gropdf(1) — Linux manual page

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gropdf(1)                General Commands Manual               gropdf(1)

Name         top

       gropdf - groff output driver for Portable Document Format

Synopsis         top

       gropdf [-dels] [-F dir] [-I dir] [-p paper-size] [-u [cmapfile]]
              [-y foundry] [file ...]

       gropdf -v
       gropdf --version

Description         top

       gropdf translates the output of GNU troff to PDF.  Normally
       gropdf should be invoked by using the groff command with a -Tpdf
       option.  If no files are given, gropdf reads the standard input.
       A filename of - also causes gropdf to read the standard input.
       PDF output is written to the standard output.  When gropdf is run
       by groff options can be passed to gropdf using groff's -P option.

       See section “Font Installation” below for a guide how to install
       fonts for gropdf.

Options         top

       -v and --version show version information; both exit afterward.

       -d     Include debug information as comments within the PDF.
              Also produces an uncompressed PDF.

       -e     Forces gropdf to embed all fonts (even the 14 base PDF

       -F dir Prepend directory dir/devname to the search path for font,
              and device description files; name is the name of the
              device, usually pdf.

       -I dir This option may be used to add a directory to the search
              path for files named in \X'pdf: pdfpic' escape.  The
              current directory is always searched first.  This option
              may be specified more than once; the directories are then
              searched in the order specified.

              No directory search is performed for files with an
              absolute file name.

       -l     Orient the document in landscape format.

       -p paper-size
              Set physical dimension of output medium.  This overrides
              the papersize, paperlength, and paperwidth commands in the
              DESC file; it accepts the same arguments as the papersize
              command.  See groff_font(5) for details.

       -s     Append a comment line to end of PDF showing statistics,
              i.e. number of pages in document.  Ghostscript's ps2pdf
              complains about this line if it is included, but works

       -u [cmapfile]
              Gropdf normally includes a ToUnicode CMap with any font
              created using text.enc as the encoding file, this makes it
              easier to search for words which contain ligatures.  You
              can include your own CMap by specifying a cmapfile or have
              no CMap at all by omitting the argument.

       -y foundry
              Set the foundry to use for selecting fonts of the same

Usage         top

       The input to gropdf must be in the format output by troff(1).
       This is described in groff_out(5).

       In addition, the device and font description files for the device
       used must meet certain requirements: The resolution must be an
       integer multiple of 72 times the sizescale.  The pdf device uses
       a resolution of 72000 and a sizescale of 1000.

       The device description file must contain a valid paper size; see
       groff_font(5) for more information.  gropdf uses the same Type 1
       Adobe PostScript fonts as the grops device driver.  Although the
       PDF Standard allows the use of other font types (like TrueType)
       this implementation only accepts the Type 1 PostScript font.
       Fewer Type 1 fonts are supported natively in PDF documents than
       the standard 35 fonts supported by grops and all PostScript
       printers, but all the fonts are available since any which aren't
       supported natively are automatically embedded in the PDF.

       gropdf supports the concept of foundries, that is different
       versions of basically the same font.  During install a Foundry
       file controls where fonts are found and builds groff fonts from
       the files it discovers on your system.

       Each font description file must contain a command

              internalname psname

       which says that the PostScript name of the font is psname.  Lines
       starting with # and blank lines are ignored.  The code for each
       character given in the font file must correspond to the code in
       the default encoding for the font.  This code can be used with
       the \N escape sequence in troff to select the character, even if
       the character does not have a groff name.  Every character in the
       font file must exist in the PostScript font, and the widths given
       in the font file must match the widths used in the PostScript

       Note that gropdf is currently only able to display the first 256
       glyphs in any font.  This restriction will be lifted in a later

       gropdf can automatically include the downloadable fonts necessary
       to print the document.  Fonts may be in PFA or PFB format.

