wget(1) — Linux manual page


WGET(1)                           GNU Wget                           WGET(1)

NAME         top

       Wget - The non-interactive network downloader.

SYNOPSIS         top

       wget [option]... [URL]...

DESCRIPTION         top

       GNU Wget is a free utility for non-interactive download of files from
       the Web.  It supports HTTP, HTTPS, and FTP protocols, as well as
       retrieval through HTTP proxies.

       Wget is non-interactive, meaning that it can work in the background,
       while the user is not logged on.  This allows you to start a
       retrieval and disconnect from the system, letting Wget finish the
       work.  By contrast, most of the Web browsers require constant user's
       presence, which can be a great hindrance when transferring a lot of

       Wget can follow links in HTML, XHTML, and CSS pages, to create local
       versions of remote web sites, fully recreating the directory
       structure of the original site.  This is sometimes referred to as
       "recursive downloading."  While doing that, Wget respects the Robot
       Exclusion Standard (/robots.txt).  Wget can be instructed to convert
       the links in downloaded files to point at the local files, for
       offline viewing.

       Wget has been designed for robustness over slow or unstable network
       connections; if a download fails due to a network problem, it will
       keep retrying until the whole file has been retrieved.  If the server
       supports regetting, it will instruct the server to continue the
       download from where it left off.

OPTIONS         top

   Option Syntax
       Since Wget uses GNU getopt to process command-line arguments, every
       option has a long form along with the short one.  Long options are
       more convenient to remember, but take time to type.  You may freely
       mix different option styles, or specify options after the command-
       line arguments.  Thus you may write:

               wget -r --tries=10 http://fly.srk.fer.hr/ -o log

       The space between the option accepting an argument and the argument
       may be omitted.  Instead of -o log you can write -olog.

       You may put several options that do not require arguments together,

               wget -drc <URL>

       This is completely equivalent to:

               wget -d -r -c <URL>

       Since the options can be specified after the arguments, you may
       terminate them with --.  So the following will try to download URL
       -x, reporting failure to log:

               wget -o log -- -x

       The options that accept comma-separated lists all respect the
       convention that specifying an empty list clears its value.  This can
       be useful to clear the .wgetrc settings.  For instance, if your
       .wgetrc sets "exclude_directories" to /cgi-bin, the following example
       will first reset it, and then set it to exclude /~nobody and
       /~somebody.  You can also clear the lists in .wgetrc.

               wget -X " -X /~nobody,/~somebody

       Most options that do not accept arguments are boolean options, so
       named because their state can be captured with a yes-or-no
       ("boolean") variable.  For example, --follow-ftp tells Wget to follow
       FTP links from HTML files and, on the other hand, --no-glob tells it
       not to perform file globbing on FTP URLs.  A boolean option is either
       affirmative or negative (beginning with --no).  All such options
       share several properties.

       Unless stated otherwise, it is assumed that the default behavior is
       the opposite of what the option accomplishes.  For example, the
       documented existence of --follow-ftp assumes that the default is to
       not follow FTP links from HTML pages.

       Affirmative options can be negated by prepending the --no- to the
       option name; negative options can be negated by omitting the --no-
       prefix.  This might seem superfluous---if the default for an
       affirmative option is to not do something, then why provide a way to
       explicitly turn it off?  But the startup file may in fact change the
       default.  For instance, using "follow_ftp = on" in .wgetrc makes Wget
       follow FTP links by default, and using --no-follow-ftp is the only
       way to restore the factory default from the command line.

   Basic Startup Options
           Display the version of Wget.

           Print a help message describing all of Wget's command-line

           Go to background immediately after startup.  If no output file is
           specified via the -o, output is redirected to wget-log.

       -e command
       --execute command
           Execute command as if it were a part of .wgetrc.  A command thus
           invoked will be executed after the commands in .wgetrc, thus
           taking precedence over them.  If you need to specify more than
           one wgetrc command, use multiple instances of -e.

   Logging and Input File Options
       -o logfile
           Log all messages to logfile.  The messages are normally reported
           to standard error.

       -a logfile
           Append to logfile.  This is the same as -o, only it appends to
           logfile instead of overwriting the old log file.  If logfile does
           not exist, a new file is created.

           Turn on debug output, meaning various information important to
           the developers of Wget if it does not work properly.  Your system
           administrator may have chosen to compile Wget without debug
           support, in which case -d will not work.  Please note that
           compiling with debug support is always safe---Wget compiled with
           the debug support will not print any debug info unless requested
           with -d.

           Turn off Wget's output.

           Turn on verbose output, with all the available data.  The default
           output is verbose.

           Turn off verbose without being completely quiet (use -q for
           that), which means that error messages and basic information
           still get printed.

           Output bandwidth as type.  The only accepted value is bits.

       -i file
           Read URLs from a local or external file.  If - is specified as
           file, URLs are read from the standard input.  (Use ./- to read
           from a file literally named -.)

           If this function is used, no URLs need be present on the command
           line.  If there are URLs both on the command line and in an input
           file, those on the command lines will be the first ones to be
           retrieved.  If --force-html is not specified, then file should
           consist of a series of URLs, one per line.

           However, if you specify --force-html, the document will be
           regarded as html.  In that case you may have problems with
           relative links, which you can solve either by adding "<base
           href="url">" to the documents or by specifying --base=url on the
           command line.

           If the file is an external one, the document will be
           automatically treated as html if the Content-Type matches
           text/html.  Furthermore, the file's location will be implicitly
           used as base href if none was specified.

           Downloads files covered in local Metalink file. Metalink version
           3 and 4 are supported.

           Keeps downloaded Metalink's files with a bad hash. It appends
           .badhash to the name of Metalink's files which have a checksum
           mismatch, except without overwriting existing files.

           Issues HTTP HEAD request instead of GET and extracts Metalink
           metadata from response headers. Then it switches to Metalink
           download.  If no valid Metalink metadata is found, it falls back
           to ordinary HTTP download.  Enables Content-Type:
           application/metalink4+xml files download/processing.

           Set the Metalink application/metalink4+xml metaurl ordinal
           NUMBER. From 1 to the total number of "application/metalink4+xml"
           available.  Specify 0 or inf to choose the first good one.
           Metaurls, such as those from a --metalink-over-http, may have
           been sorted by priority key's value; keep this in mind to choose
           the right NUMBER.

           Set preferred location for Metalink resources. This has effect if
           multiple resources with same priority are available.

           Enable use of file system's extended attributes to save the
           original URL and the Referer HTTP header value if used.

           Be aware that the URL might contain private information like
           access tokens or credentials.

           When input is read from a file, force it to be treated as an HTML
           file.  This enables you to retrieve relative links from existing
           HTML files on your local disk, by adding "<base href="url">" to
           HTML, or using the --base command-line option.

       -B URL
           Resolves relative links using URL as the point of reference, when
           reading links from an HTML file specified via the -i/--input-file
           option (together with --force-html, or when the input file was
           fetched remotely from a server describing it as HTML). This is
           equivalent to the presence of a "BASE" tag in the HTML input
           file, with URL as the value for the "href" attribute.

           For instance, if you specify http://foo/bar/a.html for URL, and
           Wget reads ../baz/b.html from the input file, it would be
           resolved to http://foo/baz/b.html .

           Specify the location of a startup file you wish to use instead of
           the default one(s). Use --no-config to disable reading of config
           files.  If both --config and --no-config are given, --no-config
           is ignored.

           Logs all URL rejections to logfile as comma separated values.
           The values include the reason of rejection, the URL and the
           parent URL it was found in.

   Download Options
           When making client TCP/IP connections, bind to ADDRESS on the
           local machine.  ADDRESS may be specified as a hostname or IP
           address.  This option can be useful if your machine is bound to
           multiple IPs.

           [libcares only] This address overrides the route for DNS
           requests. If you ever need to circumvent the standard settings
           from /etc/resolv.conf, this option together with --dns-servers is
           your friend.  ADDRESS must be specified either as IPv4 or IPv6
           address.  Wget needs to be built with libcares for this option to
           be available.

           [libcares only] The given address(es) override the standard
           nameserver addresses,  e.g. as configured in /etc/resolv.conf.
           ADDRESSES may be specified either as IPv4 or IPv6 addresses,
           comma-separated.  Wget needs to be built with libcares for this
           option to be available.

       -t number
           Set number of tries to number. Specify 0 or inf for infinite
           retrying.  The default is to retry 20 times, with the exception
           of fatal errors like "connection refused" or "not found" (404),
           which are not retried.

       -O file
           The documents will not be written to the appropriate files, but
           all will be concatenated together and written to file.  If - is
           used as file, documents will be printed to standard output,
           disabling link conversion.  (Use ./- to print to a file literally
           named -.)

           Use of -O is not intended to mean simply "use the name file
           instead of the one in the URL;" rather, it is analogous to shell
           redirection: wget -O file http://foo is intended to work like
           wget -O - http://foo > file; file will be truncated immediately,
           and all downloaded content will be written there.

           For this reason, -N (for timestamp-checking) is not supported in
           combination with -O: since file is always newly created, it will
           always have a very new timestamp. A warning will be issued if
           this combination is used.

           Similarly, using -r or -p with -O may not work as you expect:
           Wget won't just download the first file to file and then download
           the rest to their normal names: all downloaded content will be
           placed in file. This was disabled in version 1.11, but has been
           reinstated (with a warning) in 1.11.2, as there are some cases
           where this behavior can actually have some use.

