                  lsof.h header file for a list showing the correspondence
                  between the above short-hand names and the header file
                  definitions;

                  the second list (after the semicolon) may contain
                  short-hand names for kernel per-process open file flags
                  from this table:

                       ALLC      allocated
                       BR        the file has been read
                       BHUP      activity stopped by SIGHUP
                       BW        the file has been written
                       CLSG      closing
                       CX        close-on-exec (see fcntl(F_SETFD))
                       LCK       lock was applied
                       MP        memory-mapped
                       OPIP      open pending - in progress
                       RSVW      reserved wait
                       SHMT      UF_FSHMAT set (AIX)
                       USE       in use (multi-threaded)

       NODE-ID    (or INODE-ADDR for some dialects) contains a unique
                  identifier for the file node (usually the kernel vnode or
                  inode address, but also occasionally a concatenation of
                  device and node number) when n has been specified to +f;

       DEVICE     contains the device numbers, separated by commas, for a
                  character special, block special, regular, directory or
                  NFS file;

                  or ``memory'' for a memory file system node under Tru64
                  UNIX;

                  or the address of the private data area of a Solaris
                  socket stream;

                  or a kernel reference address that identifies the file
                  (The kernel reference address may be used for FIFO's, for
                  example.);

                  or the base address or device name of a Linux AX.25 socket
                  device.

                  Usually only the lower thirty two bits of Tru64 UNIX
                  kernel addresses are displayed.

       SIZE, SIZE/OFF, or OFFSET
                  is the size of the file or the file offset in bytes.  A
                  value is displayed in this column only if it is available.
                  Lsof displays whatever value - size or offset - is
                  appropriate for the type of the file and the version of
                  lsof.

                  On some UNIX dialects lsof can't obtain accurate or
                  consistent file offset information from its kernel data
                  sources, sometimes just for particular kinds of files
                  (e.g., socket files.)  In other cases, files don't have
                  true sizes - e.g., sockets, FIFOs, pipes - so lsof
                  displays for their sizes the content amounts it finds in
                  their kernel buffer descriptors (e.g., socket buffer size
                  counts or TCP/IP window sizes.)  Consult the lsof FAQ (The
                  FAQ section gives its location.)  for more information.

                  The file size is displayed in decimal; the offset is
                  normally displayed in decimal with a leading ``0t'' if it
                  contains 8 digits or less; in hexadecimal with a leading
                  ``0x'' if it is longer than 8 digits.  (Consult the -o o
                  option description for information on when 8 might default
                  to some other value.)

                  Thus the leading ``0t'' and ``0x'' identify an offset when
                  the column may contain both a size and an offset (i.e.,
                  its title is SIZE/OFF).

                  If the -o option is specified, lsof always displays the
                  file offset (or nothing if no offset is available) and
                  labels the column OFFSET.  The offset always begins with
                  ``0t'' or ``0x'' as described above.

                  The lsof user can control the switch from ``0t'' to ``0x''
                  with the -o o option.  Consult its description for more
                  information.

                  If the -s option is specified, lsof always displays the
                  file size (or nothing if no size is available) and labels
                  the column SIZE.  The -o and -s options are mutually
                  exclusive; they can't both be specified.

                  For files that don't have a fixed size - e.g., don't
                  reside on a disk device - lsof will display appropriate
                  information about the current size or position of the file
                  if it is available in the kernel structures that define
                  the file.

       NLINK      contains the file link count when +L has been specified;

       NODE       is the node number of a local file;

                  or the inode number of an NFS file in the server host;

                  or the Internet protocol type - e.g, ``TCP'';

                  or ``STR'' for a stream;

                  or ``CCITT'' for an HP-UX x.25 socket;

                  or the IRQ or inode number of a Linux AX.25 socket device.

       NAME       is the name of the mount point and file system on which
                  the file resides;

                  or the name of a file specified in the names option (after
                  any symbolic links have been resolved);

                  or the name of a character special or block special
                  device;

                  or the local and remote Internet addresses of a network
                  file; the local host name or IP number is followed by a
                  colon (':'), the port, ``->'', and the two-part remote
                  address; IP addresses may be reported as numbers or names,
                  depending on the +|-M, -n, and -P options; colon-separated
                  IPv6 numbers are enclosed in square brackets; IPv4
                  INADDR_ANY and IPv6 IN6_IS_ADDR_UNSPECIFIED addresses, and
                  zero port numbers are represented by an asterisk ('*'); a
                  UDP destination address may be followed by the amount of
                  time elapsed since the last packet was sent to the
                  destination; TCP, UDP and UDPLITE remote addresses may be
                  followed by TCP/TPI information in parentheses - state
                  (e.g., ``(ESTABLISHED)'', ``(Unbound)''), queue sizes, and
                  window sizes (not all dialects) - in a fashion similar to
                  what netstat(1) reports; see the -T option description or
                  the description of the TCP/TPI field in OUTPUT FOR OTHER
                  PROGRAMS for more information on state, queue size, and
                  window size;

                  or the address or name of a UNIX domain socket, possibly
                  including a stream clone device name, a file system
                  object's path name, local and foreign kernel addresses,
                  socket pair information, and a bound vnode address;

                  or the local and remote mount point names of an NFS file;

                  or ``STR'', followed by the stream name;

                  or a stream character device name, followed by ``->'' and
                  the stream name or a list of stream module names,
                  separated by ``->'';

