dpkg-buildpackage(1) — Linux manual page


dpkg-buildpackage(1)             dpkg suite             dpkg-buildpackage(1)

NAME         top

       dpkg-buildpackage - build binary or source packages from sources

SYNOPSIS         top

       dpkg-buildpackage [option...]

DESCRIPTION         top

       dpkg-buildpackage is a program that automates the process of building
       a Debian package. It consists of the following steps:

       1. It prepares the build environment by setting various environment
          variables (see ENVIRONMENT), runs the init hook, and calls
          dpkg-source --before-build (unless -T or --target has been used).

       2. It checks that the build-dependencies and build-conflicts are
          satisfied (unless -d or --no-check-builddeps is specified).

       3. If one or more specific targets have been selected with the -T or
          --target option, it calls those targets and stops here. Otherwise
          it runs the preclean hook and calls fakeroot debian/rules clean to
          clean the build-tree (unless -nc or --no-pre-clean is specified).

       4. It runs the source hook and calls dpkg-source -b to generate the
          source package (if a source build has been requested with --build
          or equivalent options).

       5. It runs the build hook and calls debian/rules build-target, then
          runs the binary hook followed by fakeroot debian/rules binary-
          target (unless a source-only build has been requested with
          --build=source or equivalent options).  Note that build-target and
          binary-target are either build and binary (default case, or if an
          any and all build has been requested with --build or equivalent
          options), or build-arch and binary-arch (if an any and not all
          build has been requested with --build or equivalent options), or
          build-indep and binary-indep (if an all and not any build has been
          requested with --build or equivalent options).

       6. It runs the buildinfo hook and calls dpkg-genbuildinfo to generate
          a .buildinfo file.  Several dpkg-buildpackage options are
          forwarded to dpkg-genbuildinfo.

       7. It runs the changes hook and calls dpkg-genchanges to generate a
          .changes file.  The name of the .changes file will depend on the
          type of build and will be as specific as necessary but not more;
          for a build that includes any the name will be source-name_binary-
          version_arch.changes, or otherwise for a build that includes all
          the name will be source-name_binary-version_all.changes, or
          otherwise for a build that includes source the name will be
          source-name_source-version_source.changes.  Many dpkg-buildpackage
          options are forwarded to dpkg-genchanges.

       8. It runs the postclean hook and if -tc or --post-clean is
          specified, it will call fakeroot debian/rules clean again.

       9. It calls dpkg-source --after-build.

          It runs the check hook and calls a package checker for the
          .changes file (if a command is specified in DEB_CHECK_COMMAND or
          with --check-command).

          It runs the sign hook and calls gpg2 or gpg (as long as it is not
          an UNRELEASED build, or --no-sign is specified) to sign the .dsc
          file (if any, unless -us or --unsigned-source is specified), the
          .buildinfo file (unless -ui, --unsigned-buildinfo, -uc or
          --unsigned-changes is specified) and the .changes file (unless -uc
          or --unsigned-changes is specified).

          It runs the done hook.

OPTIONS         top

       All long options can be specified both on the command line and in the
       dpkg-buildpackage system and user configuration files.  Each line in
       the configuration file is either an option (exactly the same as the
       command line option but without leading hyphens) or a comment (if it
       starts with a ‘#’).

              Specifies the build type from a comma-separated list of
              components (since dpkg 1.18.5).  Passed to dpkg-genchanges.

              The allowed values are:

              source Builds the source package.  Note: when using this value
                     standalone and if what you want is simply to (re-)build
                     the source package from a clean source tree, using
                     dpkg-source directly is always a better option as it
                     does not require any build dependencies to be installed
                     which are otherwise needed to be able to call the clean

              any    Builds the architecture specific binary packages.

              all    Builds the architecture independent binary packages.

              binary Builds the architecture specific and independent binary
                     packages.  This is an alias for any,all.

              full   Builds everything.  This is an alias for
                     source,any,all, and the same as the default case when
                     no build option is specified.

       -g     Equivalent to --build=source,all (since dpkg 1.17.11).

       -G     Equivalent to --build=source,any (since dpkg 1.17.11).

       -b     Equivalent to --build=binary or --build=any,all.

       -B     Equivalent to --build=any.

       -A     Equivalent to --build=all.

       -S     Equivalent to --build=source.