           A combination with -nc is only accepted if the given output file
           does not exist.

           Note that a combination with -k is only permitted when
           downloading a single document, as in that case it will just
           convert all relative URIs to external ones; -k makes no sense for
           multiple URIs when they're all being downloaded to a single file;
           -k can be used only when the output is a regular file.

           If a file is downloaded more than once in the same directory,
           Wget's behavior depends on a few options, including -nc.  In
           certain cases, the local file will be clobbered, or overwritten,
           upon repeated download.  In other cases it will be preserved.

           When running Wget without -N, -nc, -r, or -p, downloading the
           same file in the same directory will result in the original copy
           of file being preserved and the second copy being named file.1.
           If that file is downloaded yet again, the third copy will be
           named file.2, and so on.  (This is also the behavior with -nd,
           even if -r or -p are in effect.)  When -nc is specified, this
           behavior is suppressed, and Wget will refuse to download newer
           copies of file.  Therefore, ""no-clobber"" is actually a misnomer
           in this mode---it's not clobbering that's prevented (as the
           numeric suffixes were already preventing clobbering), but rather
           the multiple version saving that's prevented.

           When running Wget with -r or -p, but without -N, -nd, or -nc, re-
           downloading a file will result in the new copy simply overwriting
           the old.  Adding -nc will prevent this behavior, instead causing
           the original version to be preserved and any newer copies on the
           server to be ignored.

           When running Wget with -N, with or without -r or -p, the decision
           as to whether or not to download a newer copy of a file depends
           on the local and remote timestamp and size of the file.  -nc may
           not be specified at the same time as -N.

           A combination with -O/--output-document is only accepted if the
           given output file does not exist.

           Note that when -nc is specified, files with the suffixes .html or
           .htm will be loaded from the local disk and parsed as if they had
           been retrieved from the Web.

           Before (over)writing a file, back up an existing file by adding a
           .1 suffix (_1 on VMS) to the file name.  Such backup files are
           rotated to .2, .3, and so on, up to backups (and lost beyond

           Do not try to obtain credentials from .netrc file. By default
           .netrc file is searched for credentials in case none have been
           passed on command line and authentication is required.

           Continue getting a partially-downloaded file.  This is useful
           when you want to finish up a download started by a previous
           instance of Wget, or by another program.  For instance:

                   wget -c ftp://sunsite.doc.ic.ac.uk/ls-lR.Z

           If there is a file named ls-lR.Z in the current directory, Wget
           will assume that it is the first portion of the remote file, and
           will ask the server to continue the retrieval from an offset
           equal to the length of the local file.

           Note that you don't need to specify this option if you just want
           the current invocation of Wget to retry downloading a file should
           the connection be lost midway through.  This is the default
           behavior.  -c only affects resumption of downloads started prior
           to this invocation of Wget, and whose local files are still
           sitting around.

           Without -c, the previous example would just download the remote
           file to ls-lR.Z.1, leaving the truncated ls-lR.Z file alone.

           If you use -c on a non-empty file, and the server does not
           support continued downloading, Wget will restart the download
           from scratch and overwrite the existing file entirely.

           Beginning with Wget 1.7, if you use -c on a file which is of
           equal size as the one on the server, Wget will refuse to download
           the file and print an explanatory message.  The same happens when
           the file is smaller on the server than locally (presumably
           because it was changed on the server since your last download
           attempt)---because "continuing" is not meaningful, no download

           On the other side of the coin, while using -c, any file that's
           bigger on the server than locally will be considered an
           incomplete download and only "(length(remote) - length(local))"
           bytes will be downloaded and tacked onto the end of the local
           file.  This behavior can be desirable in certain cases---for
           instance, you can use wget -c to download just the new portion
           that's been appended to a data collection or log file.

           However, if the file is bigger on the server because it's been
           changed, as opposed to just appended to, you'll end up with a
           garbled file.  Wget has no way of verifying that the local file
           is really a valid prefix of the remote file.  You need to be
           especially careful of this when using -c in conjunction with -r,
           since every file will be considered as an "incomplete download"

           Another instance where you'll get a garbled file if you try to
           use -c is if you have a lame HTTP proxy that inserts a "transfer
           interrupted" string into the local file.  In the future a
           "rollback" option may be added to deal with this case.

           Note that -c only works with FTP servers and with HTTP servers
           that support the "Range" header.

           Start downloading at zero-based position OFFSET.  Offset may be
           expressed in bytes, kilobytes with the `k' suffix, or megabytes
           with the `m' suffix, etc.

           --start-pos has higher precedence over --continue.  When
           --start-pos and --continue are both specified, wget will emit a
           warning then proceed as if --continue was absent.

           Server support for continued download is required, otherwise
           --start-pos cannot help.  See -c for details.

           Select the type of the progress indicator you wish to use.  Legal
           indicators are "dot" and "bar".

           The "bar" indicator is used by default.  It draws an ASCII
           progress bar graphics (a.k.a "thermometer" display) indicating
           the status of retrieval.  If the output is not a TTY, the "dot"
           bar will be used by default.

           Use --progress=dot to switch to the "dot" display.  It traces the
           retrieval by printing dots on the screen, each dot representing a
           fixed amount of downloaded data.

           The progress type can also take one or more parameters.  The
           parameters vary based on the type selected.  Parameters to type
           are passed by appending them to the type sperated by a colon (:)
           like this: --progress=type:parameter1:parameter2.

           When using the dotted retrieval, you may set the style by
           specifying the type as dot:style.  Different styles assign
           different meaning to one dot.  With the "default" style each dot
           represents 1K, there are ten dots in a cluster and 50 dots in a
           line.  The "binary" style has a more "computer"-like
           orientation---8K dots, 16-dots clusters and 48 dots per line
           (which makes for 384K lines).  The "mega" style is suitable for
           downloading large files---each dot represents 64K retrieved,
           there are eight dots in a cluster, and 48 dots on each line (so
           each line contains 3M).  If "mega" is not enough then you can use
           the "giga" style---each dot represents 1M retrieved, there are
           eight dots in a cluster, and 32 dots on each line (so each line
           contains 32M).

           With --progress=bar, there are currently two possible parameters,
           force and noscroll.

           When the output is not a TTY, the progress bar always falls back
           to "dot", even if --progress=bar was passed to Wget during
           invocation. This behaviour can be overridden and the "bar" output
           forced by using the "force" parameter as --progress=bar:force.

           By default, the bar style progress bar scroll the name of the
           file from left to right for the file being downloaded if the
           filename exceeds the maximum length allotted for its display.  In
           certain cases, such as with --progress=bar:force, one may not
           want the scrolling filename in the progress bar.  By passing the
           "noscroll" parameter, Wget can be forced to display as much of
           the filename as possible without scrolling through it.

           Note that you can set the default style using the "progress"
           command in .wgetrc.  That setting may be overridden from the
           command line.  For example, to force the bar output without
           scrolling, use --progress=bar:force:noscroll.

           Force wget to display the progress bar in any verbosity.

           By default, wget only displays the progress bar in verbose mode.
           One may however, want wget to display the progress bar on screen
           in conjunction with any other verbosity modes like --no-verbose
           or --quiet.  This is often a desired a property when invoking
           wget to download several small/large files.  In such a case, wget
           could simply be invoked with this parameter to get a much cleaner
           output on the screen.

           This option will also force the progress bar to be printed to
           stderr when used alongside the --output-file option.

           Turn on time-stamping.

           Do not send If-Modified-Since header in -N mode. Send preliminary
           HEAD request instead. This has only effect in -N mode.

           Don't set the local file's timestamp by the one on the server.

           By default, when a file is downloaded, its timestamps are set to
           match those from the remote file. This allows the use of
           --timestamping on subsequent invocations of wget. However, it is
           sometimes useful to base the local file's timestamp on when it
           was actually downloaded; for that purpose, the
           --no-use-server-timestamps option has been provided.

           Print the headers sent by HTTP servers and responses sent by FTP

           When invoked with this option, Wget will behave as a Web spider,
           which means that it will not download the pages, just check that
           they are there.  For example, you can use Wget to check your

                   wget --spider --force-html -i bookmarks.html

           This feature needs much more work for Wget to get close to the
           functionality of real web spiders.

       -T seconds
           Set the network timeout to seconds seconds.  This is equivalent
           to specifying --dns-timeout, --connect-timeout, and
           --read-timeout, all at the same time.

           When interacting with the network, Wget can check for timeout and
           abort the operation if it takes too long.  This prevents
           anomalies like hanging reads and infinite connects.  The only
           timeout enabled by default is a 900-second read timeout.  Setting
           a timeout to 0 disables it altogether.  Unless you know what you
           are doing, it is best not to change the default timeout settings.

           All timeout-related options accept decimal values, as well as
           subsecond values.  For example, 0.1 seconds is a legal (though
           unwise) choice of timeout.  Subsecond timeouts are useful for
           checking server response times or for testing network latency.

           Set the DNS lookup timeout to seconds seconds.  DNS lookups that
           don't complete within the specified time will fail.  By default,
           there is no timeout on DNS lookups, other than that implemented
           by system libraries.