       Any downloadable fonts which should, when required, be included
       by gropdf must be listed in the file /usr/local/share/groff/
       1.23.0/font/devpdf/download; this should consist of lines of the

              foundry font filename

       where foundry is the foundry name or blank for the default
       foundry.  font is the PostScript name of the font, and filename
       is the name of the file containing the font; lines beginning with
       # and blank lines are ignored; fields must be separated by tabs
       (spaces are not allowed); filename is searched for using the same
       mechanism that is used for groff font metric files.  The download
       file itself is also searched for using this mechanism; currently,
       only the first found file in the font path is used.  Foundry
       names are usually a single character (such as ‘U’ for the URW
       Foundry) or blank for the default foundry.  This default uses the
       same fonts as ghostscript uses when it embeds fonts in a PDF

       In the default setup there are styles called R, I, B, and BI
       mounted at font positions 1 to 4.  The fonts are grouped into
       families A, BM, C, H, HN, N, P, and T having members in each of
       these styles:

              AR     AvantGarde-Book
              AI     AvantGarde-BookOblique
              AB     AvantGarde-Demi
              ABI    AvantGarde-DemiOblique
              BMR    Bookman-Light
              BMI    Bookman-LightItalic
              BMB    Bookman-Demi
              BMBI   Bookman-DemiItalic
              CR     Courier
              CI     Courier-Oblique
              CB     Courier-Bold
              CBI    Courier-BoldOblique
              HR     Helvetica
              HI     Helvetica-Oblique
              HB     Helvetica-Bold
              HBI    Helvetica-BoldOblique
              HNR    Helvetica-Narrow
              HNI    Helvetica-Narrow-Oblique
              HNB    Helvetica-Narrow-Bold
              HNBI   Helvetica-Narrow-BoldOblique
              NR     NewCenturySchlbk-Roman
              NI     NewCenturySchlbk-Italic
              NB     NewCenturySchlbk-Bold
              NBI    NewCenturySchlbk-BoldItalic
              PR     Palatino-Roman
              PI     Palatino-Italic
              PB     Palatino-Bold
              PBI    Palatino-BoldItalic
              TR     Times-Roman
              TI     Times-Italic
              TB     Times-Bold
              TBI    Times-BoldItalic

       There is also the following font which is not a member of a

              ZCMI   ZapfChancery-MediumItalic

       There are also some special fonts called S for the PS Symbol
       font.  The lower case greek characters are automatically slanted
       (to match the SymbolSlanted font (SS) available to PostScript).
       Zapf Dingbats is available as ZD; the “hand pointing left” glyph
       (\[lh]) is available since it has been defined using the \X'pdf:
       xrev' extension which reverses the direction of letters within

       The default color for \m and \M is black.

       gropdf understands some of the X commands produced using the \X
       escape sequences supported by grops.  Specifically, the following
       is supported.

       \X'ps: invis'
              Suppress output.

       \X'ps: endinvis'
              Stop suppressing output.

       \X'ps: exec gsave currentpoint 2 copy translate n rotate neg exch
       neg exch translate'
              where n is the angle of rotation.  This is to support the
              align command in gpic.

       \X'ps: exec grestore'
              Again used by gpic to restore after rotation.

       \X'ps: exec n setlinejoin'
              where n can be one of the following values.

              0 = Miter join
              1 = Round join
              2 = Bevel join

       \X'ps: exec n setlinecap'
              where n can be one of the following values.

              0 = Butt cap
              1 = Round cap, and
              2 = Projecting square cap

       \X'ps: ... pdfmark'
              All the pdfmark macros installed by using -m pdfmark or -m
              mspdf (see documentation in pdfmark.pdf).  A subset of
              these macros are installed automatically when you use
              -Tpdf so you should not need to use ‘-m pdfmark’ for using
              most of the PDF functionality.

       gropdf also supports a subset of the commands introduced in
       present.tmac.  Specifically it supports:-


       Which allows you to create presentation type PDFs.  Many of the
       other commands are already available in other macro packages.

       These commands are implemented with groff X commands:-

       \X'ps: exec %%%%PAUSE'
              The section before this is treated as a block and is
              introduced using the current BLOCK transition setting (see
              “\X'pdf: transition'” below).  This command can be
              introduced using the macro .pdfpause.