       -F     Equivalent to --build=full, --build=source,binary or
              --build=source,any,all (since dpkg 1.15.8).

       --target target[,...]
       -T, --rules-target=target[,...]
              Calls debian/rules target once per target specified, after
              having setup the build environment (except for calling
              dpkg-source --before-build), and stops the package build
              process here (since dpkg 1.15.0, long option since dpkg
              1.18.8, multi-target support since dpkg 1.18.16).  If
              --as-root is also given, then the command is executed as root
              (see --root-command).  Note that known targets that are
              required to be run as root do not need this option (i.e. the
              clean, binary, binary-arch and binary-indep targets).

              Only meaningful together with --target (since dpkg 1.15.0).
              Requires that the target be run with root rights.

       -m, --release-by=maintainer-address
       -e, --build-by=maintainer-address
              Passed unchanged to dpkg-genchanges. See its manual page.

       -a, --host-arch architecture
              Specify the Debian architecture we build for (long option
              since dpkg 1.17.17).  The architecture of the machine we build
              on is determined automatically, and is also the default for
              the host machine.

       -t, --host-type gnu-system-type
              Specify the GNU system type we build for (long option since
              dpkg 1.17.17).  It can be used in place of --host-arch or as a
              complement to override the default GNU system type of the host
              Debian architecture.

       --target-arch architecture
              Specify the Debian architecture the binaries built will build
              for (since dpkg 1.17.17).  The default value is the host

       --target-type gnu-system-type
              Specify the GNU system type the binaries built will build for
              (since dpkg 1.17.17).  It can be used in place of
              --target-arch or as a complement to override the default GNU
              system type of the target Debian architecture.

       -P, --build-profiles=profile[,...]
              Specify the profile(s) we build, as a comma-separated list
              (since dpkg 1.17.2, long option since dpkg 1.18.8).  The
              default behavior is to build for no specific profile. Also
              sets them (as a space separated list) as the
              DEB_BUILD_PROFILES environment variable which allows, for
              example, debian/rules files to use this information for
              conditional builds.

       -j, --jobs[=jobs|auto]
              Number of jobs allowed to be run simultaneously, number of
              jobs matching the number of online processors if auto is
              specified (since dpkg 1.17.10), or unlimited number if jobs is
              not specified, equivalent to the make(1) option of the same
              name (since dpkg 1.14.7, long option since dpkg 1.18.8).  Will
              add itself to the MAKEFLAGS environment variable, which should
              cause all subsequent make invocations to inherit the option,
              thus forcing the parallel setting on the packaging (and
              possibly the upstream build system if that uses make)
              regardless of their support for parallel builds, which might
              cause build failures.  Also adds parallel=jobs or parallel to
              the DEB_BUILD_OPTIONS environment variable which allows
              debian/rules files to use this information for their own
              purposes.  The -j value will override the parallel=jobs or
              parallel option in the DEB_BUILD_OPTIONS environment variable.
              Note that the auto value will get replaced by the actual
              number of currently active processors, and as such will not
              get propagated to any child process. If the number of online
              processors cannot be inferred then the code will fallback to
              using serial execution (since dpkg 1.18.15), although this
              should only happen on exotic and unsupported systems.

       -J, --jobs-try[=jobs|auto]
              This option (since dpkg 1.18.2, long option since dpkg 1.18.8)
              is equivalent to the -j option except that it does not set the
              MAKEFLAGS environment variable, and as such it is safer to use
              with any package including those that are not parallel-build

              auto is the default behavior (since dpkg 1.18.11). Setting the
              number of jobs to 1 will restore a serial behavior.

       -D, --check-builddeps
              Check build dependencies and conflicts; abort if unsatisfied
              (long option since dpkg 1.18.8).  This is the default

       -d, --no-check-builddeps
              Do not check build dependencies and conflicts (long option
              since dpkg 1.18.8).

              Do not check built-in build dependencies and conflicts (since
              dpkg 1.18.2).  These are the distribution specific implicit
              build dependencies usually required in a build environment,
              the so called Build-Essential package set.

              Do not honor the Rules-Requires-Root field, falling back to
              its legacy default value (since dpkg 1.19.1).

       -nc, --no-pre-clean
              Do not clean the source tree before building (long option
              since dpkg 1.18.8).  Implies -b if nothing else has been
              selected among -F, -g, -G, -B, -A or -S.  Implies -d with -S
              (since dpkg 1.18.0).

