sudoreplay(8) — Linux manual page


SUDOREPLAY(8)          BSD System Manager's Manual         SUDOREPLAY(8)

NAME         top

     sudoreplay — replay sudo session logs

SYNOPSIS         top

     sudoreplay [-FhnRS] [-d dir] [-f filter] [-m num] [-s num]

     sudoreplay [-h] [-d dir] -l [search expression]

DESCRIPTION         top

     sudoreplay plays back or lists the output logs created by sudo.
     When replaying, sudoreplay can play the session back in real-time,
     or the playback speed may be adjusted (faster or slower) based on
     the command line options.

     The ID should either be a six character sequence of digits and
     upper case letters, e.g., “0100A5” or a path name.  The ID may
     include an optional @offset suffix which may be used to start
     replaying at a specific time offset.  The @offset is specified as a
     number in seconds since the start of the session with an optional
     decimal fraction.

     Path names may be relative to the I/O log directory
     /var/log/sudo-io (unless overridden by the -d option) or fully
     qualified, beginning with a ‘/’ character.  When a command is run
     via sudo with log_output enabled in the sudoers file, a “TSID=ID”
     string is logged via syslog(3) or to the sudo log file.  The ID may
     also be determined using sudoreplay's list mode.

     In list mode, sudoreplay can be used to find the ID of a session
     based on a number of criteria such as the user, tty, or command

     In replay mode, if the standard input and output are connected to a
     terminal and the -n option is not specified, sudoreplay will
     operate interactively.  In interactive mode, sudoreplay will
     attempt to adjust the terminal size to match that of the session
     and write directly to the terminal (not all terminals support
     this).  Additionally, it will poll the keyboard and act on the
     following keys:

     ‘\n’ or ‘\r’  Skip to the next replay event; useful for long

     ‘ ’ (space)   Pause output; press any key to resume.

     ‘<’           Reduce the playback speed by one half.

     ‘>’           Double the playback speed.

     The session can be interrupted via control-C.  When the session has
     finished, the terminal is restored to its original size if it was
     changed during playback.

     The options are as follows:

     -d dir, --directory=dir
                 Store session logs in dir instead of the default,

     -f filter, --filter=filter
                 Select which I/O type(s) to display.  By default,
                 sudoreplay will display the command's standard output,
                 standard error, and tty output.  The filter argument is
                 a comma-separated list, consisting of one or more of
                 following: stdin, stdout, stderr, ttyin, and ttyout.

     -F, --follow
                 Enable “follow mode”.  When replaying a session,
                 sudoreplay will ignore end-of-file and keep replaying
                 until the log is complete.  This can be used to replay
                 a session that is still in progress, similar to “tail
                 -f”.  An I/O log file is considered to be complete when
                 the write bits have been cleared on the session's
                 timing file.  Versions of sudo prior to 1.9.1 do not
                 clear the write bits upon completion.

     -h, --help  Display a short help message to the standard output and

     -l, --list [search expression]
                 Enable “list mode”.  In this mode, sudoreplay will list
                 available sessions in a format similar to the sudo log
                 file format, sorted by file name (or sequence number).
                 If a search expression is specified, it will be used to
                 restrict the IDs that are displayed.  An expression is
                 composed of the following predicates:

                 command pattern
                         Evaluates to true if the command run matches
                         the POSIX extended regular expression pattern.

                 cwd directory
                         Evaluates to true if the command was run with
                         the specified current working directory.

                 fromdate date
                         Evaluates to true if the command was run on or
                         after date.  See Date and time format for a
                         description of supported date and time formats.

                 group runas_group
                         Evaluates to true if the command was run with
                         the specified runas_group.  Unless a
                         runas_group was explicitly specified when sudo
                         was run this field will be empty in the log.

                 host hostname
                         Evaluates to true if the command was run on the
                         specified hostname.

                 runas runas_user
                         Evaluates to true if the command was run as the
                         specified runas_user.  By default, sudo runs
                         commands as the root user.

                 todate date
                         Evaluates to true if the command was run on or
                         prior to date.  See Date and time format for a
                         description of supported date and time formats.

                 tty tty name
                         Evaluates to true if the command was run on the
                         specified terminal device.  The tty name should
                         be specified without the /dev/ prefix, e.g.,
                         tty01 instead of /dev/tty01.

                 user user name
                         Evaluates to true if the ID matches a command
                         run by user name.

                 Predicates may be abbreviated to the shortest unique

                 Predicates may be combined using and, or, and !
                 operators as well as ‘(’ and ‘)’ grouping (parentheses
                 must generally be escaped from the shell).  The and
                 operator is optional, adjacent predicates have an
                 implied and unless separated by an or.

     -m, --max-wait max_wait
                 Specify an upper bound on how long to wait between key
                 presses or output data.  By default, sudoreplay will
                 accurately reproduce the delays between key presses or
                 program output.  However, this can be tedious when the
                 session includes long pauses.  When the -m option is
                 specified, sudoreplay will limit these pauses to at
                 most max_wait seconds.  The value may be specified as a
                 floating point number, e.g., 2.5.  A max_wait of zero
                 or less will eliminate the pauses entirely.