       \X'ps: exec %%%%BEGINONCE'
              Any text following this command (up to %%%%ENDONCE) is
              shown only once, the next %%%%PAUSE will remove it.  If
              producing a non presentation pdf, i.e. ignoring the
              pauses, see GROPDF_NOSLIDE below, this text is ignored.

       \X'ps: exec %%%%ENDONCE'
              This terminates the block defined by %%%%BEGINONCE.  This
              pair of commands is what implements the .BLOCKS
              Once/.BLOCKE commands in present.tmac.

       The mom macro set already has integration with these extensions
       so you can build slides with mom.

       If you use present.tmac with gropdf there is no need to run the
       program presentps(1) since the output will already be a
       presentation pdf.

       All other ps: tags are silently ignored.

       One \X special used by the DVI driver is also recognised:

              where the paper-size parameter is the same as the
              papersize command.  See groff_font(5) for details.  This
              means that you can alter the page size at will within the
              PDF file being created by gropdf.  If you do want to
              change the paper size, it must be done before you start
              creating the page.

       In addition, gropdf supports its own suite of pdf: tags.  The
       following tags are supported:

       \X'pdf: pdfpic file alignment width height line-length'
              Place an image of the specified width containing the PDF
              drawing from file file of desired width and height (if
              height is missing or zero then it is scaled
              proportionally).  If alignment is -L the drawing is left
              aligned.  If it is -C or -R a linelength greater than the
              width of the drawing is required as well.  If width is
              specified as zero then the width is scaled in proportion
              to the height.

       \X'pdf: xrev'
              This toggles a flag which reverses the direction of
              printing letter by letter, i.e., each separate letter is
              reversed, not the entire word.  This is useful for
              reversing the direction of glyphs in the Dingbats font.
              To return to normal printing repeat the command again.

       \X'pdf: markstart /ANN definition'
              The macros which support PDF Bookmarks use this call
              internally to start the definition of bookmark hotspot
              (user will have called ‘.pdfhref L’ with the text which
              will become the ‘hot spot’ region).  Normally this is
              never used except from within the pdfmark macros.

       \X'pdf: markstart /ANN-definition'
       \X'pdf: markend'
              The macros which support PDF bookmarks use these calls
              internally to start and stop (respectively) the definition
              of bookmark hot spot; the user will have called
              “.pdfhref L” with the text which will become the hot spot
              region).  Normally, these are never used except from
              within the pdfmark macros.

       \X'pdf: marksuspend'
       \X'pdf: markrestart'
              If you are using page traps to produce headings, footings,
              etc., you need to use these in case a ‘hot spot’ crosses a
              page boundary, otherwise any text output by the heading or
              footing macro will be marked as part of the ‘hot spot’.
              To stop this happening just place ‘.pdfmarksuspend’ and
              ‘.pdfmarkrestart’ at the start and end of the page trap
              macro, respectively.  (These are just convenience macros
              which emit the corresponding \X escapes.  These macros
              must be used only within page traps.)

       \X'pdf: pagename name'
              This gives the current page a name.

              There are two default names for any document which do not
              need to be declared ‘top’ and ‘bottom’.

              The convenience command for this is .pdfpagename.

       \X'pdf: switchtopage when name'
              Normally each new page is appended to the end of the
              document, this command allows following pages to be
              inserted at a ‘named’ position within the document (see
              pagename command above).  ‘when’ can be either ‘after’ or
              ‘before’.  If it is ommitted it defaults to ‘before’.

              The convenience command for this is .pdfswitchtopage.  It
              should be used at the end of the page before you want the
              switch to happen.

              This allows pages such as a TOC to be moved to elsewhere
              in the document, but more esoteric uses are possible.