           Set the connect timeout to seconds seconds.  TCP connections that
           take longer to establish will be aborted.  By default, there is
           no connect timeout, other than that implemented by system

           Set the read (and write) timeout to seconds seconds.  The "time"
           of this timeout refers to idle time: if, at any point in the
           download, no data is received for more than the specified number
           of seconds, reading fails and the download is restarted.  This
           option does not directly affect the duration of the entire

           Of course, the remote server may choose to terminate the
           connection sooner than this option requires.  The default read
           timeout is 900 seconds.

           Limit the download speed to amount bytes per second.  Amount may
           be expressed in bytes, kilobytes with the k suffix, or megabytes
           with the m suffix.  For example, --limit-rate=20k will limit the
           retrieval rate to 20KB/s.  This is useful when, for whatever
           reason, you don't want Wget to consume the entire available

           This option allows the use of decimal numbers, usually in
           conjunction with power suffixes; for example, --limit-rate=2.5k
           is a legal value.

           Note that Wget implements the limiting by sleeping the
           appropriate amount of time after a network read that took less
           time than specified by the rate.  Eventually this strategy causes
           the TCP transfer to slow down to approximately the specified
           rate.  However, it may take some time for this balance to be
           achieved, so don't be surprised if limiting the rate doesn't work
           well with very small files.

       -w seconds
           Wait the specified number of seconds between the retrievals.  Use
           of this option is recommended, as it lightens the server load by
           making the requests less frequent.  Instead of in seconds, the
           time can be specified in minutes using the "m" suffix, in hours
           using "h" suffix, or in days using "d" suffix.

           Specifying a large value for this option is useful if the network
           or the destination host is down, so that Wget can wait long
           enough to reasonably expect the network error to be fixed before
           the retry.  The waiting interval specified by this function is
           influenced by "--random-wait", which see.

           If you don't want Wget to wait between every retrieval, but only
           between retries of failed downloads, you can use this option.
           Wget will use linear backoff, waiting 1 second after the first
           failure on a given file, then waiting 2 seconds after the second
           failure on that file, up to the maximum number of seconds you

           By default, Wget will assume a value of 10 seconds.

           Some web sites may perform log analysis to identify retrieval
           programs such as Wget by looking for statistically significant
           similarities in the time between requests. This option causes the
           time between requests to vary between 0.5 and 1.5 * wait seconds,
           where wait was specified using the --wait option, in order to
           mask Wget's presence from such analysis.

           A 2001 article in a publication devoted to development on a
           popular consumer platform provided code to perform this analysis
           on the fly.  Its author suggested blocking at the class C address
           level to ensure automated retrieval programs were blocked despite
           changing DHCP-supplied addresses.

           The --random-wait option was inspired by this ill-advised
           recommendation to block many unrelated users from a web site due
           to the actions of one.

           Don't use proxies, even if the appropriate *_proxy environment
           variable is defined.

       -Q quota
           Specify download quota for automatic retrievals.  The value can
           be specified in bytes (default), kilobytes (with k suffix), or
           megabytes (with m suffix).

           Note that quota will never affect downloading a single file.  So
           if you specify wget -Q10k https://example.com/ls-lR.gz, all of
           the ls-lR.gz will be downloaded.  The same goes even when several
           URLs are specified on the command-line.  However, quota is
           respected when retrieving either recursively, or from an input
           file.  Thus you may safely type wget -Q2m -i sites---download
           will be aborted when the quota is exceeded.

           Setting quota to 0 or to inf unlimits the download quota.

           Turn off caching of DNS lookups.  Normally, Wget remembers the IP
           addresses it looked up from DNS so it doesn't have to repeatedly
           contact the DNS server for the same (typically small) set of
           hosts it retrieves from.  This cache exists in memory only; a new
           Wget run will contact DNS again.

           However, it has been reported that in some situations it is not
           desirable to cache host names, even for the duration of a short-
           running application like Wget.  With this option Wget issues a
           new DNS lookup (more precisely, a new call to "gethostbyname" or
           "getaddrinfo") each time it makes a new connection.  Please note
           that this option will not affect caching that might be performed
           by the resolving library or by an external caching layer, such as

           If you don't understand exactly what this option does, you
           probably won't need it.

           Change which characters found in remote URLs must be escaped
           during generation of local filenames.  Characters that are
           restricted by this option are escaped, i.e. replaced with %HH,
           where HH is the hexadecimal number that corresponds to the
           restricted character. This option may also be used to force all
           alphabetical cases to be either lower- or uppercase.

           By default, Wget escapes the characters that are not valid or
           safe as part of file names on your operating system, as well as
           control characters that are typically unprintable.  This option
           is useful for changing these defaults, perhaps because you are
           downloading to a non-native partition, or because you want to
           disable escaping of the control characters, or you want to
           further restrict characters to only those in the ASCII range of

           The modes are a comma-separated set of text values. The
           acceptable values are unix, windows, nocontrol, ascii, lowercase,
           and uppercase. The values unix and windows are mutually exclusive
           (one will override the other), as are lowercase and uppercase.
           Those last are special cases, as they do not change the set of
           characters that would be escaped, but rather force local file
           paths to be converted either to lower- or uppercase.

           When "unix" is specified, Wget escapes the character / and the
           control characters in the ranges 0--31 and 128--159.  This is the
           default on Unix-like operating systems.

           When "windows" is given, Wget escapes the characters \, |, /, :,
           ?, ", *, <, >, and the control characters in the ranges 0--31 and
           128--159.  In addition to this, Wget in Windows mode uses +
           instead of : to separate host and port in local file names, and
           uses @ instead of ? to separate the query portion of the file
           name from the rest.  Therefore, a URL that would be saved as
           www.xemacs.org:4300/search.pl?input=blah in Unix mode would be
           saved as www.xemacs.org+4300/search.pl@input=blah in Windows
           mode.  This mode is the default on Windows.

           If you specify nocontrol, then the escaping of the control
           characters is also switched off. This option may make sense when
           you are downloading URLs whose names contain UTF-8 characters, on
           a system which can save and display filenames in UTF-8 (some
           possible byte values used in UTF-8 byte sequences fall in the
           range of values designated by Wget as "controls").

           The ascii mode is used to specify that any bytes whose values are
           outside the range of ASCII characters (that is, greater than 127)
           shall be escaped. This can be useful when saving filenames whose
           encoding does not match the one used locally.

           Force connecting to IPv4 or IPv6 addresses.  With --inet4-only or
           -4, Wget will only connect to IPv4 hosts, ignoring AAAA records
           in DNS, and refusing to connect to IPv6 addresses specified in
           URLs.  Conversely, with --inet6-only or -6, Wget will only
           connect to IPv6 hosts and ignore A records and IPv4 addresses.

           Neither options should be needed normally.  By default, an
           IPv6-aware Wget will use the address family specified by the
           host's DNS record.  If the DNS responds with both IPv4 and IPv6
           addresses, Wget will try them in sequence until it finds one it
           can connect to.  (Also see "--prefer-family" option described

           These options can be used to deliberately force the use of IPv4
           or IPv6 address families on dual family systems, usually to aid
           debugging or to deal with broken network configuration.  Only one
           of --inet6-only and --inet4-only may be specified at the same
           time.  Neither option is available in Wget compiled without IPv6

           When given a choice of several addresses, connect to the
           addresses with specified address family first.  The address order
           returned by DNS is used without change by default.

           This avoids spurious errors and connect attempts when accessing
           hosts that resolve to both IPv6 and IPv4 addresses from IPv4
           networks.  For example, www.kame.net resolves to
           2001:200:0:8002:203:47ff:fea5:3085 and to  When
           the preferred family is "IPv4", the IPv4 address is used first;
           when the preferred family is "IPv6", the IPv6 address is used
           first; if the specified value is "none", the address order
           returned by DNS is used without change.

           Unlike -4 and -6, this option doesn't inhibit access to any
           address family, it only changes the order in which the addresses
           are accessed.  Also note that the reordering performed by this
           option is stable---it doesn't affect order of addresses of the
           same family.  That is, the relative order of all IPv4 addresses
           and of all IPv6 addresses remains intact in all cases.

           Consider "connection refused" a transient error and try again.
           Normally Wget gives up on a URL when it is unable to connect to
           the site because failure to connect is taken as a sign that the
           server is not running at all and that retries would not help.
           This option is for mirroring unreliable sites whose servers tend
           to disappear for short periods of time.

           Specify the username user and password password for both FTP and
           HTTP file retrieval.  These parameters can be overridden using
           the --ftp-user and --ftp-password options for FTP connections and
           the --http-user and --http-password options for HTTP connections.

           Prompt for a password for each connection established. Cannot be
           specified when --password is being used, because they are
           mutually exclusive.

           Prompt for a user and password using the specified command.  If
           no command is specified then the command in the environment
           variable WGET_ASKPASS is used.  If WGET_ASKPASS is not set then
           the command in the environment variable SSH_ASKPASS is used.

           You can set the default command for use-askpass in the .wgetrc.
           That setting may be overridden from the command line.

           Turn off internationalized URI (IRI) support. Use --iri to turn
           it on. IRI support is activated by default.

           You can set the default state of IRI support using the "iri"
           command in .wgetrc. That setting may be overridden from the
           command line.

           Force Wget to use encoding as the default system encoding. That
           affects how Wget converts URLs specified as arguments from locale
           to UTF-8 for IRI support.