                  or ``STR:'' followed by the SCO OpenServer stream device
                  and module names, separated by ``->'';

                  or system directory name, `` -- '', and as many components
                  of the path name as lsof can find in the kernel's name
                  cache for selected dialects (See the KERNEL NAME CACHE
                  section for more information.);

                  or ``PIPE->'', followed by a Solaris kernel pipe
                  destination address;

                  or ``COMMON:'', followed by the vnode device information
                  structure's device name, for a Solaris common vnode;

                  or the address family, followed by a slash (`/'), followed
                  by fourteen comma-separated bytes of a non-Internet raw
                  socket address;

                  or the HP-UX x.25 local address, followed by the virtual
                  connection number (if any), followed by the remote address
                  (if any);

                  or ``(dead)'' for disassociated Tru64 UNIX files -
                  typically terminal files that have been flagged with the
                  TIOCNOTTY ioctl and closed by daemons;

                  or ``rd=<offset>'' and ``wr=<offset>'' for the values of
                  the read and write offsets of a FIFO;

                  or ``clone n:/dev/event'' for SCO OpenServer file clones
                  of the /dev/event device, where n is the minor device
                  number of the file;

                  or ``(socketpair: n)'' for a Solaris 2.6, 8, 9  or 10 UNIX
                  domain socket, created by the socketpair(3N) network
                  function;

                  or ``no PCB'' for socket files that do not have a protocol
                  block associated with them, optionally followed by ``,
                  CANTSENDMORE'' if sending on the socket has been disabled,
                  or ``, CANTRCVMORE'' if receiving on the socket has been
                  disabled (e.g., by the shutdown(2) function);

                  or the local and remote addresses of a Linux IPX socket
                  file in the form <net>:[<node>:]<port>, followed in
                  parentheses by the transmit and receive queue sizes, and
                  the connection state;

                  or ``dgram'' or ``stream'' for the type UnixWare 7.1.1 and
                  above in-kernel UNIX domain sockets, followed by a colon
                  (':') and the local path name when available, followed by
                  ``->'' and the remote path name or kernel socket address
                  in hexadecimal when available;

                  or the association value, association index, endpoint
                  value, local address, local port, remote address and
                  remote port for Linux SCTP sockets;

                  or ``protocol: '' followed by the Linux socket's protocol
                  attribute.

       For dialects that support a ``namefs'' file system, allowing one file
       to be attached to another with fattach(3C), lsof will add
       ``(FA:<address1><direction><address2>)'' to the NAME column.
       <address1> and <address2> are hexadecimal vnode addresses.
       <direction> will be ``<-'' if <address2> has been fattach'ed to this
       vnode whose address is <address1>; and ``->'' if <address1>, the
       vnode address of this vnode, has been fattach'ed to <address2>.
       <address1> may be omitted if it already appears in the DEVICE column.

       Lsof may add two parenthetical notes to the NAME column for open
       Solaris 10 files: ``(?)'' if lsof considers the path name of
       questionable accuracy; and ``(deleted)'' if the -X option has been
       specified and lsof detects the open file's path name has been
       deleted.  Consult the lsof FAQ (The FAQ section gives its location.)
       for more information on these NAME column additions.

LOCKS         top

       Lsof can't adequately report the wide variety of UNIX dialect file
       locks in a single character.  What it reports in a single character
       is a compromise between the information it finds in the kernel and
       the limitations of the reporting format.

       Moreover, when a process holds several byte level locks on a file,
       lsof only reports the status of the first lock it encounters.  If it
       is a byte level lock, then the lock character will be reported in
       lower case - i.e., `r', `w', or `x' - rather than the upper case
       equivalent reported for a full file lock.

       Generally lsof can only report on locks held by local processes on
       local files.  When a local process sets a lock on a remotely mounted
       (e.g., NFS) file, the remote server host usually records the lock
       state.  One exception is Solaris - at some patch levels of 2.3, and
       in all versions above 2.4, the Solaris kernel records information on
       remote locks in local structures.

       Lsof has trouble reporting locks for some UNIX dialects.  Consult the
       BUGS section of this manual page or the lsof FAQ (The FAQ section
       gives its location.)  for more information.

OUTPUT FOR OTHER PROGRAMS         top

       When the -F option is specified, lsof produces output that is
       suitable for processing by another program - e.g, an awk or Perl
       script, or a C program.

       Each unit of information is output in a field that is identified with
       a leading character and terminated by a NL (012) (or a NUL (000) if
       the 0 (zero) field identifier character is specified.)  The data of
       the field follows immediately after the field identification
       character and extends to the field terminator.

       It is possible to think of field output as process and file sets.  A
       process set begins with a field whose identifier is `p' (for process
       IDentifier (PID)).  It extends to the beginning of the next PID field
       or the beginning of the first file set of the process, whichever
       comes first.  Included in the process set are fields that identify
       the command, the process group IDentification (PGID) number, the task
       (thread) ID (TID), and the user ID (UID) number or login name.

       A file set begins with a field whose identifier is `f' (for file
       descriptor).  It is followed by lines that describe the file's access
       mode, lock state, type, device, size, offset, inode, protocol, name
       and stream module names.  It extends to the beginning of the next
       file or process set, whichever comes first.

       When the NUL (000) field terminator has been selected with the 0
       (zero) field identifier character, lsof ends each process and file
       set with a NL (012) character.