       \X'pdf: transition feature mode duration dimension motion
       direction scale bool'

              feature can be either SLIDE or BLOCK.  When it is SLIDE
              the transition is used when a new slide is introduced to
              the screen, if BLOCK then this transition is used for the
              individual blocks which make up the slide.
              mode is the transition type between slides:-

                     Split - Two lines sweep across the screen,
                     revealing the new page.  The lines may be either
                     horizontal or vertical and may move inward from the
                     edges of the page or outward from the center, as
                     specified by the dimension and motion entries,
                     Blinds - Multiple lines, evenly spaced across the
                     screen, synchronously sweep in the same direction
                     to reveal the new page.  The lines may be either
                     horizontal or vertical, as specified by the
                     dimension entry.  Horizontal lines move downward;
                     vertical lines move to the right.
                     Box - A rectangular box sweeps inward from the
                     edges of the page or outward from the center, as
                     specified by the motion entry, revealing the new
                     Wipe - A single line sweeps across the screen from
                     one edge to the other in the direction specified by
                     the direction entry, revealing the new page.
                     Dissolve - The old page dissolves gradually to
                     reveal the new one.
                     Glitter - Similar to Dissolve, except that the
                     effect sweeps across the page in a wide band moving
                     from one side of the screen to the other in the
                     direction specified by the direction entry.
                     R - The new page simply replaces the old one with
                     no special transition effect; the direction entry
                     shall be ignored.
                     Fly - (PDF 1.5) Changes are flown out or in (as
                     specified by motion), in the direction specified by
                     direction, to or from a location that is offscreen
                     except when direction is None.
                     Push - (PDF 1.5) The old page slides off the screen
                     while the new page slides in, pushing the old page
                     out in the direction specified by direction.
                     Cover - (PDF 1.5) The new page slides on to the
                     screen in the direction specified by direction,
                     covering the old page.
                     Uncover - (PDF 1.5) The old page slides off the
                     screen in the direction specified by direction,
                     uncovering the new page in the direction specified
                     by direction.
                     Fade - (PDF 1.5) The new page gradually becomes
                     visible through the old one.

              duration is the length of the transition in seconds
              (default 1).

              dimension (Optional; Split and Blinds transition styles
              only) The dimension in which the specified transition
              effect shall occur: H Horizontal, or V Vertical.

              motion (Optional; Split, Box and Fly transition styles
              only) The direction of motion for the specified transition
              effect: I Inward from the edges of the page, or O Outward
              from the center of the page.

              direction (Optional; Wipe, Glitter, Fly, Cover, Uncover
              and Push transition styles only) The direction in which
              the specified transition effect shall moves, expressed in
              degrees counterclockwise starting from a left-to-right
              direction.  If the value is a number, it shall be one of:
              0 = Left to right, 90 = Bottom to top (Wipe only), 180 =
              Right to left (Wipe only), 270 = Top to bottom, 315 = Top-
              left to bottom-right (Glitter only) The value can be None,
              which is relevant only for the Fly transition when the
              value of scale is not 1.0.

              scale (Optional; PDF 1.5; Fly transition style only) The
              starting or ending scale at which the changes shall be
              drawn.  If motion specifies an inward transition, the
              scale of the changes drawn shall progress from scale to
              1.0 over the course of the transition.  If motion
              specifies an outward transition, the scale of the changes
              drawn shall progress from 1.0 to scale over the course of
              the transition

              bool (Optional; PDF 1.5; Fly transition style only) If
              true, the area that shall be flown in is rectangular and

              This command can be used by calling the macro
              .pdftransition using the parameters described above.  Any
              of the parameters may be replaced with a "." which
              signifies the parameter retains its previous value, also
              any trailing missing parameters are ignored.

              Note: not all PDF Readers support any or all these

   Importing graphics
       gropdf only supports importing other PDF files as graphics.  But
       that PDF file may contain any of the graphic formats supported by
       the PDF standard (such as JPEG, PNG, GIF, etc.).  So any
       application which outputs PDF can be used as an embedded file in
       gropdf.  The PDF file you wish to insert must be a single page
       and the drawing must just fit inside the media size of the PDF
       file.  So, in inkscape(1) or gimp(1) (for example) make sure the
       canvas size just fits the image.

       The PDF parser used in gropdf has not been rigorously tested with
       all possible applications which produce PDFs.  If you find a
       single page PDF which fails to import properly, it is worth
       running it through the pdftk(1) program by issuing the command:

              pdftk oldfile.pdf output newfile.pdf

       You may find that newfile.pdf will now load successfully.