           Wget use the function "nl_langinfo()" and then the "CHARSET"
           environment variable to get the locale. If it fails, ASCII is

           You can set the default local encoding using the "local_encoding"
           command in .wgetrc. That setting may be overridden from the
           command line.

           Force Wget to use encoding as the default remote server encoding.
           That affects how Wget converts URIs found in files from remote
           encoding to UTF-8 during a recursive fetch. This options is only
           useful for IRI support, for the interpretation of non-ASCII

           For HTTP, remote encoding can be found in HTTP "Content-Type"
           header and in HTML "Content-Type http-equiv" meta tag.

           You can set the default encoding using the "remoteencoding"
           command in .wgetrc. That setting may be overridden from the
           command line.

           Force Wget to unlink file instead of clobbering existing file.
           This option is useful for downloading to the directory with

   Directory Options
           Do not create a hierarchy of directories when retrieving
           recursively.  With this option turned on, all files will get
           saved to the current directory, without clobbering (if a name
           shows up more than once, the filenames will get extensions .n).

           The opposite of -nd---create a hierarchy of directories, even if
           one would not have been created otherwise.  E.g. wget -x
           http://fly.srk.fer.hr/robots.txt will save the downloaded file to

           Disable generation of host-prefixed directories.  By default,
           invoking Wget with -r http://fly.srk.fer.hr/ will create a
           structure of directories beginning with fly.srk.fer.hr/.  This
           option disables such behavior.

           Use the protocol name as a directory component of local file
           names.  For example, with this option, wget -r http://host will
           save to http/host/... rather than just to host/....

           Ignore number directory components.  This is useful for getting a
           fine-grained control over the directory where recursive retrieval
           will be saved.

           Take, for example, the directory at
           ftp://ftp.xemacs.org/pub/xemacs/.  If you retrieve it with -r, it
           will be saved locally under ftp.xemacs.org/pub/xemacs/.  While
           the -nH option can remove the ftp.xemacs.org/ part, you are still
           stuck with pub/xemacs.  This is where --cut-dirs comes in handy;
           it makes Wget not "see" number remote directory components.  Here
           are several examples of how --cut-dirs option works.

                   No options        -> ftp.xemacs.org/pub/xemacs/
                   -nH               -> pub/xemacs/
                   -nH --cut-dirs=1  -> xemacs/
                   -nH --cut-dirs=2  -> .

                   --cut-dirs=1      -> ftp.xemacs.org/xemacs/

           If you just want to get rid of the directory structure, this
           option is similar to a combination of -nd and -P.  However,
           unlike -nd, --cut-dirs does not lose with subdirectories---for
           instance, with -nH --cut-dirs=1, a beta/ subdirectory will be
           placed to xemacs/beta, as one would expect.

       -P prefix
           Set directory prefix to prefix.  The directory prefix is the
           directory where all other files and subdirectories will be saved
           to, i.e. the top of the retrieval tree.  The default is . (the
           current directory).

   HTTP Options
           Use name as the default file name when it isn't known (i.e., for
           URLs that end in a slash), instead of index.html.

           If a file of type application/xhtml+xml or text/html is
           downloaded and the URL does not end with the regexp
           \.[Hh][Tt][Mm][Ll]?, this option will cause the suffix .html to
           be appended to the local filename.  This is useful, for instance,
           when you're mirroring a remote site that uses .asp pages, but you
           want the mirrored pages to be viewable on your stock Apache
           server.  Another good use for this is when you're downloading
           CGI-generated materials.  A URL like
           http://site.com/article.cgi?25 will be saved as

           Note that filenames changed in this way will be re-downloaded
           every time you re-mirror a site, because Wget can't tell that the
           local X.html file corresponds to remote URL X (since it doesn't
           yet know that the URL produces output of type text/html or

           As of version 1.12, Wget will also ensure that any downloaded
           files of type text/css end in the suffix .css, and the option was
           renamed from --html-extension, to better reflect its new
           behavior. The old option name is still acceptable, but should now
           be considered deprecated.

           As of version 1.19.2, Wget will also ensure that any downloaded
           files with a "Content-Encoding" of br, compress, deflate or gzip
           end in the suffix .br, .Z, .zlib and .gz respectively.

           At some point in the future, this option may well be expanded to
           include suffixes for other types of content, including content
           types that are not parsed by Wget.

           Specify the username user and password password on an HTTP
           server.  According to the type of the challenge, Wget will encode
           them using either the "basic" (insecure), the "digest", or the
           Windows "NTLM" authentication scheme.

           Another way to specify username and password is in the URL
           itself.  Either method reveals your password to anyone who
           bothers to run "ps".  To prevent the passwords from being seen,
           use the --use-askpass or store them in .wgetrc or .netrc, and
           make sure to protect those files from other users with "chmod".
           If the passwords are really important, do not leave them lying in
           those files either---edit the files and delete them after Wget
           has started the download.

           Turn off the "keep-alive" feature for HTTP downloads.  Normally,
           Wget asks the server to keep the connection open so that, when
           you download more than one document from the same server, they
           get transferred over the same TCP connection.  This saves time
           and at the same time reduces the load on the server.

           This option is useful when, for some reason, persistent (keep-
           alive) connections don't work for you, for example due to a
           server bug or due to the inability of server-side scripts to cope
           with the connections.

           Disable server-side cache.  In this case, Wget will send the
           remote server appropriate directives (Cache-Control: no-cache and
           Pragma: no-cache) to get the file from the remote service, rather
           than returning the cached version. This is especially useful for
           retrieving and flushing out-of-date documents on proxy servers.

           Caching is allowed by default.

           Disable the use of cookies.  Cookies are a mechanism for
           maintaining server-side state.  The server sends the client a
           cookie using the "Set-Cookie" header, and the client responds
           with the same cookie upon further requests.  Since cookies allow
           the server owners to keep track of visitors and for sites to
           exchange this information, some consider them a breach of
           privacy.  The default is to use cookies; however, storing cookies
           is not on by default.

       --load-cookies file
           Load cookies from file before the first HTTP retrieval.  file is
           a textual file in the format originally used by Netscape's
           cookies.txt file.

           You will typically use this option when mirroring sites that
           require that you be logged in to access some or all of their
           content.  The login process typically works by the web server
           issuing an HTTP cookie upon receiving and verifying your
           credentials.  The cookie is then resent by the browser when
           accessing that part of the site, and so proves your identity.

           Mirroring such a site requires Wget to send the same cookies your
           browser sends when communicating with the site.  This is achieved
           by --load-cookies---simply point Wget to the location of the
           cookies.txt file, and it will send the same cookies your browser
           would send in the same situation.  Different browsers keep
           textual cookie files in different locations:

           "Netscape 4.x."
               The cookies are in ~/.netscape/cookies.txt.

           "Mozilla and Netscape 6.x."
               Mozilla's cookie file is also named cookies.txt, located
               somewhere under ~/.mozilla, in the directory of your profile.
               The full path usually ends up looking somewhat like

           "Internet Explorer."
               You can produce a cookie file Wget can use by using the File
               menu, Import and Export, Export Cookies.  This has been
               tested with Internet Explorer 5; it is not guaranteed to work
               with earlier versions.

           "Other browsers."
               If you are using a different browser to create your cookies,
               --load-cookies will only work if you can locate or produce a
               cookie file in the Netscape format that Wget expects.

           If you cannot use --load-cookies, there might still be an
           alternative.  If your browser supports a "cookie manager", you
           can use it to view the cookies used when accessing the site
           you're mirroring.  Write down the name and value of the cookie,
           and manually instruct Wget to send those cookies, bypassing the
           "official" cookie support:

                   wget --no-cookies --header "Cookie: <name>=<value>"

       --save-cookies file
           Save cookies to file before exiting.  This will not save cookies
           that have expired or that have no expiry time (so-called "session
           cookies"), but also see --keep-session-cookies.

           When specified, causes --save-cookies to also save session
           cookies.  Session cookies are normally not saved because they are
           meant to be kept in memory and forgotten when you exit the
           browser.  Saving them is useful on sites that require you to log
           in or to visit the home page before you can access some pages.
           With this option, multiple Wget runs are considered a single
           browser session as far as the site is concerned.

           Since the cookie file format does not normally carry session
           cookies, Wget marks them with an expiry timestamp of 0.  Wget's
           --load-cookies recognizes those as session cookies, but it might
           confuse other browsers.  Also note that cookies so loaded will be
           treated as other session cookies, which means that if you want
           --save-cookies to preserve them again, you must use
           --keep-session-cookies again.

           Unfortunately, some HTTP servers (CGI programs, to be more
           precise) send out bogus "Content-Length" headers, which makes
           Wget go wild, as it thinks not all the document was retrieved.
           You can spot this syndrome if Wget retries getting the same
           document again and again, each time claiming that the (otherwise
           normal) connection has closed on the very same byte.

           With this option, Wget will ignore the "Content-Length"
           header---as if it never existed.

           Send header-line along with the rest of the headers in each HTTP
           request.  The supplied header is sent as-is, which means it must
           contain name and value separated by colon, and must not contain

           You may define more than one additional header by specifying
           --header more than once.

                   wget --header='Accept-Charset: iso-8859-2' \
                        --header='Accept-Language: hr'        \

           Specification of an empty string as the header value will clear
           all previous user-defined headers.