       Lsof always produces one field, the PID (`p') field.  All other
       fields may be declared optionally in the field identifier character
       list that follows the -F option.  When a field selection character
       identifies an item lsof does not normally list - e.g., PPID, selected
       with -R - specification of the field character - e.g., ``-FR'' - also
       selects the listing of the item.

       It is entirely possible to select a set of fields that cannot easily
       be parsed - e.g., if the field descriptor field is not selected, it
       may be difficult to identify file sets.  To help you avoid this
       difficulty, lsof supports the -F option; it selects the output of all
       fields with NL terminators (the -F0 option pair selects the output of
       all fields with NUL terminators).  For compatibility reasons neither
       -F nor -F0 select the raw device field.

       These are the fields that lsof will produce.  The single character
       listed first is the field identifier.

            a    file access mode
            c    process command name (all characters from proc or
                 user structure)
            C    file structure share count
            d    file's device character code
            D    file's major/minor device number (0x<hexadecimal>)
            f    file descriptor (always selected)
            F    file structure address (0x<hexadecimal>)
            G    file flaGs (0x<hexadecimal>; names if +fg follows)
            g    process group ID
            i    file's inode number
            K    tasK ID
            k    link count
            l    file's lock status
            L    process login name
            m    marker between repeated output
            n    file name, comment, Internet address
            N    node identifier (ox<hexadecimal>
            o    file's offset (decimal)
            p    process ID (always selected)
            P    protocol name
            r    raw device number (0x<hexadecimal>)
            R    parent process ID
            s    file's size (decimal)
            S    file's stream identification
            t    file's type
            T    TCP/TPI information, identified by prefixes (the
                 `=' is part of the prefix):
                     QR=<read queue size>
                     QS=<send queue size>
                     SO=<socket options and values> (not all dialects)
                     SS=<socket states> (not all dialects)
                     ST=<connection state>
                     TF=<TCP flags and values> (not all dialects)
                     WR=<window read size>  (not all dialects)
                     WW=<window write size>  (not all dialects)
                 (TCP/TPI information isn't reported for all supported
                   UNIX dialects. The -h or -? help output for the
                   -T option will show what TCP/TPI reporting can be
                   requested.)
            u    process user ID
            z    Solaris 10 and higher zone name
            Z    SELinux security context (inhibited when SELinux is disabled)
            0    use NUL field terminator character in place of NL
            1-9  dialect-specific field identifiers (The output
                 of -F? identifies the information to be found
                 in dialect-specific fields.)

       You can get on-line help information on these characters and their
       descriptions by specifying the -F?  option pair.  (Escape the `?'
       character as your shell requires.)  Additional information on field
       content can be found in the OUTPUT section.

       As an example, ``-F pcfn'' will select the process ID (`p'), command
       name (`c'), file descriptor (`f') and file name (`n') fields with an
       NL field terminator character; ``-F pcfn0'' selects the same output
       with a NUL (000) field terminator character.

       Lsof doesn't produce all fields for every process or file set, only
       those that are available.  Some fields are mutually exclusive: file
       device characters and file major/minor device numbers; file inode
       number and protocol name; file name and stream identification; file
       size and offset.  One or the other member of these mutually exclusive
       sets will appear in field output, but not both.

       Normally lsof ends each field with a NL (012) character.  The 0
       (zero) field identifier character may be specified to change the
       field terminator character to a NUL (000).  A NUL terminator may be
       easier to process with xargs(1), for example, or with programs whose
       quoting mechanisms may not easily cope with the range of characters
       in the field output.  When the NUL field terminator is in use, lsof
       ends each process and file set with a NL (012).

       Three aids to producing programs that can process lsof field output
       are included in the lsof distribution.  The first is a C header file,
       lsof_fields.h, that contains symbols for the field identification
       characters, indexes for storing them in a table, and explanation
       strings that may be compiled into programs.  Lsof uses this header
       file.

       The second aid is a set of sample scripts that process field output,
       written in awk, Perl 4, and Perl 5.  They're located in the scripts
       subdirectory of the lsof distribution.

       The third aid is the C library used for the lsof test suite.  The
       test suite is written in C and uses field output to validate the
       correct operation of lsof.  The library can be found in the
       tests/LTlib.c file of the lsof distribution.  The library uses the
       first aid, the lsof_fields.h header file.

BLOCKS AND TIMEOUTS         top

       Lsof can be blocked by some kernel functions that it uses - lstat(2),
       readlink(2), and stat(2).  These functions are stalled in the kernel,
       for example, when the hosts where mounted NFS file systems reside
       become inaccessible.

       Lsof attempts to break these blocks with timers and child processes,
       but the techniques are not wholly reliable.  When lsof does manage to
       break a block, it will report the break with an error message.  The
       messages may be suppressed with the -t and -w options.

       The default timeout value may be displayed with the -h or -?  option,
       and it may be changed with the -S [t] option.  The minimum for t is
       two seconds, but you should avoid small values, since slow system
       responsiveness can cause short timeouts to expire unexpectedly and
       perhaps stop lsof before it can produce any output.

       When lsof has to break a block during its access of mounted file
       system information, it normally continues, although with less
       information available to display about open files.

       Lsof can also be directed to avoid the protection of timers and child
       processes when using the kernel functions that might block by
       specifying the -O option.  While this will allow lsof to start up
       with less overhead, it exposes lsof completely to the kernel
       situations that might block it.  Use this option cautiously.