              Clean the source tree before building (since dpkg 1.18.8).
              This is the default behavior.

       -tc, --post-clean
              Clean the source tree (using gain-root-command debian/rules
              clean) after the package has been built (long option since
              dpkg 1.18.8).

              Do not clean the source tree after the package has been built
              (since dpkg 1.19.1).  This is the default behavior.

       -r, --root-command=gain-root-command
              When dpkg-buildpackage needs to execute part of the build
              process as root, it prefixes the command it executes with
              gain-root-command if one has been specified (long option since
              dpkg 1.18.8).  Otherwise, if none has been specified, fakeroot
              will be used by default, if the command is present.  gain-
              root-command should start with the name of a program on the
              PATH and will get as arguments the name of the real command to
              run and the arguments it should take.  gain-root-command can
              include parameters (they must be space-separated) but no shell
              metacharacters.  gain-root-command might typically be
              fakeroot, sudo, super or really.  su is not suitable, since it
              can only invoke the user's shell with -c instead of passing
              arguments individually to the command to be run.

       -R, --rules-file=rules-file
              Building a Debian package usually involves invoking
              debian/rules as a command with several standard parameters
              (since dpkg 1.14.17, long option since dpkg 1.18.8).  With
              this option it's possible to use another program invocation to
              build the package (it can include space separated parameters).
              Alternatively it can be used to execute the standard rules
              file with another make program (for example by using
              /usr/local/bin/make -f debian/rules as rules-file).

              Command used to check the .changes file itself and any
              artifact built referenced in the file (since dpkg 1.17.6).
              The command should take the .changes pathname as an argument.
              This command will usually be lintian.

              Pass option opt to the check-command specified with
              DEB_CHECK_COMMAND or --check-command (since dpkg 1.17.6).  Can
              be used multiple times.

              Set the specified shell code hook-command as the hook hook-
              name, which will run at the times specified in the run steps
              (since dpkg 1.17.6).  The hooks will always be executed even
              if the following action is not performed (except for the
              binary hook).  All the hooks will run in the unpacked source

              Note: Hooks can affect the build process, and cause build
              failures if their commands fail, so watch out for unintended

              The current hook-name supported are:

              init preclean source build binary buildinfo changes postclean
              check sign done

              The hook-command supports the following substitution format
              string, which will get applied to it before execution:

              %%     A single % character.

              %a     A boolean value (0 or 1), representing whether the
                     following action is being performed.

              %p     The source package name.

              %v     The source package version.

              %s     The source package version (without the epoch).

              %u     The upstream version.

              Pass option opt to dpkg-genbuildinfo (since dpkg 1.18.11).
              Can be used multiple times.

       -p, --sign-command=sign-command
              When dpkg-buildpackage needs to execute GPG to sign a source
              control (.dsc) file or a .changes file it will run sign-
              command (searching the PATH if necessary) instead of gpg2 or
              gpg (long option since dpkg 1.18.8).  sign-command will get
              all the arguments that gpg2 or gpg would have gotten. sign-
              command should not contain spaces or any other shell

       -k, --sign-key=key-id
              Specify a key-ID to use when signing packages (long option
              since dpkg 1.18.8).

       -us, --unsigned-source
              Do not sign the source package (long option since dpkg

       -ui, --unsigned-buildinfo
              Do not sign the .buildinfo file (since dpkg 1.18.19).

       -uc, --unsigned-changes
              Do not sign the .buildinfo and .changes files (long option
              since dpkg 1.18.8).

              Do not sign any file, this includes the source package, the
              .buildinfo file and the .changes file (since dpkg 1.18.20).

              Force the signing of the resulting files (since dpkg 1.17.0),
              regardless of -us, --unsigned-source, -ui,
              --unsigned-buildinfo, -uc, --unsigned-changes or other
              internal heuristics.

       -i, --diff-ignore[=regex]
       -I, --tar-ignore[=pattern]
       -z, --compression-level=level
       -Z, --compression=compressor
              Passed unchanged to dpkg-source. See its manual page.

              Pass option opt to dpkg-source (since dpkg 1.15.6).  Can be
              used multiple times.

              Pass option opt to dpkg-genchanges (since dpkg 1.15.6).  Can
              be used multiple times.