           As of Wget 1.10, this option can be used to override headers
           otherwise generated automatically.  This example instructs Wget
           to connect to localhost, but to specify foo.bar in the "Host"

                   wget --header="Host: foo.bar" http://localhost/

           In versions of Wget prior to 1.10 such use of --header caused
           sending of duplicate headers.

           Choose the type of compression to be used.  Legal values are
           auto, gzip and none.

           If auto or gzip are specified, Wget asks the server to compress
           the file using the gzip compression format. If the server
           compresses the file and responds with the "Content-Encoding"
           header field set appropriately, the file will be decompressed

           If none is specified, wget will not ask the server to compress
           the file and will not decompress any server responses. This is
           the default.

           Compression support is currently experimental. In case it is
           turned on, please report any bugs to "bug-wget@gnu.org".

           Specifies the maximum number of redirections to follow for a
           resource.  The default is 20, which is usually far more than
           necessary. However, on those occasions where you want to allow
           more (or fewer), this is the option to use.

           Specify the username user and password password for
           authentication on a proxy server.  Wget will encode them using
           the "basic" authentication scheme.

           Security considerations similar to those with --http-password
           pertain here as well.

           Include `Referer: url' header in HTTP request.  Useful for
           retrieving documents with server-side processing that assume they
           are always being retrieved by interactive web browsers and only
           come out properly when Referer is set to one of the pages that
           point to them.

           Save the headers sent by the HTTP server to the file, preceding
           the actual contents, with an empty line as the separator.

       -U agent-string
           Identify as agent-string to the HTTP server.

           The HTTP protocol allows the clients to identify themselves using
           a "User-Agent" header field.  This enables distinguishing the WWW
           software, usually for statistical purposes or for tracing of
           protocol violations.  Wget normally identifies as Wget/version,
           version being the current version number of Wget.

           However, some sites have been known to impose the policy of
           tailoring the output according to the "User-Agent"-supplied
           information.  While this is not such a bad idea in theory, it has
           been abused by servers denying information to clients other than
           (historically) Netscape or, more frequently, Microsoft Internet
           Explorer.  This option allows you to change the "User-Agent" line
           issued by Wget.  Use of this option is discouraged, unless you
           really know what you are doing.

           Specifying empty user agent with --user-agent="" instructs Wget
           not to send the "User-Agent" header in HTTP requests.

           Use POST as the method for all HTTP requests and send the
           specified data in the request body.  --post-data sends string as
           data, whereas --post-file sends the contents of file.  Other than
           that, they work in exactly the same way. In particular, they both
           expect content of the form "key1=value1&key2=value2", with
           percent-encoding for special characters; the only difference is
           that one expects its content as a command-line parameter and the
           other accepts its content from a file. In particular, --post-file
           is not for transmitting files as form attachments: those must
           appear as "key=value" data (with appropriate percent-coding) just
           like everything else. Wget does not currently support
           "multipart/form-data" for transmitting POST data; only
           "application/x-www-form-urlencoded". Only one of --post-data and
           --post-file should be specified.

           Please note that wget does not require the content to be of the
           form "key1=value1&key2=value2", and neither does it test for it.
           Wget will simply transmit whatever data is provided to it. Most
           servers however expect the POST data to be in the above format
           when processing HTML Forms.

           When sending a POST request using the --post-file option, Wget
           treats the file as a binary file and will send every character in
           the POST request without stripping trailing newline or formfeed
           characters. Any other control characters in the text will also be
           sent as-is in the POST request.

           Please be aware that Wget needs to know the size of the POST data
           in advance.  Therefore the argument to "--post-file" must be a
           regular file; specifying a FIFO or something like /dev/stdin
           won't work.  It's not quite clear how to work around this
           limitation inherent in HTTP/1.0.  Although HTTP/1.1 introduces
           chunked transfer that doesn't require knowing the request length
           in advance, a client can't use chunked unless it knows it's
           talking to an HTTP/1.1 server.  And it can't know that until it
           receives a response, which in turn requires the request to have
           been completed -- a chicken-and-egg problem.

           Note: As of version 1.15 if Wget is redirected after the POST
           request is completed, its behaviour will depend on the response
           code returned by the server.  In case of a 301 Moved Permanently,
           302 Moved Temporarily or 307 Temporary Redirect, Wget will, in
           accordance with RFC2616, continue to send a POST request.  In
           case a server wants the client to change the Request method upon
           redirection, it should send a 303 See Other response code.

           This example shows how to log in to a server using POST and then
           proceed to download the desired pages, presumably only accessible
           to authorized users:

                   # Log in to the server.  This can be done only once.
                   wget --save-cookies cookies.txt \
                        --post-data 'user=foo&password=bar' \

                   # Now grab the page or pages we care about.
                   wget --load-cookies cookies.txt \
                        -p http://example.com/interesting/article.php

           If the server is using session cookies to track user
           authentication, the above will not work because --save-cookies
           will not save them (and neither will browsers) and the
           cookies.txt file will be empty.  In that case use
           --keep-session-cookies along with --save-cookies to force saving
           of session cookies.

           For the purpose of RESTful scripting, Wget allows sending of
           other HTTP Methods without the need to explicitly set them using
           --header=Header-Line.  Wget will use whatever string is passed to
           it after --method as the HTTP Method to the server.

           Must be set when additional data needs to be sent to the server
           along with the Method specified using --method.  --body-data
           sends string as data, whereas --body-file sends the contents of
           file.  Other than that, they work in exactly the same way.

           Currently, --body-file is not for transmitting files as a whole.
           Wget does not currently support "multipart/form-data" for
           transmitting data; only "application/x-www-form-urlencoded". In
           the future, this may be changed so that wget sends the
           --body-file as a complete file instead of sending its contents to
           the server. Please be aware that Wget needs to know the contents
           of BODY Data in advance, and hence the argument to --body-file
           should be a regular file. See --post-file for a more detailed
           explanation.  Only one of --body-data and --body-file should be

           If Wget is redirected after the request is completed, Wget will
           suspend the current method and send a GET request till the
           redirection is completed.  This is true for all redirection
           response codes except 307 Temporary Redirect which is used to
           explicitly specify that the request method should not change.
           Another exception is when the method is set to "POST", in which
           case the redirection rules specified under --post-data are

           If this is set to on, experimental (not fully-functional) support
           for "Content-Disposition" headers is enabled. This can currently
           result in extra round-trips to the server for a "HEAD" request,
           and is known to suffer from a few bugs, which is why it is not
           currently enabled by default.

           This option is useful for some file-downloading CGI programs that
           use "Content-Disposition" headers to describe what the name of a
           downloaded file should be.

           When combined with --metalink-over-http and --trust-server-names,
           a Content-Type: application/metalink4+xml file is named using the
           "Content-Disposition" filename field, if available.

           If this is set to on, wget will not skip the content when the
           server responds with a http status code that indicates error.

           If this is set, on a redirect, the local file name will be based
           on the redirection URL.  By default the local file name is based
           on the original URL.  When doing recursive retrieving this can be
           helpful because in many web sites redirected URLs correspond to
           an underlying file structure, while link URLs do not.

           If this option is given, Wget will send Basic HTTP authentication
           information (plaintext username and password) for all requests,
           just like Wget 1.10.2 and prior did by default.

           Use of this option is not recommended, and is intended only to
           support some few obscure servers, which never send HTTP
           authentication challenges, but accept unsolicited auth info, say,
           in addition to form-based authentication.

           Consider host errors, such as "Temporary failure in name
           resolution", as non-fatal, transient errors.

           Consider given HTTP response codes as non-fatal, transient
           errors.  Supply a comma-separated list of 3-digit HTTP response
           codes as argument. Useful to work around special circumstances
           where retries are required, but the server responds with an error
           code normally not retried by Wget. Such errors might be 503
           (Service Unavailable) and 429 (Too Many Requests). Retries
           enabled by this option are performed subject to the normal retry
           timing and retry count limitations of Wget.

           Using this option is intended to support special use cases only
           and is generally not recommended, as it can force retries even in
           cases where the server is actually trying to decrease its load.
           Please use wisely and only if you know what you are doing.

   HTTPS (SSL/TLS) Options
       To support encrypted HTTP (HTTPS) downloads, Wget must be compiled
       with an external SSL library. The current default is GnuTLS.  In
       addition, Wget also supports HSTS (HTTP Strict Transport Security).
       If Wget is compiled without SSL support, none of these options are

           Choose the secure protocol to be used.  Legal values are auto,
           SSLv2, SSLv3, TLSv1, TLSv1_1, TLSv1_2, TLSv1_3 and PFS.  If auto
           is used, the SSL library is given the liberty of choosing the
           appropriate protocol automatically, which is achieved by sending
           a TLSv1 greeting. This is the default.

           Specifying SSLv2, SSLv3, TLSv1, TLSv1_1, TLSv1_2 or TLSv1_3
           forces the use of the corresponding protocol.  This is useful
           when talking to old and buggy SSL server implementations that
           make it hard for the underlying SSL library to choose the correct
           protocol version.  Fortunately, such servers are quite rare.

           Specifying PFS enforces the use of the so-called Perfect Forward
           Security cipher suites. In short, PFS adds security by creating a
           one-time key for each SSL connection. It has a bit more CPU
           impact on client and server.  We use known to be secure ciphers
           (e.g. no MD4) and the TLS protocol. This mode also explicitly
           excludes non-PFS key exchange methods, such as RSA.