AVOIDING KERNEL BLOCKS         top

       You can use the -b option to tell lsof to avoid using kernel
       functions that would block.  Some cautions apply.

       First, using this option usually requires that your system supply
       alternate device numbers in place of the device numbers that lsof
       would normally obtain with the lstat(2) and stat(2) kernel functions.
       See the ALTERNATE DEVICE NUMBERS section for more information on
       alternate device numbers.

       Second, you can't specify names for lsof to locate unless they're
       file system names.  This is because lsof needs to know the device and
       inode numbers of files listed with names in the lsof options, and the
       -b option prevents lsof from obtaining them.  Moreover, since lsof
       only has device numbers for the file systems that have alternates,
       its ability to locate files on file systems depends completely on the
       availability and accuracy of the alternates.  If no alternates are
       available, or if they're incorrect, lsof won't be able to locate
       files on the named file systems.

       Third, if the names of your file system directories that lsof obtains
       from your system's mount table are symbolic links, lsof won't be able
       to resolve the links.  This is because the -b option causes lsof to
       avoid the kernel readlink(2) function it uses to resolve symbolic
       links.

       Finally, using the -b option causes lsof to issue warning messages
       when it needs to use the kernel functions that the -b option directs
       it to avoid.  You can suppress these messages by specifying the -w
       option, but if you do, you won't see the alternate device numbers
       reported in the warning messages.

ALTERNATE DEVICE NUMBERS         top

       On some dialects, when lsof has to break a block because it can't get
       information about a mounted file system via the lstat(2) and stat(2)
       kernel functions, or because you specified the -b option, lsof can
       obtain some of the information it needs - the device number and
       possibly the file system type - from the system mount table.  When
       that is possible, lsof will report the device number it obtained.
       (You can suppress the report by specifying the -w option.)

       You can assist this process if your mount table is supported with an
       /etc/mtab or /etc/mnttab file that contains an options field by
       adding a ``dev=xxxx'' field for mount points that do not have one in
       their options strings.  Note: you must be able to edit the file -
       i.e., some mount tables like recent Solaris /etc/mnttab or Linux
       /proc/mounts are read-only and can't be modified.

       You may also be able to supply device numbers using the +m and +m m
       options, provided they are supported by your dialect.  Check the
       output of lsof's -h or -?  options to see if the +m and +m m options
       are available.

       The ``xxxx'' portion of the field is the hexadecimal value of the
       file system's device number.  (Consult the st_dev field of the output
       of the lstat(2) and stat(2) functions for the appropriate values for
       your file systems.)  Here's an example from a Sun Solaris 2.6
       /etc/mnttab for a file system remotely mounted via NFS:

            nfs  ignore,noquota,dev=2a40001

       There's an advantage to having ``dev=xxxx'' entries in your mount
       table file, especially for file systems that are mounted from remote
       NFS servers.  When a remote server crashes and you want to identify
       its users by running lsof on one of its clients, lsof probably won't
       be able to get output from the lstat(2) and stat(2) functions for the
       file system.  If it can obtain the file system's device number from
       the mount table, it will be able to display the files open on the
       crashed NFS server.

       Some dialects that do not use an ASCII /etc/mtab or /etc/mnttab file
       for the mount table may still provide an alternative device number in
       their internal mount tables.  This includes AIX, Apple Darwin,
       FreeBSD, NetBSD, OpenBSD, and Tru64 UNIX.  Lsof knows how to obtain
       the alternative device number for these dialects and uses it when its
       attempt to lstat(2) or stat(2) the file system is blocked.

       If you're not sure your dialect supplies alternate device numbers for
       file systems from its mount table, use this lsof incantation to see
       if it reports any alternate device numbers:

              lsof -b

       Look for standard error file warning messages that begin ``assuming
       "dev=xxxx" from ...''.

KERNEL NAME CACHE         top

       Lsof is able to examine the kernel's name cache or use other kernel
       facilities (e.g., the ADVFS 4.x tag_to_path() function under Tru64
       UNIX) on some dialects for most file system types, excluding AFS, and
       extract recently used path name components from it.  (AFS file system
       path lookups don't use the kernel's name cache; some Solaris VxFS
       file system operations apparently don't use it, either.)

       Lsof reports the complete paths it finds in the NAME column.  If lsof
       can't report all components in a path, it reports in the NAME column
       the file system name, followed by a space, two `-' characters,
       another space, and the name components it has located, separated by
       the `/' character.

       When lsof is run in repeat mode - i.e., with the -r option specified
       - the extent to which it can report path name components for the same
       file may vary from cycle to cycle.  That's because other running
       processes can cause the kernel to remove entries from its name cache
       and replace them with others.

       Lsof's use of the kernel name cache to identify the paths of files
       can lead it to report incorrect components under some circumstances.
       This can happen when the kernel name cache uses device and node
       number as a key (e.g., SCO OpenServer) and a key on a rapidly
       changing file system is reused.  If the UNIX dialect's kernel doesn't
       purge the name cache entry for a file when it is unlinked, lsof may
       find a reference to the wrong entry in the cache.  The lsof FAQ (The
       FAQ section gives its location.)  has more information on this
       situation.