       --admindir dir
              Change the location of the dpkg database (since dpkg 1.14.0).
              The default location is /usr/local/var/lib/dpkg.

       -?, --help
              Show the usage message and exit.

              Show the version and exit.

ENVIRONMENT         top

   External environment
              If set, it will be used as the command to check the .changes
              file (since dpkg 1.17.6).  Overridden by the --check-command

              If set, it will be used to sign the .changes and .dsc files
              (since dpkg 1.17.2).  Overridden by the --sign-key option.

              If set, it will contain a space-separated list of options that
              might affect the build process in debian/rules, and the
              behavior of some dpkg commands.

              With nocheck the DEB_CHECK_COMMAND variable will be ignored.
              With parallel=N the parallel jobs will be set to N, overridden
              by the --jobs-try option.

              If set, it will be used as the active build profile(s) for the
              package being built (since dpkg 1.17.2).  It is a space
              separated list of profile names.  Overridden by the -P option.

              Sets the color mode (since dpkg 1.18.5).  The currently
              accepted values are: auto (default), always and never.

              If set, it will be used to decide whether to activate Native
              Language Support, also known as internationalization (or i18n)
              support (since dpkg 1.19.0).  The accepted values are: 0 and 1

   Internal environment
       Even if dpkg-buildpackage exports some variables, debian/rules should
       not rely on their presence and should instead use the respective
       interface to retrieve the needed values, because that file is the
       main entry point to build packages and running it standalone should
       be supported.

              dpkg-architecture is called with the -a and -t parameters
              forwarded. Any variable that is output by its -s option is
              integrated in the build environment.

              This variable is set to the value obtained from the
              Rules-Requires-Root field or from the command-line.  When set,
              it will be a valid value for the Rules-Requires-Root field.
              It is used to notify debian/rules whether the
              rootless-builds.txt specification is supported.

              This variable is set to gain-root-command when the field
              Rules-Requires-Root is set to a value different to no and

              This variable is set to the Unix timestamp since the epoch of
              the latest entry in debian/changelog, if it is not already

FILES         top

              System wide configuration file

       $XDG_CONFIG_HOME/dpkg/buildpackage.conf or
              User configuration file.

NOTES         top

   Compiler flags are no longer exported
       Between dpkg 1.14.17 and 1.16.1, dpkg-buildpackage exported compiler
       flags (CFLAGS, CXXFLAGS, FFLAGS, CPPFLAGS and LDFLAGS) with values as
       returned by dpkg-buildflags. This is no longer the case.

   Default build targets
       dpkg-buildpackage is using the build-arch and build-indep targets
       since dpkg 1.16.2. Those targets are thus mandatory. But to avoid
       breakages of existing packages, and ease the transition, if the
       source package does not build both architecture independent and
       dependent binary packages (since dpkg 1.18.8) it will fallback to use
       the build target if make -f debian/rules -qn build-target returns 2
       as exit code.

BUGS         top

       It should be possible to specify spaces and shell metacharacters and
       initial arguments for gain-root-command and sign-command.

SEE ALSO         top

       dpkg-source(1), dpkg-architecture(1), dpkg-buildflags(1),
       dpkg-genbuildinfo(1), dpkg-genchanges(1), fakeroot(1), lintian(1),
       gpg2(1), gpg(1).

COLOPHON         top

       This page is part of the dpkg (Debian Package Manager) project.
       Information about the project can be found at 
       ⟨https://wiki.debian.org/Teams/Dpkg/⟩.  If you have a bug report for
       this manual page, see
       ⟨http://bugs.debian.org/cgi-bin/pkgreport.cgi?src=dpkg⟩.  This page
       was obtained from the project's upstream Git repository
       ⟨https://salsa.debian.org/dpkg-team/dpkg.git⟩ on 2020-11-01.  (At
       that time, the date of the most recent commit that was found in the
       repository was 2020-07-08.)  If you discover any rendering problems
       in this HTML version of the page, or you believe there is a better or
       more up-to-date source for the page, or you have corrections or im‐
       provements to the information in this COLOPHON (which is not part of
       the original manual page), send a mail to man-pages@man7.org

1.19.6-2-g6e42d5                 2019-03-25             dpkg-buildpackage(1)

Pages that refer to this page: dpkg-architecture(1)