           When in recursive mode, only HTTPS links are followed.

           Set the cipher list string. Typically this string sets the cipher
           suites and other SSL/TLS options that the user wish should be
           used, in a set order of preference (GnuTLS calls it 'priority
           string'). This string will be fed verbatim to the SSL/TLS engine
           (OpenSSL or GnuTLS) and hence its format and syntax is dependent
           on that. Wget will not process or manipulate it in any way. Refer
           to the OpenSSL or GnuTLS documentation for more information.

           Don't check the server certificate against the available
           certificate authorities.  Also don't require the URL host name to
           match the common name presented by the certificate.

           As of Wget 1.10, the default is to verify the server's
           certificate against the recognized certificate authorities,
           breaking the SSL handshake and aborting the download if the
           verification fails.  Although this provides more secure
           downloads, it does break interoperability with some sites that
           worked with previous Wget versions, particularly those using
           self-signed, expired, or otherwise invalid certificates.  This
           option forces an "insecure" mode of operation that turns the
           certificate verification errors into warnings and allows you to

           If you encounter "certificate verification" errors or ones saying
           that "common name doesn't match requested host name", you can use
           this option to bypass the verification and proceed with the
           download.  Only use this option if you are otherwise convinced of
           the site's authenticity, or if you really don't care about the
           validity of its certificate.  It is almost always a bad idea not
           to check the certificates when transmitting confidential or
           important data.  For self-signed/internal certificates, you
           should download the certificate and verify against that instead
           of forcing this insecure mode.  If you are really sure of not
           desiring any certificate verification, you can specify
           --check-certificate=quiet to tell wget to not print any warning
           about invalid certificates, albeit in most cases this is the
           wrong thing to do.

           Use the client certificate stored in file.  This is needed for
           servers that are configured to require certificates from the
           clients that connect to them.  Normally a certificate is not
           required and this switch is optional.

           Specify the type of the client certificate.  Legal values are PEM
           (assumed by default) and DER, also known as ASN1.

           Read the private key from file.  This allows you to provide the
           private key in a file separate from the certificate.

           Specify the type of the private key.  Accepted values are PEM
           (the default) and DER.

           Use file as the file with the bundle of certificate authorities
           ("CA") to verify the peers.  The certificates must be in PEM

           Without this option Wget looks for CA certificates at the system-
           specified locations, chosen at OpenSSL installation time.

           Specifies directory containing CA certificates in PEM format.
           Each file contains one CA certificate, and the file name is based
           on a hash value derived from the certificate.  This is achieved
           by processing a certificate directory with the "c_rehash" utility
           supplied with OpenSSL.  Using --ca-directory is more efficient
           than --ca-certificate when many certificates are installed
           because it allows Wget to fetch certificates on demand.

           Without this option Wget looks for CA certificates at the system-
           specified locations, chosen at OpenSSL installation time.

           Specifies a CRL file in file.  This is needed for certificates
           that have been revocated by the CAs.

           Tells wget to use the specified public key file (or hashes) to
           verify the peer.  This can be a path to a file which contains a
           single public key in PEM or DER format, or any number of base64
           encoded sha256 hashes preceded by "sha256//" and separated by ";"

           When negotiating a TLS or SSL connection, the server sends a
           certificate indicating its identity. A public key is extracted
           from this certificate and if it does not exactly match the public
           key(s) provided to this option, wget will abort the connection
           before sending or receiving any data.

           [OpenSSL and LibreSSL only] Use file as the source of random data
           for seeding the pseudo-random number generator on systems without

           On such systems the SSL library needs an external source of
           randomness to initialize.  Randomness may be provided by EGD (see
           --egd-file below) or read from an external source specified by
           the user.  If this option is not specified, Wget looks for random
           data in $RANDFILE or, if that is unset, in $HOME/.rnd.

           If you're getting the "Could not seed OpenSSL PRNG; disabling
           SSL."  error, you should provide random data using some of the
           methods described above.

           [OpenSSL only] Use file as the EGD socket.  EGD stands for
           Entropy Gathering Daemon, a user-space program that collects data
           from various unpredictable system sources and makes it available
           to other programs that might need it.  Encryption software, such
           as the SSL library, needs sources of non-repeating randomness to
           seed the random number generator used to produce
           cryptographically strong keys.

           OpenSSL allows the user to specify his own source of entropy
           using the "RAND_FILE" environment variable.  If this variable is
           unset, or if the specified file does not produce enough
           randomness, OpenSSL will read random data from EGD socket
           specified using this option.

           If this option is not specified (and the equivalent startup
           command is not used), EGD is never contacted.  EGD is not needed
           on modern Unix systems that support /dev/urandom.

           Wget supports HSTS (HTTP Strict Transport Security, RFC 6797) by
           default.  Use --no-hsts to make Wget act as a non-HSTS-compliant
           UA. As a consequence, Wget would ignore all the
           "Strict-Transport-Security" headers, and would not enforce any
           existing HSTS policy.

           By default, Wget stores its HSTS database in ~/.wget-hsts.  You
           can use --hsts-file to override this. Wget will use the supplied
           file as the HSTS database. Such file must conform to the correct
           HSTS database format used by Wget. If Wget cannot parse the
           provided file, the behaviour is unspecified.

           The Wget's HSTS database is a plain text file. Each line contains
           an HSTS entry (ie. a site that has issued a
           "Strict-Transport-Security" header and that therefore has
           specified a concrete HSTS policy to be applied). Lines starting
           with a dash ("#") are ignored by Wget. Please note that in spite
           of this convenient human-readability hand-hacking the HSTS
           database is generally not a good idea.

           An HSTS entry line consists of several fields separated by one or
           more whitespace:

           "<hostname> SP [<port>] SP <include subdomains> SP <created> SP

           The hostname and port fields indicate the hostname and port to
           which the given HSTS policy applies. The port field may be zero,
           and it will, in most of the cases. That means that the port
           number will not be taken into account when deciding whether such
           HSTS policy should be applied on a given request (only the
           hostname will be evaluated). When port is different to zero, both
           the target hostname and the port will be evaluated and the HSTS
           policy will only be applied if both of them match. This feature
           has been included for testing/development purposes only.  The
           Wget testsuite (in testenv/) creates HSTS databases with explicit
           ports with the purpose of ensuring Wget's correct behaviour.
           Applying HSTS policies to ports other than the default ones is
           discouraged by RFC 6797 (see Appendix B "Differences between HSTS
           Policy and Same-Origin Policy"). Thus, this functionality should
           not be used in production environments and port will typically be
           zero. The last three fields do what they are expected to. The
           field include_subdomains can either be 1 or 0 and it signals
           whether the subdomains of the target domain should be part of the
           given HSTS policy as well. The created and max-age fields hold
           the timestamp values of when such entry was created (first seen
           by Wget) and the HSTS-defined value 'max-age', which states how
           long should that HSTS policy remain active, measured in seconds
           elapsed since the timestamp stored in created. Once that time has
           passed, that HSTS policy will no longer be valid and will
           eventually be removed from the database.

           If you supply your own HSTS database via --hsts-file, be aware
           that Wget may modify the provided file if any change occurs
           between the HSTS policies requested by the remote servers and
           those in the file. When Wget exists, it effectively updates the
           HSTS database by rewriting the database file with the new

           If the supplied file does not exist, Wget will create one. This
           file will contain the new HSTS entries. If no HSTS entries were
           generated (no "Strict-Transport-Security" headers were sent by
           any of the servers) then no file will be created, not even an
           empty one. This behaviour applies to the default database file
           (~/.wget-hsts) as well: it will not be created until some server
           enforces an HSTS policy.

           Care is taken not to override possible changes made by other Wget
           processes at the same time over the HSTS database. Before dumping
           the updated HSTS entries on the file, Wget will re-read it and
           merge the changes.

           Using a custom HSTS database and/or modifying an existing one is
           discouraged.  For more information about the potential security
           threats arose from such practice, see section 14 "Security
           Considerations" of RFC 6797, specially section 14.9 "Creative
           Manipulation of HSTS Policy Store".

           Use file as the destination WARC file.

           Use string into as the warcinfo record.

           Set the maximum size of the WARC files to size.

           Write CDX index files.

           Do not store records listed in this CDX file.

           Do not compress WARC files with GZIP.

           Do not calculate SHA1 digests.

           Do not store the log file in a WARC record.

           Specify the location for temporary files created by the WARC

   FTP Options
           Specify the username user and password password on an FTP server.
           Without this, or the corresponding startup option, the password
           defaults to -wget@, normally used for anonymous FTP.

           Another way to specify username and password is in the URL
           itself.  Either method reveals your password to anyone who
           bothers to run "ps".  To prevent the passwords from being seen,
           store them in .wgetrc or .netrc, and make sure to protect those
           files from other users with "chmod".  If the passwords are really
           important, do not leave them lying in those files either---edit
           the files and delete them after Wget has started the download.

           Don't remove the temporary .listing files generated by FTP
           retrievals.  Normally, these files contain the raw directory
           listings received from FTP servers.  Not removing them can be
           useful for debugging purposes, or when you want to be able to
           easily check on the contents of remote server directories (e.g.
           to verify that a mirror you're running is complete).