       Lsof can report path name components for these dialects:

            FreeBSD
            HP-UX
            Linux
            NetBSD
            NEXTSTEP
            OpenBSD
            OPENSTEP
            SCO OpenServer
            SCO|Caldera UnixWare
            Solaris
            Tru64 UNIX

       Lsof can't report path name components for these dialects:

            AIX

       If you want to know why lsof can't report path name components for
       some dialects, see the lsof FAQ (The FAQ section gives its location.)

DEVICE CACHE FILE         top

       Examining all members of the /dev (or /devices) node tree with
       stat(2) functions can be time consuming.  What's more, the
       information that lsof needs - device number, inode number, and path -
       rarely changes.

       Consequently, lsof normally maintains an ASCII text file of cached
       /dev (or /devices) information (exception: the /proc-based Linux lsof
       where it's not needed.)  The local system administrator who builds
       lsof can control the way the device cache file path is formed,
       selecting from these options:

            Path from the -D option;
            Path from an environment variable;
            System-wide path;
            Personal path (the default);
            Personal path, modified by an environment variable.

       Consult the output of the -h, -D? , or -?  help options for the
       current state of device cache support.  The help output lists the
       default read-mode device cache file path that is in effect for the
       current invocation of lsof.  The -D?  option output lists the
       read-only and write device cache file paths, the names of any
       applicable environment variables, and the personal device cache path
       format.

       Lsof can detect that the current device cache file has been
       accidentally or maliciously modified by integrity checks, including
       the computation and verification of a sixteen bit Cyclic Redundancy
       Check (CRC) sum on the file's contents.  When lsof senses something
       wrong with the file, it issues a warning and attempts to remove the
       current cache file and create a new copy, but only to a path that the
       process can legitimately write.

       The path from which a lsof process may attempt to read a device cache
       file may not be the same as the path to which it can legitimately
       write.  Thus when lsof senses that it needs to update the device
       cache file, it may choose a different path for writing it from the
       path from which it read an incorrect or outdated version.

       If available, the -Dr option will inhibit the writing of a new device
       cache file.  (It's always available when specified without a path
       name argument.)

       When a new device is added to the system, the device cache file may
       need to be recreated.  Since lsof compares the mtime of the device
       cache file with the mtime and ctime of the /dev (or /devices)
       directory, it usually detects that a new device has been added; in
       that case lsof issues a warning message and attempts to rebuild the
       device cache file.

       Whenever lsof writes a device cache file, it sets its ownership to
       the real UID of the executing process, and its permission modes to
       0600, this restricting its reading and writing to the file's owner.

LSOF PERMISSIONS THAT AFFECT DEVICE CACHE FILE ACCESS         top

       Two permissions of the lsof executable affect its ability to access
       device cache files.  The permissions are set by the local system
       administrator when lsof is installed.

       The first and rarer permission is setuid-root.  It comes into effect
       when lsof is executed; its effective UID is then root, while its real
       (i.e., that of the logged-on user) UID is not.  The lsof distribution
       recommends that versions for these dialects run setuid-root.

            HP-UX 11.11 and 11.23
            Linux

       The second and more common permission is setgid.  It comes into
       effect when the effective group IDentification number (GID) of the
       lsof process is set to one that can access kernel memory devices -
       e.g., ``kmem'', ``sys'', or ``system''.

       An lsof process that has setgid permission usually surrenders the
       permission after it has accessed the kernel memory devices.  When it
       does that, lsof can allow more liberal device cache path formations.
       The lsof distribution recommends that versions for these dialects run
       setgid and be allowed to surrender setgid permission.

            AIX 5.[12] and 5.3-ML1
            Apple Darwin 7.x Power Macintosh systems
            FreeBSD 4.x, 4.1x, 5.x and [6789].x for x86-based systems
            FreeBSD 5.x and [6789].x for Alpha, AMD64 and Sparc64-based
                systems
            HP-UX 11.00
            NetBSD 1.[456], 2.x and 3.x for Alpha, x86, and SPARC-based
                systems
            NEXTSTEP 3.[13] for NEXTSTEP architectures
            OpenBSD 2.[89] and 3.[0-9] for x86-based systems
            OPENSTEP 4.x
            SCO OpenServer Release 5.0.6 for x86-based systems
            SCO|Caldera UnixWare 7.1.4 for x86-based systems
            Solaris 2.6, 8, 9 and 10
            Tru64 UNIX 5.1

       (Note: lsof for AIX 5L and above needs setuid-root permission if its
       -X option is used.)

       Lsof for these dialects does not support a device cache, so the
       permissions given to the executable don't apply to the device cache
       file.

            Linux

DEVICE CACHE FILE PATH FROM THE -D OPTION         top

       The -D option provides limited means for specifying the device cache
       file path.  Its ?  function will report the read-only and write
       device cache file paths that lsof will use.

       When the -D b, r, and u functions are available, you can use them to
       request that the cache file be built in a specific location
       (b[path]); read but not rebuilt (r[path]); or read and rebuilt
       (u[path]).  The b, r, and u functions are restricted under some
       conditions.  They are restricted when the lsof process is
       setuid-root.  The path specified with the r function is always
       read-only, even when it is available.

       The b, r, and u functions are also restricted when the lsof process
       runs setgid and lsof doesn't surrender the setgid permission.  (See
       the LSOF PERMISSIONS THAT AFFECT DEVICE CACHE FILE ACCESS section for
       a list of implementations that normally don't surrender their setgid
       permission.)

