curs_printw(3x) — Linux manual page


curs_printw(3X)                                          curs_printw(3X)

NAME         top

       printw, wprintw, mvprintw, mvwprintw, vwprintw, vw_printw - print
       formatted output in curses windows

SYNOPSIS         top

       #include <curses.h>

       int printw(const char *fmt, ...);
       int wprintw(WINDOW *win, const char *fmt, ...);
       int mvprintw(int y, int x, const char *fmt, ...);
       int mvwprintw(WINDOW *win, int y, int x, const char *fmt, ...);
       int vw_printw(WINDOW *win, const char *fmt, va_list varglist);

       /* obsolete */
       int vwprintw(WINDOW *win, const char *fmt, va_list varglist);

DESCRIPTION         top

       The  printw,  wprintw, mvprintw and mvwprintw routines are analo‐
       gous to printf [see printf(3)].  In effect, the string that would
       be output by printf is output instead as though waddstr were used
       on the given window.

       The vwprintw and vw_printw routines are analogous to vprintf [see
       printf(3)] and perform a wprintw using a variable argument  list.
       The  third  argument  is  a va_list, a pointer to a list of argu‐
       ments, as defined in <stdarg.h>.

RETURN VALUE         top

       Routines that return an integer return ERR upon  failure  and  OK
       (SVr4 only specifies "an integer value other than ERR") upon suc‐
       cessful completion.

       X/Open  defines  no error conditions.  In this implementation, an
       error may be returned if it cannot allocate enough memory for the
       buffer used to format the results.  It will return  an  error  if
       the window pointer is null.

       Functions  with a “mv” prefix first perform a cursor movement us‐
       ing wmove, and return an error if the  position  is  outside  the
       window, or if the window pointer is null.

HISTORY         top

       While  printw was implemented in 4BSD, it was unused until 4.2BSD
       (which used it in games).  That early version of curses  was  be‐
       fore  the  ANSI  C  standard.  It did not use <varargs.h>, though
       that was available.  In 1991 (a couple of years  after  SVr4  was
       generally  available,  and  after  the C standard was published),
       other developers updated the library, using <stdarg.h> internally
       in 4.4BSD curses.  Even with this improvement, BSD curses did not
       use function prototypes (or even declare functions) in the <curs‐
       es.h> header until 1992.

       SVr2 documented printw, wprintw tersely as “printf on stdscr” and
       tersely as “printf on win”, respectively.

       SVr3 added mvprintw, and mvwprintw,  with  a  three-line  summary
       saying that they were analogous to printf(3), explaining that the
       string which would be output from printf(3) would instead be out‐
       put using waddstr on the given window.  SVr3 also added vwprintw,
       saying  that  the  third  parameter  is  a  va_list,  defined  in
       <varargs.h>, and referring the reader to  the  manual  pages  for
       varargs and vprintf for detailed descriptions.

       SVr4  added  no  new variations of printw, but provided for using
       <varargs.h> or <stdarg.h> to define the va_list type.

       X/Open Curses added vw_printw to replace vwprintw,  stating  that
       its va_list definition requires <stdarg.h>.

PORTABILITY         top

       In this implementation, vw_printw and vwprintw are equivalent, to
       support  legacy  applications.  However, the latter (vwprintw) is

       •   The XSI Curses standard, Issue 4 described these functions.
           The function vwprintw is marked TO BE WITHDRAWN, and is to be
           replaced by a function vw_printw using the <stdarg.h> inter‐

       •   The Single Unix Specification, Version 2 states that
           vw_printw  is preferred to vwprintw since the latter requires
           including <varargs.h>, which cannot be used in the same file
           as <stdarg.h>.  This implementation uses <stdarg.h> for both,
           because that header is included in <curses.h>.

       •   X/Open Curses, Issue 5 (December 2007) marked vwprintw (along
           with vwscanw and the termcap interface) as withdrawn.

SEE ALSO         top

       curses(3X), curs_addstr(3X), curs_scanw(3X), curs_termcap(3X),
       printf(3), vprintf(3).

COLOPHON         top

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