environment.d(5) — Linux manual page


ENVIRONMENT.D(5)                environment.d               ENVIRONMENT.D(5)

NAME         top

       environment.d - Definition of user session environment

SYNOPSIS         top






DESCRIPTION         top

       The environment.d directories contain a list of environment variable
       assignments for services started by the systemd user instance.
       systemd-environment-d-generator(8) parses them and updates the
       environment exported by the systemd user instance. See below for an
       discussion of which processes inherit those variables.

       It is recommended to use numerical prefixes for file names to
       simplify ordering.

       For backwards compatibility, a symlink to /etc/environment is
       installed, so this file is also parsed.


       Configuration files are read from directories in /etc/, /run/,
       /usr/local/lib/, and /usr/lib/, in order of precedence, as listed in
       the SYNOPSIS section above. Files must have the ".conf" extension.
       Files in /etc/ override files with the same name in /run/,
       /usr/local/lib/, and /usr/lib/. Files in /run/ override files with
       the same name under /usr/.

       All configuration files are sorted by their filename in lexicographic
       order, regardless of which of the directories they reside in. If
       multiple files specify the same option, the entry in the file with
       the lexicographically latest name will take precedence. Thus, the
       configuration in a certain file may either be replaced completely (by
       placing a file with the same name in a directory with higher
       priority), or individual settings might be changed (by specifying
       additional settings in a file with a different name that is ordered

       Packages should install their configuration files in /usr/lib/
       (distribution packages) or /usr/local/lib/ (local installs). Files in
       /etc/ are reserved for the local administrator, who may use this
       logic to override the configuration files installed by vendor
       packages. It is recommended to prefix all filenames with a two-digit
       number and a dash, to simplify the ordering of the files.

       If the administrator wants to disable a configuration file supplied
       by the vendor, the recommended way is to place a symlink to /dev/null
       in the configuration directory in /etc/, with the same filename as
       the vendor configuration file. If the vendor configuration file is
       included in the initrd image, the image has to be regenerated.


       The configuration files contain a list of "KEY=VALUE" environment
       variable assignments, separated by newlines. The right hand side of
       these assignments may reference previously defined environment
       variables, using the "${OTHER_KEY}" and "$OTHER_KEY" format. It is
       also possible to use "${FOO:-DEFAULT_VALUE}" to expand in the same
       way as "${FOO}" unless the expansion would be empty, in which case it
       expands to DEFAULT_VALUE, and use "${FOO:+ALTERNATE_VALUE}" to expand
       to ALTERNATE_VALUE as long as "${FOO}" would have expanded to a
       non-empty value. No other elements of shell syntax are supported.

       Each KEY must be a valid variable name. Empty lines and lines
       beginning with the comment character "#" are ignored.

       Example 1. Setup environment to allow access to a program installed
       in /opt/foo




       Environment variables exported by the user manager (systemd --user
       instance started in the user@uid.service system service) apply to any
       services started by that manager. In particular, this may include
       services which run user shells. For example in the Gnome environment,
       the graphical terminal emulator runs as the
       gnome-terminal-server.service user unit, which in turn runs the user
       shell, so that shell will inherit environment variables exported by
       the user manager. For other instances of the shell, not launched by
       the user manager, the environment they inherit is defined by the
       program that starts them. Hint: in general, systemd.service(5) units
       contain programs launched by systemd, and systemd.scope(5) units
       contain programs launched by something else.

       Specifically, for ssh logins, the sshd(8) service builds an
       environment that is a combination of variables forwarded from the
       remote system and defined by sshd, see the discussion in ssh(1). A
       graphical display session will have an analogous mechanism to define
       the environment. Note that some managers query the systemd user
       instance for the exported environment and inject this configuration
       into programs they start, using systemctl show-environment or the
       underlying D-Bus call.

SEE ALSO         top

       systemd(1), systemd-environment-d-generator(8),

COLOPHON         top

       This page is part of the systemd (systemd system and service manager)
       project.  Information about the project can be found at 
       ⟨http://www.freedesktop.org/wiki/Software/systemd⟩.  If you have a bug
       report for this manual page, see
       ⟨http://www.freedesktop.org/wiki/Software/systemd/#bugreports⟩.  This
       page was obtained from the project's upstream Git repository
       ⟨https://github.com/systemd/systemd.git⟩ on 2020-07-14.  (At that
       time, the date of the most recent commit that was found in the repos‐
       itory was 2020-07-14.)  If you discover any rendering problems in
       this HTML version of the page, or you believe there is a better or
       more up-to-date source for the page, or you have corrections or
       improvements to the information in this COLOPHON (which is not part
       of the original manual page), send a mail to man-pages@man7.org

systemd 246                                                 ENVIRONMENT.D(5)

Pages that refer to this page: 30-systemd-environment-d-generator(7)systemd.directives(7)systemd.index(7)30-systemd-environment-d-generator(8)systemd-environment-d-generator(8)