       A further -D function, i (for ignore), is always available.

       When available, the b function tells lsof to read device information
       from the kernel with the stat(2) function and build a device cache
       file at the indicated path.

       When available, the r function tells lsof to read the device cache
       file, but not update it.  When a path argument accompanies -Dr, it
       names the device cache file path.  The r function is always available
       when it is specified without a path name argument.  If lsof is not
       running setuid-root and surrenders its setgid permission, a path name
       argument may accompany the r function.

       When available, the u function tells lsof to attempt to read and use
       the device cache file.  If it can't read the file, or if it finds the
       contents of the file incorrect or outdated, it will read information
       from the kernel, and attempt to write an updated version of the
       device cache file, but only to a path it considers legitimate for the
       lsof process effective and real UIDs.

DEVICE CACHE PATH FROM AN ENVIRONMENT VARIABLE         top

       Lsof's second choice for the device cache file is the contents of the
       LSOFDEVCACHE environment variable.  It avoids this choice if the lsof
       process is setuid-root, or the real UID of the process is root.

       A further restriction applies to a device cache file path taken from
       the LSOFDEVCACHE environment variable: lsof will not write a device
       cache file to the path if the lsof process doesn't surrender its
       setgid permission.  (See the LSOF PERMISSIONS THAT AFFECT DEVICE
       CACHE FILE ACCESS section for information on implementations that
       don't surrender their setgid permission.)

       The local system administrator can disable the use of the
       LSOFDEVCACHE environment variable or change its name when building
       lsof.  Consult the output of -D?  for the environment variable's
       name.

SYSTEM-WIDE DEVICE CACHE PATH         top

       The local system administrator may choose to have a system-wide
       device cache file when building lsof.  That file will generally be
       constructed by a special system administration procedure when the
       system is booted or when the contents of /dev or /devices) changes.
       If defined, it is lsof's third device cache file path choice.

       You can tell that a system-wide device cache file is in effect for
       your local installation by examining the lsof help option output -
       i.e., the output from the -h or -?  option.

       Lsof will never write to the system-wide device cache file path by
       default.  It must be explicitly named with a -D function in a
       root-owned procedure.  Once the file has been written, the procedure
       must change its permission modes to 0644 (owner-read and owner-write,
       group-read, and other-read).

PERSONAL DEVICE CACHE PATH (DEFAULT)         top

       The default device cache file path of the lsof distribution is one
       recorded in the home directory of the real UID that executes lsof.
       Added to the home directory is a second path component of the form
       .lsof_hostname.

       This is lsof's fourth device cache file path choice, and is usually
       the default.  If a system-wide device cache file path was defined
       when lsof was built, this fourth choice will be applied when lsof
       can't find the system-wide device cache file.  This is the only time
       lsof uses two paths when reading the device cache file.

       The hostname part of the second component is the base name of the
       executing host, as returned by gethostname(2).  The base name is
       defined to be the characters preceding the first `.'  in the
       gethostname(2) output, or all the gethostname(2) output if it
       contains no `.'.

       The device cache file belongs to the user ID and is readable and
       writable by the user ID alone - i.e., its modes are 0600.  Each
       distinct real user ID on a given host that executes lsof has a
       distinct device cache file.  The hostname part of the path
       distinguishes device cache files in an NFS-mounted home directory
       into which device cache files are written from several different
       hosts.

       The personal device cache file path formed by this method represents
       a device cache file that lsof will attempt to read, and will attempt
       to write should it not exist or should its contents be incorrect or
       outdated.

       The -Dr option without a path name argument will inhibit the writing
       of a new device cache file.

       The -D?  option will list the format specification for constructing
       the personal device cache file.  The conversions used in the format
       specification are described in the 00DCACHE file of the lsof
       distribution.

MODIFIED PERSONAL DEVICE CACHE PATH         top

       If this option is defined by the local system administrator when lsof
       is built, the LSOFPERSDCPATH environment variable contents may be
       used to add a component of the personal device cache file path.

       The LSOFPERSDCPATH variable contents are inserted in the path at the
       place marked by the local system administrator with the ``%p''
       conversion in the HASPERSDC format specification of the dialect's
       machine.h header file.  (It's placed right after the home directory
       in the default lsof distribution.)

       Thus, for example, if LSOFPERSDCPATH contains ``LSOF'', the home
       directory is ``/Homes/abe'', the host name is
       ``lsof.itap.purdue.edu'', and the HASPERSDC format is the default
       (``%h/%p.lsof_%L''), the modified personal device cache file path is:

            /Homes/abe/LSOF/.lsof_vic

       The LSOFPERSDCPATH environment variable is ignored when the lsof
       process is setuid-root or when the real UID of the process is root.

       Lsof will not write to a modified personal device cache file path if
       the lsof process doesn't surrender setgid permission.  (See the LSOF
       PERMISSIONS THAT AFFECT DEVICE CACHE FILE ACCESS section for a list
       of implementations that normally don't surrender their setgid
       permission.)

       If, for example, you want to create a sub-directory of personal
       device cache file paths by using the LSOFPERSDCPATH environment
       variable to name it, and lsof doesn't surrender its setgid
       permission, you will have to allow lsof to create device cache files
       at the standard personal path and move them to your subdirectory with
       shell commands.