           Note that even though Wget writes to a known filename for this
           file, this is not a security hole in the scenario of a user
           making .listing a symbolic link to /etc/passwd or something and
           asking "root" to run Wget in his or her directory.  Depending on
           the options used, either Wget will refuse to write to .listing,
           making the globbing/recursion/time-stamping operation fail, or
           the symbolic link will be deleted and replaced with the actual
           .listing file, or the listing will be written to a
           .listing.number file.

           Even though this situation isn't a problem, though, "root" should
           never run Wget in a non-trusted user's directory.  A user could
           do something as simple as linking index.html to /etc/passwd and
           asking "root" to run Wget with -N or -r so the file will be

           Turn off FTP globbing.  Globbing refers to the use of shell-like
           special characters (wildcards), like *, ?, [ and ] to retrieve
           more than one file from the same directory at once, like:

                   wget ftp://gnjilux.srk.fer.hr/*.msg

           By default, globbing will be turned on if the URL contains a
           globbing character.  This option may be used to turn globbing on
           or off permanently.

           You may have to quote the URL to protect it from being expanded
           by your shell.  Globbing makes Wget look for a directory listing,
           which is system-specific.  This is why it currently works only
           with Unix FTP servers (and the ones emulating Unix "ls" output).

           Disable the use of the passive FTP transfer mode.  Passive FTP
           mandates that the client connect to the server to establish the
           data connection rather than the other way around.

           If the machine is connected to the Internet directly, both
           passive and active FTP should work equally well.  Behind most
           firewall and NAT configurations passive FTP has a better chance
           of working.  However, in some rare firewall configurations,
           active FTP actually works when passive FTP doesn't.  If you
           suspect this to be the case, use this option, or set
           "passive_ftp=off" in your init file.

           Preserve remote file permissions instead of permissions set by

           By default, when retrieving FTP directories recursively and a
           symbolic link is encountered, the symbolic link is traversed and
           the pointed-to files are retrieved.  Currently, Wget does not
           traverse symbolic links to directories to download them
           recursively, though this feature may be added in the future.

           When --retr-symlinks=no is specified, the linked-to file is not
           downloaded.  Instead, a matching symbolic link is created on the
           local filesystem.  The pointed-to file will not be retrieved
           unless this recursive retrieval would have encountered it
           separately and downloaded it anyway.  This option poses a
           security risk where a malicious FTP Server may cause Wget to
           write to files outside of the intended directories through a
           specially crafted .LISTING file.

           Note that when retrieving a file (not a directory) because it was
           specified on the command-line, rather than because it was
           recursed to, this option has no effect.  Symbolic links are
           always traversed in this case.

   FTPS Options
           This option tells Wget to use FTPS implicitly. Implicit FTPS
           consists of initializing SSL/TLS from the very beginning of the
           control connection. This option does not send an "AUTH TLS"
           command: it assumes the server speaks FTPS and directly starts an
           SSL/TLS connection. If the attempt is successful, the session
           continues just like regular FTPS ("PBSZ" and "PROT" are sent,
           etc.).  Implicit FTPS is no longer a requirement for FTPS
           implementations, and thus many servers may not support it. If
           --ftps-implicit is passed and no explicit port number specified,
           the default port for implicit FTPS, 990, will be used, instead of
           the default port for the "normal" (explicit) FTPS which is the
           same as that of FTP, 21.

           Do not resume the SSL/TLS session in the data channel. When
           starting a data connection, Wget tries to resume the SSL/TLS
           session previously started in the control connection.  SSL/TLS
           session resumption avoids performing an entirely new handshake by
           reusing the SSL/TLS parameters of a previous session. Typically,
           the FTPS servers want it that way, so Wget does this by default.
           Under rare circumstances however, one might want to start an
           entirely new SSL/TLS session in every data connection.  This is
           what --no-ftps-resume-ssl is for.

           All the data connections will be in plain text. Only the control
           connection will be under SSL/TLS. Wget will send a "PROT C"
           command to achieve this, which must be approved by the server.

           Fall back to FTP if FTPS is not supported by the target server.
           For security reasons, this option is not asserted by default. The
           default behaviour is to exit with an error.  If a server does not
           successfully reply to the initial "AUTH TLS" command, or in the
           case of implicit FTPS, if the initial SSL/TLS connection attempt
           is rejected, it is considered that such server does not support

   Recursive Retrieval Options
           Turn on recursive retrieving.    The default maximum depth is 5.

       -l depth
           Specify recursion maximum depth level depth.

           This option tells Wget to delete every single file it downloads,
           after having done so.  It is useful for pre-fetching popular
           pages through a proxy, e.g.:

                   wget -r -nd --delete-after http://whatever.com/~popular/page/

           The -r option is to retrieve recursively, and -nd to not create

           Note that --delete-after deletes files on the local machine.  It
           does not issue the DELE command to remote FTP sites, for
           instance.  Also note that when --delete-after is specified,
           --convert-links is ignored, so .orig files are simply not created
           in the first place.

           After the download is complete, convert the links in the document
           to make them suitable for local viewing.  This affects not only
           the visible hyperlinks, but any part of the document that links
           to external content, such as embedded images, links to style
           sheets, hyperlinks to non-HTML content, etc.

           Each link will be changed in one of the two ways:

           ·   The links to files that have been downloaded by Wget will be
               changed to refer to the file they point to as a relative

               Example: if the downloaded file /foo/doc.html links to
               /bar/img.gif, also downloaded, then the link in doc.html will
               be modified to point to ../bar/img.gif.  This kind of
               transformation works reliably for arbitrary combinations of

           ·   The links to files that have not been downloaded by Wget will
               be changed to include host name and absolute path of the
               location they point to.

               Example: if the downloaded file /foo/doc.html links to
               /bar/img.gif (or to ../bar/img.gif), then the link in
               doc.html will be modified to point to
               http://hostname/bar/img.gif .

           Because of this, local browsing works reliably: if a linked file
           was downloaded, the link will refer to its local name; if it was
           not downloaded, the link will refer to its full Internet address
           rather than presenting a broken link.  The fact that the former
           links are converted to relative links ensures that you can move
           the downloaded hierarchy to another directory.

           Note that only at the end of the download can Wget know which
           links have been downloaded.  Because of that, the work done by -k
           will be performed at the end of all the downloads.

           This option converts only the filename part of the URLs, leaving
           the rest of the URLs untouched. This filename part is sometimes
           referred to as the "basename", although we avoid that term here
           in order not to cause confusion.

           It works particularly well in conjunction with
           --adjust-extension, although this coupling is not enforced. It
           proves useful to populate Internet caches with files downloaded
           from different hosts.

           Example: if some link points to //foo.com/bar.cgi?xyz with
           --adjust-extension asserted and its local destination is intended
           to be ./foo.com/bar.cgi?xyz.css, then the link would be converted
           to //foo.com/bar.cgi?xyz.css. Note that only the filename part
           has been modified. The rest of the URL has been left untouched,
           including the net path ("//") which would otherwise be processed
           by Wget and converted to the effective scheme (ie. "http://").

           When converting a file, back up the original version with a .orig
           suffix.  Affects the behavior of -N.

           Turn on options suitable for mirroring.  This option turns on
           recursion and time-stamping, sets infinite recursion depth and
           keeps FTP directory listings.  It is currently equivalent to -r
           -N -l inf --no-remove-listing.

           This option causes Wget to download all the files that are
           necessary to properly display a given HTML page.  This includes
           such things as inlined images, sounds, and referenced

           Ordinarily, when downloading a single HTML page, any requisite
           documents that may be needed to display it properly are not
           downloaded.  Using -r together with -l can help, but since Wget
           does not ordinarily distinguish between external and inlined
           documents, one is generally left with "leaf documents" that are
           missing their requisites.

           For instance, say document 1.html contains an "<IMG>" tag
           referencing 1.gif and an "<A>" tag pointing to external document
           2.html.  Say that 2.html is similar but that its image is 2.gif
           and it links to 3.html.  Say this continues up to some
           arbitrarily high number.

           If one executes the command:

                   wget -r -l 2 http://<site>/1.html

           then 1.html, 1.gif, 2.html, 2.gif, and 3.html will be downloaded.
           As you can see, 3.html is without its requisite 3.gif because
           Wget is simply counting the number of hops (up to 2) away from
           1.html in order to determine where to stop the recursion.
           However, with this command:

                   wget -r -l 2 -p http://<site>/1.html

           all the above files and 3.html's requisite 3.gif will be
           downloaded.  Similarly,

                   wget -r -l 1 -p http://<site>/1.html

           will cause 1.html, 1.gif, 2.html, and 2.gif to be downloaded.
           One might think that:

                   wget -r -l 0 -p http://<site>/1.html

           would download just 1.html and 1.gif, but unfortunately this is
           not the case, because -l 0 is equivalent to -l inf---that is,
           infinite recursion.  To download a single HTML page (or a handful
           of them, all specified on the command-line or in a -i URL input
           file) and its (or their) requisites, simply leave off -r and -l:

                   wget -p http://<site>/1.html

           Note that Wget will behave as if -r had been specified, but only
           that single page and its requisites will be downloaded.  Links
           from that page to external documents will not be followed.
           Actually, to download a single page and all its requisites (even
           if they exist on separate websites), and make sure the lot
           displays properly locally, this author likes to use a few options
           in addition to -p:

                   wget -E -H -k -K -p http://<site>/<document>

           To finish off this topic, it's worth knowing that Wget's idea of
           an external document link is any URL specified in an "<A>" tag,
           an "<AREA>" tag, or a "<LINK>" tag other than "<LINK

           Turn on strict parsing of HTML comments.  The default is to
           terminate comments at the first occurrence of -->.