     -n, --non-interactive
                 Do not prompt for user input or attempt to re-size the
                 terminal.  The session is written to the standard
                 output, not directly to the user's terminal.

     -R, --no-resize
                 Do not attempt to re-size the terminal to match the
                 terminal size of the session.

     -S, --suspend-wait
                 Wait while the command was suspended.  By default,
                 sudoreplay will ignore the time interval between when
                 the command was suspended and when it was resumed.  If
                 the -S option is specified, sudoreplay will wait

     -s, --speed speed_factor
                 This option causes sudoreplay to adjust the number of
                 seconds it will wait between key presses or program
                 output.  This can be used to slow down or speed up the
                 display.  For example, a speed_factor of 2 would make
                 the output twice as fast whereas a speed_factor of .5
                 would make the output twice as slow.

     -V, --version
                 Print the sudoreplay versions version number and exit.

   Date and time format
     The time and date may be specified multiple ways, common formats

     HH:MM:SS am MM/DD/CCYY timezone
             24 hour time may be used in place of am/pm.

     HH:MM:SS am Month, Day Year timezone
             24 hour time may be used in place of am/pm, and month and
             day names may be abbreviated.  Month and day of the week
             names must be specified in English.

             ISO time format

     DD Month CCYY HH:MM:SS
             The month name may be abbreviated.

     Either time or date may be omitted, the am/pm and timezone are
     optional.  If no date is specified, the current day is assumed; if
     no time is specified, the first second of the specified date is
     used.  The less significant parts of both time and date may also be
     omitted, in which case zero is assumed.

     The following are all valid time and date specifications:

     now     The current time and date.

             Exactly one day from now.

             24 hours ago.

     2 hours ago
             2 hours ago.

     next Friday
             The first second of the Friday in the next (upcoming) week.
             Not to be confused with “this Friday” which would match the
             Friday of the current week.

     last week
             The current time but 7 days ago.  This is equivalent to “a
             week ago”.

     a fortnight ago
             The current time but 14 days ago.

     10:01 am 9/17/2009
             10:01 am, September 17, 2009.

     10:01 am
             10:01 am on the current day.

     10      10:00 am on the current day.

             00:00 am, September 17, 2009.

     10:01 am Sep 17, 2009
             10:01 am, September 17, 2009.

     Relative time specifications do not always work as expected.  For
     example, the “next” qualifier is intended to be used in conjunction
     with a day such as “next Monday”.  When used with units of weeks,
     months, years, etc the result will be one more than expected.  For
     example, “next week” will result in a time exactly two weeks from
     now, which is probably not what was intended.  This will be
     addressed in a future version of sudoreplay.

   Debugging sudoreplay
     sudoreplay versions 1.8.4 and higher support a flexible debugging
     framework that is configured via Debug lines in the sudo.conf(5)

     For more information on configuring sudo.conf(5), refer to its

FILES         top

     /etc/sudo.conf            Debugging framework configuration

     /var/log/sudo-io          The default I/O log directory.

                               Example session log info.

                               Example session log info (JSON format).

                               Example session standard input log.

                               Example session standard output log.

                               Example session standard error log.

                               Example session tty input file.

                               Example session tty output file.

                               Example session timing file.

     The stdin, stdout and stderr files will be empty unless sudo was
     used as part of a pipeline for a particular command.

EXAMPLES         top

     List sessions run by user millert:

         # sudoreplay -l user millert

     List sessions run by user bob with a command containing the string

         # sudoreplay -l user bob command vi

     List sessions run by user jeff that match a regular expression:

         # sudoreplay -l user jeff command '/bin/[a-z]*sh'

     List sessions run by jeff or bob on the console:

         # sudoreplay -l ( user jeff or user bob ) tty console

SEE ALSO         top

     script(1), sudo.conf(5), sudo(8)

AUTHORS         top

     Many people have worked on sudo over the years; this version
     consists of code written primarily by:

           Todd C. Miller

     See the file in the sudo distribution
     ( for an exhaustive list of
     people who have contributed to sudo.

BUGS         top

     If you believe you have found a bug in sudoreplay, you can submit a
     bug report at

SUPPORT         top

     Limited free support is available via the sudo-users mailing list,
     see to subscribe or
     search the archives.

DISCLAIMER         top

     sudoreplay is provided “AS IS” and any express or implied
     warranties, including, but not limited to, the implied warranties
     of merchantability and fitness for a particular purpose are
     disclaimed.  See the file distributed with sudo or for complete details.

COLOPHON         top

     This page is part of the sudo (execute a command as another user)
     project.  Information about the project can be found at  If you have a bug report for this manual
     page, see ⟨⟩.  This page was obtained from
     the project's upstream Git repository
     ⟨⟩ on 2022-12-17.  (At that
     time, the date of the most recent commit that was found in the
     repository was 2022-12-15.)  If you discover any rendering problems
     in this HTML version of the page, or you believe there is a better
     or more up-to-date source for the page, or you have corrections or
     improvements to the information in this COLOPHON (which is not part
     of the original manual page), send a mail to

Sudo 1.9.12p1              September 13, 2022              Sudo 1.9.12p1