       The local system administrator may: disable this option when lsof is
       built; change the name of the environment variable from
       LSOFPERSDCPATH to something else; change the HASPERSDC format to
       include the personal path component in another place; or exclude the
       personal path component entirely.  Consult the output of the -D?
       option for the environment variable's name and the HASPERSDC format
       specification.

DIAGNOSTICS         top

       Errors are identified with messages on the standard error file.

       Lsof returns a one (1) if any error was detected, including the
       failure to locate command names, file names, Internet addresses or
       files, login names, NFS files, PIDs, PGIDs, or UIDs it was asked to
       list.  If the -V option is specified, lsof will indicate the search
       items it failed to list.

       It returns a zero (0) if no errors were detected and if it was able
       to list some information about all the specified search arguments.

       When lsof cannot open access to /dev (or /devices) or one of its
       subdirectories, or get information on a file in them with stat(2), it
       issues a warning message and continues.  That lsof will issue warning
       messages about inaccessible files in /dev (or /devices) is indicated
       in its help output - requested with the -h or >B -?  options -  with
       the message:

            Inaccessible /dev warnings are enabled.

       The warning message may be suppressed with the -w option.  It may
       also have been suppressed by the system administrator when lsof was
       compiled by the setting of the WARNDEVACCESS definition.  In this
       case, the output from the help options will include the message:

            Inaccessible /dev warnings are disabled.

       Inaccessible device warning messages usually disappear after lsof has
       created a working device cache file.

EXAMPLES         top

       For a more extensive set of examples, documented more fully, see the
       00QUICKSTART file of the lsof distribution.

       To list all open files, use:

              lsof

       To list all open Internet, x.25 (HP-UX), and UNIX domain files, use:

              lsof -i -U

       To list all open IPv4 network files in use by the process whose PID
       is 1234, use:

              lsof -i 4 -a -p 1234

       Presuming the UNIX dialect supports IPv6, to list only open IPv6
       network files, use:

              lsof -i 6

       To list all files using any protocol on ports 513, 514, or 515 of
       host wonderland.cc.purdue.edu, use:

              lsof -i @wonderland.cc.purdue.edu:513-515

       To list all files using any protocol on any port of
       mace.cc.purdue.edu (cc.purdue.edu is the default domain), use:

              lsof -i @mace

       To list all open files for login name ``abe'', or user ID 1234, or
       process 456, or process 123, or process 789, use:

              lsof -p 456,123,789 -u 1234,abe

       To list all open files on device /dev/hd4, use:

              lsof /dev/hd4

       To find the process that has /u/abe/foo open, use:

              lsof /u/abe/foo

       To send a SIGHUP to the processes that have /u/abe/bar open, use:

              kill -HUP `lsof -t /u/abe/bar`

       To find any open file, including an open UNIX domain socket file,
       with the name /dev/log, use:

              lsof /dev/log

       To find processes with open files on the NFS file system named
       /nfs/mount/point whose server is inaccessible, and presuming your
       mount table supplies the device number for /nfs/mount/point, use:

              lsof -b /nfs/mount/point

       To do the preceding search with warning messages suppressed, use:

              lsof -bw /nfs/mount/point

       To ignore the device cache file, use:

              lsof -Di

       To obtain PID and command name field output for each process, file
       descriptor, file device number, and file inode number for each file
       of each process, use:

              lsof -FpcfDi

       To list the files at descriptors 1 and 3 of every process running the
       lsof command for login ID ``abe'' every 10 seconds, use:

              lsof -c lsof -a -d 1 -d 3 -u abe -r10

       To list the current working directory of processes running a command
       that is exactly four characters long and has an 'o' or 'O' in
       character three, use this regular expression form of the -c c option:

              lsof -c /^..o.$/i -a -d cwd

       To find an IP version 4 socket file by its associated numeric
       dot-form address, use:

              lsof -i@128.210.15.17

       To find an IP version 6 socket file (when the UNIX dialect supports
       IPv6) by its associated numeric colon-form address, use:

              lsof -i@[0:1:2:3:4:5:6:7]

       To find an IP version 6 socket file (when the UNIX dialect supports
       IPv6) by an associated numeric colon-form address that has a run of
       zeroes in it - e.g., the loop-back address - use:

              lsof -i@[::1]

       To obtain a repeat mode marker line that contains the current time,
       use:

              lsof -rm====%T====

       To add spaces to the previous marker line, use:

              lsof -r "m==== %T ===="

BUGS         top

       Since lsof reads kernel memory in its search for open files, rapid
       changes in kernel memory may produce unpredictable results.

       When a file has multiple record locks, the lock status character
       (following the file descriptor) is derived from a test of the first
       lock structure, not from any combination of the individual record
       locks that might be described by multiple lock structures.

       Lsof can't search for files with restrictive access permissions by
       name unless it is installed with root set-UID permission.  Otherwise
       it is limited to searching for files to which its user or its set-GID
       group (if any) has access permission.

       The display of the destination address of a raw socket (e.g., for
       ping) depends on the UNIX operating system.  Some dialects store the
       destination address in the raw socket's protocol control block, some
       do not.

       Lsof can't always represent Solaris device numbers in the same way
       that ls(1) does.  For example, the major and minor device numbers
       that the lstat(2) and stat(2) functions report for the directory on
       which CD-ROM files are mounted (typically /cdrom) are not the same as
       the ones that it reports for the device on which CD-ROM files are
       mounted (typically /dev/sr0).  (Lsof reports the directory numbers.)

