JOIN(1) User Commands JOIN(1)
join - join lines of two files on a common field
join [OPTION]... FILE1 FILE2
For each pair of input lines with identical join fields, write a line to standard output. The default join field is the first, delimited by blanks. When FILE1 or FILE2 (not both) is -, read standard input. -a FILENUM also print unpairable lines from file FILENUM, where FILENUM is 1 or 2, corresponding to FILE1 or FILE2 -e EMPTY replace missing input fields with EMPTY -i, --ignore-case ignore differences in case when comparing fields -j FIELD equivalent to '-1 FIELD -2 FIELD' -o FORMAT obey FORMAT while constructing output line -t CHAR use CHAR as input and output field separator -v FILENUM like -a FILENUM, but suppress joined output lines -1 FIELD join on this FIELD of file 1 -2 FIELD join on this FIELD of file 2 --check-order check that the input is correctly sorted, even if all input lines are pairable --nocheck-order do not check that the input is correctly sorted --header treat the first line in each file as field headers, print them without trying to pair them -z, --zero-terminated line delimiter is NUL, not newline --help display this help and exit --version output version information and exit Unless -t CHAR is given, leading blanks separate fields and are ignored, else fields are separated by CHAR. Any FIELD is a field number counted from 1. FORMAT is one or more comma or blank separated specifications, each being 'FILENUM.FIELD' or '0'. Default FORMAT outputs the join field, the remaining fields from FILE1, the remaining fields from FILE2, all separated by CHAR. If FORMAT is the keyword 'auto', then the first line of each file determines the number of fields output for each line. Important: FILE1 and FILE2 must be sorted on the join fields. E.g., use "sort -k 1b,1" if 'join' has no options, or use "join -t ''" if 'sort' has no options. Note, comparisons honor the rules specified by 'LC_COLLATE'. If the input is not sorted and some lines cannot be joined, a warning message will be given.
Written by Mike Haertel.
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Copyright © 2020 Free Software Foundation, Inc. License GPLv3+: GNU GPL version 3 or later <https://gnu.org/licenses/gpl.html>. This is free software: you are free to change and redistribute it. There is NO WARRANTY, to the extent permitted by law.
comm(1), uniq(1) Full documentation <https://www.gnu.org/software/coreutils/join> or available locally via: info '(coreutils) join invocation'
This page is part of the coreutils (basic file, shell and text manipulation utilities) project. Information about the project can be found at ⟨http://www.gnu.org/software/coreutils/⟩. If you have a bug report for this manual page, see ⟨http://www.gnu.org/software/coreutils/⟩. This page was obtained from the tarball coreutils-8.32.tar.xz fetched from ⟨http://ftp.gnu.org/gnu/coreutils/⟩ on 2021-08-27. If you discover any rendering problems in this HTML version of the page, or you believe there is a better or more up-to-date source for the page, or you have corrections or improvements to the information in this COLOPHON (which is not part of the original manual page), send a mail to email@example.com GNU coreutils 8.32 March 2020 JOIN(1)
Pages that refer to this page: comm(1), uniq(1)