   TrueType and other font formats
       gropdf does not support any other fonts except Adobe Type 1 (PFA
       or PFB).

Font installation         top

       This section gives a summary of the above explanations; it can
       serve as a step-by-step font installation guide for gropdf.

       •      Convert your font to something groff understands.  This is
              either a PostScript Type 1 font in either PFA or PFB,
              together with an AFM file.

              The very first line in a PFA/PFB file contains this:


              A PFB file has this also in the first line, but the string
              is preceded with some binary bytes.

       •      Convert the AFM file to a groff font description file with
              the afmtodit(1) program.  An example call is

                     afmtodit Foo-Bar-Bold.afm map/textmap FBB

              which converts the metric file ‘Foo-Bar-Bold.afm’ to the
              groff font ‘FBB’.  If you have a font family which comes
              with normal, bold, italic, and bold italic faces, it is
              recommended to use the letters R, B, I, and BI,
              respectively, as postfixes in the groff font names to make
              groff's ‘.fam’ request work.  An example is groff's built-
              in Times-Roman font: The font family name is T, and the
              groff font names are TR, TB, TI, and TBI.

       •      Install both the groff font description files and the
              fonts in a ‘devpdf’ subdirectory of the font path which
              groff finds.  See section “Environment” in troff(1) for
              the actual value of the font path.  Note that groff
              doesn't use the AFM files (but it is a good idea to store
              them anyway).

       •      Register all fonts which must be downloaded to the printer
              in the devpdf/download file.  Only the first occurrence of
              this file in the font path is read.  This means that you
              should copy the default download file to the first
              directory in your font path and add your fonts there.  To
              continue the above example we assume that the PS font name
              for Foo-Bar-Bold.pfa is ‘XY-Foo-Bar-Bold’ (the PS font
              name is stored in the internalname field in the FBB file)
              and belongs to foundry ‘F’ thus the following line should
              be added to download:

                     F XY-Foo-Bar-Bold Foo-Bar-Bold.pfa

              Use a tab character to separate the fields, and the
              ‘foundry’ field should be null for the default foundry.

Environment         top

              A list of directories in which to seek the selected output
              device's directory of device and font description files.
              If, in the download file, the font file has been specified
              with a full path, no directories are searched.  See
              troff(1) and groff_font(5).

              If this is set true, gropdf will ignore all commands which
              produce a presentation pdf, and produce a normal pdf

              A timestamp (expressed as seconds since the Unix epoch) to
              use as the creation timestamp in place of the current
              time.  The time is converted to human-readable form using
              Perl's localtime() function and recorded in a PDF comment.

       TZ     The time zone to use when converting the current time (or
              value of SOURCE_DATE_EPOCH) to human-readable form; see

Files         top

              Device description file.

              Font description file for font F.

              Font description file for font F (using foundry U rather
              than the default foundry).

              List of downloadable fonts.

              A Perl script used during install to locate suitable

              Encoding used for text fonts.

              Macros for use with gropdf; automatically loaded by

See also         top

       afmtodit(1), groff(1), troff(1), groff_font(5), groff_out(5)

COLOPHON         top

       This page is part of the groff (GNU troff) project.  Information
       about the project can be found at 
       ⟨⟩.  If you have a bug report
       for this manual page, see ⟨⟩.
       This page was obtained from the project's upstream Git repository
       ⟨⟩ on 2021-08-27.  (At
       that time, the date of the most recent commit that was found in
       the repository was 2021-08-23.)  If you discover any rendering
       problems in this HTML version of the page, or you believe there
       is a better or more up-to-date source for the page, or you have
       corrections or improvements to the information in this COLOPHON
       (which is not part of the original manual page), send a mail to

groff 1.23.0.rc1.654-4e1db-dir1t9yAugust 2021                    gropdf(1)

Pages that refer to this page: afmtodit(1)groff(1)pdfmom(1)pfbtops(1)pic(1)groff_out(5)