       The support for /proc file systems is available only for BSD and
       Tru64 UNIX dialects, Linux, and dialects derived from SYSV R4 - e.g.,
       FreeBSD, NetBSD, OpenBSD, Solaris, UnixWare.

       Some /proc file items - device number, inode number, and file size -
       are unavailable in some dialects.  Searching for files in a /proc
       file system may require that the full path name be specified.

       No text (txt) file descriptors are displayed for Linux processes.
       All entries for files other than the current working directory, the
       root directory, and numerical file descriptors are labeled mem
       descriptors.

       Lsof can't search for Tru64 UNIX named pipes by name, because their
       kernel implementation of lstat(2) returns an improper device number
       for a named pipe.

       Lsof can't report fully or correctly on HP-UX 9.01, 10.20, and 11.00
       locks because of insufficient access to kernel data or errors in the
       kernel data.  See the lsof FAQ (The FAQ section gives its location.)
       for details.

       The AIX SMT file type is a fabrication.  It's made up for file
       structures whose type (15) isn't defined in the AIX
       /usr/include/sys/file.h header file.  One way to create such file
       structures is to run X clients with the DISPLAY variable set to
       ``:0.0''.

       The +|-f[cfgGn] option is not supported under /proc-based Linux lsof,
       because it doesn't read kernel structures from kernel memory.

ENVIRONMENT         top

       Lsof may access these environment variables.

       LANG              defines a language locale.  See setlocale(3) for
                         the names of other variables that can be used in
                         place of LANG - e.g., LC_ALL, LC_TYPE, etc.

       LSOFDEVCACHE      defines the path to a device cache file.  See the
                         DEVICE CACHE PATH FROM AN ENVIRONMENT VARIABLE
                         section for more information.

       LSOFPERSDCPATH    defines the middle component of a modified personal
                         device cache file path.  See the MODIFIED PERSONAL
                         DEVICE CACHE PATH section for more information.

FAQ         top

       Frequently-asked questions and their answers (an FAQ) are available
       in the 00FAQ file of the lsof distribution.

       That file is also available via anonymous ftp from
       lsof.itap.purdue.edu at pub/tools/unix/lsofFAQ.  The URL is:

              ftp://lsof.itap.purdue.edu/pub/tools/unix/lsof/FAQ

FILES         top

       /dev/kmem         kernel virtual memory device

       /dev/mem          physical memory device

       /dev/swap         system paging device

       .lsof_hostname    lsof's device cache file (The suffix, hostname, is
                         the first component of the host's name returned by
                         gethostname(2).)

AUTHORS         top

       Lsof was written by Victor A.Abell <abe@purdue.edu> of Purdue
       University.  Many others have contributed to lsof.  They're listed in
       the 00CREDITS file of the lsof distribution.

DISTRIBUTION         top

       The latest distribution of lsof is available via anonymous ftp from
       the host lsof.itap.purdue.edu.  You'll find the lsof distribution in
       the pub/tools/unix/lsof directory.

       You can also use this URL:

              ftp://lsof.itap.purdue.edu/pub/tools/unix/lsof

       Lsof is also mirrored elsewhere.  When you access
       lsof.itap.purdue.edu and change to its pub/tools/unix/lsof directory,
       you'll be given a list of some mirror sites.  The pub/tools/unix/lsof
       directory also contains a more complete list in its mirrors file.
       Use mirrors with caution - not all mirrors always have the latest
       lsof revision.

       Some pre-compiled Lsof executables are available on
       lsof.itap.purdue.edu, but their use is discouraged - it's better that
       you build your own from the sources.  If you feel you must use a
       pre-compiled executable, please read the cautions that appear in the
       README files of the pub/tools/unix/lsof/binaries subdirectories and
       in the 00* files of the distribution.

       More information on the lsof distribution can be found in its
       README.lsof_<version> file.  If you intend to get the lsof
       distribution and build it, please read README.lsof_<version> and the
       other 00* files of the distribution before sending questions to the
       author.

SEE ALSO         top

       Not all the following manual pages may exist in every UNIX dialect to
       which lsof has been ported.

       access(2), awk(1), crash(1), fattach(3C), ff(1), fstat(8), fuser(1),
       gethostname(2), isprint(3), kill(1), localtime(3), lstat(2),
       modload(8), mount(8), netstat(1), ofiles(8L), perl(1), ps(1),
       readlink(2), setlocale(3), stat(2), strftime(3), time(2), uname(1).

COLOPHON         top

       This page is part of the lsof (LiSt Open Files) project.  Information
       about the project can be found at ⟨http://people.freebsd.org/~abe/⟩.
       If you have a bug report for this manual page, send it to
       abe@purdue.edu.  This page was obtained from the tarball
       lsof_4.89_src.tar fetched from 
       ⟨ftp://ftp.fu-berlin.de/pub/unix/tools/lsof/lsof.tar.gz⟩ on
       2017-09-15.  If you discover any rendering problems in this HTML ver‐
       sion of the page, or you believe there is a better or more up-to-date
       source for the page, or you have corrections or improvements to the
       information in this COLOPHON (which is not part of the original man‐
       ual page), send a mail to man-pages@man7.org

                                Revision-4.89                        LSOF(8)

Pages that refer to this page: fuser(1)csysdig(8)sysdig(8)