           According to specifications, HTML comments are expressed as SGML
           declarations.  Declaration is special markup that begins with <!
           and ends with >, such as <!DOCTYPE ...>, that may contain
           comments between a pair of -- delimiters.  HTML comments are
           "empty declarations", SGML declarations without any non-comment
           text.  Therefore, <!--foo--> is a valid comment, and so is
           <!--one-- --two-->, but <!--1--2--> is not.

           On the other hand, most HTML writers don't perceive comments as
           anything other than text delimited with <!-- and -->, which is
           not quite the same.  For example, something like <!------------>
           works as a valid comment as long as the number of dashes is a
           multiple of four (!).  If not, the comment technically lasts
           until the next --, which may be at the other end of the document.
           Because of this, many popular browsers completely ignore the
           specification and implement what users have come to expect:
           comments delimited with <!-- and -->.

           Until version 1.9, Wget interpreted comments strictly, which
           resulted in missing links in many web pages that displayed fine
           in browsers, but had the misfortune of containing non-compliant
           comments.  Beginning with version 1.9, Wget has joined the ranks
           of clients that implements "naive" comments, terminating each
           comment at the first occurrence of -->.

           If, for whatever reason, you want strict comment parsing, use
           this option to turn it on.

   Recursive Accept/Reject Options
       -A acclist --accept acclist
       -R rejlist --reject rejlist
           Specify comma-separated lists of file name suffixes or patterns
           to accept or reject. Note that if any of the wildcard characters,
           *, ?, [ or ], appear in an element of acclist or rejlist, it will
           be treated as a pattern, rather than a suffix.  In this case, you
           have to enclose the pattern into quotes to prevent your shell
           from expanding it, like in -A "*.mp3" or -A '*.mp3'.

       --accept-regex urlregex
       --reject-regex urlregex
           Specify a regular expression to accept or reject the complete

       --regex-type regextype
           Specify the regular expression type.  Possible types are posix or
           pcre.  Note that to be able to use pcre type, wget has to be
           compiled with libpcre support.

       -D domain-list
           Set domains to be followed.  domain-list is a comma-separated
           list of domains.  Note that it does not turn on -H.

       --exclude-domains domain-list
           Specify the domains that are not to be followed.

           Follow FTP links from HTML documents.  Without this option, Wget
           will ignore all the FTP links.

           Wget has an internal table of HTML tag / attribute pairs that it
           considers when looking for linked documents during a recursive
           retrieval.  If a user wants only a subset of those tags to be
           considered, however, he or she should be specify such tags in a
           comma-separated list with this option.

           This is the opposite of the --follow-tags option.  To skip
           certain HTML tags when recursively looking for documents to
           download, specify them in a comma-separated list.

           In the past, this option was the best bet for downloading a
           single page and its requisites, using a command-line like:

                   wget --ignore-tags=a,area -H -k -K -r http://<site>/<document>

           However, the author of this option came across a page with tags
           like "<LINK REL="home" HREF="/">" and came to the realization
           that specifying tags to ignore was not enough.  One can't just
           tell Wget to ignore "<LINK>", because then stylesheets will not
           be downloaded.  Now the best bet for downloading a single page
           and its requisites is the dedicated --page-requisites option.

           Ignore case when matching files and directories.  This influences
           the behavior of -R, -A, -I, and -X options, as well as globbing
           implemented when downloading from FTP sites.  For example, with
           this option, -A "*.txt" will match file1.txt, but also file2.TXT,
           file3.TxT, and so on.  The quotes in the example are to prevent
           the shell from expanding the pattern.

           Enable spanning across hosts when doing recursive retrieving.

           Follow relative links only.  Useful for retrieving a specific
           home page without any distractions, not even those from the same

       -I list
           Specify a comma-separated list of directories you wish to follow
           when downloading.  Elements of list may contain wildcards.

       -X list
           Specify a comma-separated list of directories you wish to exclude
           from download.  Elements of list may contain wildcards.

           Do not ever ascend to the parent directory when retrieving
           recursively.  This is a useful option, since it guarantees that
           only the files below a certain hierarchy will be downloaded.

ENVIRONMENT         top

       Wget supports proxies for both HTTP and FTP retrievals.  The standard
       way to specify proxy location, which Wget recognizes, is using the
       following environment variables:

           If set, the http_proxy and https_proxy variables should contain
           the URLs of the proxies for HTTP and HTTPS connections

           This variable should contain the URL of the proxy for FTP
           connections.  It is quite common that http_proxy and ftp_proxy
           are set to the same URL.

           This variable should contain a comma-separated list of domain
           extensions proxy should not be used for.  For instance, if the
           value of no_proxy is .mit.edu, proxy will not be used to retrieve
           documents from MIT.

EXIT STATUS         top

       Wget may return one of several error codes if it encounters problems.

       0   No problems occurred.

       1   Generic error code.

       2   Parse error---for instance, when parsing command-line options,
           the .wgetrc or .netrc...

       3   File I/O error.

       4   Network failure.

       5   SSL verification failure.

       6   Username/password authentication failure.

       7   Protocol errors.

       8   Server issued an error response.

       With the exceptions of 0 and 1, the lower-numbered exit codes take
       precedence over higher-numbered ones, when multiple types of errors
       are encountered.

       In versions of Wget prior to 1.12, Wget's exit status tended to be
       unhelpful and inconsistent. Recursive downloads would virtually
       always return 0 (success), regardless of any issues encountered, and
       non-recursive fetches only returned the status corresponding to the
       most recently-attempted download.

FILES         top

           Default location of the global startup file.

           User startup file.

BUGS         top

       You are welcome to submit bug reports via the GNU Wget bug tracker
       (see <https://savannah.gnu.org/bugs/?func=additem&group=wget >) or to
       our mailing list <bug-wget@gnu.org>.

       Visit <https://lists.gnu.org/mailman/listinfo/bug-wget > to get more
       info (how to subscribe, list archives, ...).

       Before actually submitting a bug report, please try to follow a few
       simple guidelines.

       1.  Please try to ascertain that the behavior you see really is a
           bug.  If Wget crashes, it's a bug.  If Wget does not behave as
           documented, it's a bug.  If things work strange, but you are not
           sure about the way they are supposed to work, it might well be a
           bug, but you might want to double-check the documentation and the
           mailing lists.

       2.  Try to repeat the bug in as simple circumstances as possible.
           E.g. if Wget crashes while downloading wget -rl0 -kKE -t5
           --no-proxy http://example.com -o /tmp/log, you should try to see
           if the crash is repeatable, and if will occur with a simpler set
           of options.  You might even try to start the download at the page
           where the crash occurred to see if that page somehow triggered
           the crash.

           Also, while I will probably be interested to know the contents of
           your .wgetrc file, just dumping it into the debug message is
           probably a bad idea.  Instead, you should first try to see if the
           bug repeats with .wgetrc moved out of the way.  Only if it turns
           out that .wgetrc settings affect the bug, mail me the relevant
           parts of the file.

       3.  Please start Wget with -d option and send us the resulting output
           (or relevant parts thereof).  If Wget was compiled without debug
           support, recompile it---it is much easier to trace bugs with
           debug support on.

           Note: please make sure to remove any potentially sensitive
           information from the debug log before sending it to the bug
           address.  The "-d" won't go out of its way to collect sensitive
           information, but the log will contain a fairly complete
           transcript of Wget's communication with the server, which may
           include passwords and pieces of downloaded data.  Since the bug
           address is publicly archived, you may assume that all bug reports
           are visible to the public.

       4.  If Wget has crashed, try to run it in a debugger, e.g. "gdb
           `which wget` core" and type "where" to get the backtrace.  This
           may not work if the system administrator has disabled core files,
           but it is safe to try.

SEE ALSO         top

       This is not the complete manual for GNU Wget.  For more complete
       information, including more detailed explanations of some of the
       options, and a number of commands available for use with .wgetrc
       files and the -e option, see the GNU Info entry for wget.

AUTHOR         top

       Originally written by Hrvoje Nikšić <hniksic@xemacs.org>.

COPYRIGHT         top

       Copyright (c) 1996-2011, 2015, 2018-2019 Free Software Foundation,

       Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document
       under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.3 or
       any later version published by the Free Software Foundation; with no
       Invariant Sections, with no Front-Cover Texts, and with no Back-Cover
       Texts.  A copy of the license is included in the section entitled
       "GNU Free Documentation License".

COLOPHON         top

       This page is part of the wget (interactive network downloader)
       project.  Information about the project can be found at 
       ⟨http://www.gnu.org/software/wget/⟩.  If you have a bug report for
       this manual page, send it to bug-sed@gnu.org.  This page was obtained
       from the tarball wget-1.20.3.tar.gz fetched from
       ⟨https://www.gnu.org/software/wget/⟩ on 2020-08-13.  If you discover
       any rendering problems in this HTML version of the page, or you
       believe there is a better or more up-to-date source for the page, or
       you have corrections or improvements to the information in this
       COLOPHON (which is not part of the original manual page), send a mail
       to man-pages@man7.org

GNU Wget 1.20.3                  2020-08-13                          WGET(1)

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