dpkg-buildpackage(1) — Linux manual page


dpkg-buildpackage(1)           dpkg suite           dpkg-buildpackage(1)

NAME         top

       dpkg-buildpackage - build binary or source packages from sources

SYNOPSIS         top

       dpkg-buildpackage [option...]

DESCRIPTION         top

       dpkg-buildpackage is a program that automates the process of
       building a Debian package. It consists of the following steps:

       1. It prepares the build environment by setting various
          environment variables (see ENVIRONMENT), runs the init hook,
          and calls dpkg-source --before-build (unless -T or --target
          has been used).

       2. It checks that the build-dependencies and build-conflicts are
          satisfied (unless -d or --no-check-builddeps is specified).

       3. If one or more specific targets have been selected with the -T
          or --target option, it calls those targets and stops here.
          Otherwise it runs the preclean hook and calls fakeroot
          debian/rules clean to clean the build-tree (unless -nc or
          --no-pre-clean is specified).

       4. It runs the source hook and calls dpkg-source -b to generate
          the source package (if a source build has been requested with
          --build or equivalent options).

       5. It runs the build hook and calls debian/rules build-target,
          then runs the binary hook followed by fakeroot debian/rules
          binary-target (unless a source-only build has been requested
          with --build=source or equivalent options).  Note that build-
          target and binary-target are either build and binary (default
          case, or if an any and all build has been requested with
          --build or equivalent options), or build-arch and binary-arch
          (if an any and not all build has been requested with --build
          or equivalent options), or build-indep and binary-indep (if an
          all and not any build has been requested with --build or
          equivalent options).

       6. It runs the buildinfo hook and calls dpkg-genbuildinfo to
          generate a .buildinfo file.  Several dpkg-buildpackage options
          are forwarded to dpkg-genbuildinfo.

       7. It runs the changes hook and calls dpkg-genchanges to generate
          a .changes file.  The name of the .changes file will depend on
          the type of build and will be as specific as necessary but not
          more; for a build that includes any the name will be source-
          name_binary-version_arch.changes, or otherwise for a build
          that includes all the name will be source-name_binary-
          version_all.changes, or otherwise for a build that includes
          source the name will be source-name_source-
          version_source.changes.  Many dpkg-buildpackage options are
          forwarded to dpkg-genchanges.

       8. It runs the postclean hook and if -tc or --post-clean is
          specified, it will call fakeroot debian/rules clean again.

       9. It calls dpkg-source --after-build.

          It runs the check hook and calls a package checker for the
          .changes file (if a command is specified in DEB_CHECK_COMMAND
          or with --check-command).

          It runs the sign hook and calls gpg2 or gpg (as long as it is
          not an UNRELEASED build, or --no-sign is specified) to sign
          the .dsc file (if any, unless -us or --unsigned-source is
          specified), the .buildinfo file (unless -ui,
          --unsigned-buildinfo, -uc or --unsigned-changes is specified)
          and the .changes file (unless -uc or --unsigned-changes is

          It runs the done hook.

OPTIONS         top

       All long options can be specified both on the command line and in
       the dpkg-buildpackage system and user configuration files.  Each
       line in the configuration file is either an option (exactly the
       same as the command line option but without leading hyphens) or a
       comment (if it starts with a ‘#’).

              Specifies the build type from a comma-separated list of
              components (since dpkg 1.18.5).  Passed to

              The allowed values are:

              source Builds the source package.  Note: when using this
                     value standalone and if what you want is simply to
                     (re-)build the source package from a clean source
                     tree, using dpkg-source directly is always a better
                     option as it does not require any build
                     dependencies to be installed which are otherwise
                     needed to be able to call the clean target.

              any    Builds the architecture specific binary packages.

              all    Builds the architecture independent binary

              binary Builds the architecture specific and independent
                     binary packages.  This is an alias for any,all.

              full   Builds everything.  This is an alias for
                     source,any,all, and the same as the default case
                     when no build option is specified.

       -g     Equivalent to --build=source,all (since dpkg 1.17.11).

       -G     Equivalent to --build=source,any (since dpkg 1.17.11).

       -b     Equivalent to --build=binary or --build=any,all.

       -B     Equivalent to --build=any.

       -A     Equivalent to --build=all.

       -S     Equivalent to --build=source.

       -F     Equivalent to --build=full, --build=source,binary or
              --build=source,any,all (since dpkg 1.15.8).

       --target target[,...]
       -T, --rules-target=target[,...]
              Calls debian/rules target once per target specified, after
              having setup the build environment (except for calling
              dpkg-source --before-build), and stops the package build
              process here (since dpkg 1.15.0, long option since dpkg
              1.18.8, multi-target support since dpkg 1.18.16).  If
              --as-root is also given, then the command is executed as
              root (see --root-command).  Note that known targets that
              are required to be run as root do not need this option
              (i.e. the clean, binary, binary-arch and binary-indep

              Only meaningful together with --target (since dpkg
              1.15.0).  Requires that the target be run with root

       -m, --release-by=maintainer-address
       -e, --build-by=maintainer-address
              Passed unchanged to dpkg-genchanges. See its manual page.

       -a, --host-arch architecture
              Specify the Debian architecture we build for (long option
              since dpkg 1.17.17).  The architecture of the machine we
              build on is determined automatically, and is also the
              default for the host machine.

       -t, --host-type gnu-system-type
              Specify the GNU system type we build for (long option
              since dpkg 1.17.17).  It can be used in place of
              --host-arch or as a complement to override the default GNU
              system type of the host Debian architecture.

       --target-arch architecture
              Specify the Debian architecture the binaries built will
              build for (since dpkg 1.17.17).  The default value is the
              host machine.

       --target-type gnu-system-type
              Specify the GNU system type the binaries built will build
              for (since dpkg 1.17.17).  It can be used in place of
              --target-arch or as a complement to override the default
              GNU system type of the target Debian architecture.

       -P, --build-profiles=profile[,...]
              Specify the profile(s) we build, as a comma-separated list
              (since dpkg 1.17.2, long option since dpkg 1.18.8).  The
              default behavior is to build for no specific profile. Also
              sets them (as a space separated list) as the
              DEB_BUILD_PROFILES environment variable which allows, for
              example, debian/rules files to use this information for
              conditional builds.

       -j, --jobs[=jobs|auto]
              Number of jobs allowed to be run simultaneously, number of
              jobs matching the number of online processors if auto is
              specified (since dpkg 1.17.10), or unlimited number if
              jobs is not specified, equivalent to the make(1) option of
              the same name (since dpkg 1.14.7, long option since dpkg
              1.18.8).  Will add itself to the MAKEFLAGS environment
              variable, which should cause all subsequent make
              invocations to inherit the option, thus forcing the
              parallel setting on the packaging (and possibly the
              upstream build system if that uses make) regardless of
              their support for parallel builds, which might cause build
              failures.  Also adds parallel=jobs or parallel to the
              DEB_BUILD_OPTIONS environment variable which allows
              debian/rules files to use this information for their own
              purposes.  The -j value will override the parallel=jobs or
              parallel option in the DEB_BUILD_OPTIONS environment
              variable.  Note that the auto value will get replaced by
              the actual number of currently active processors, and as
              such will not get propagated to any child process. If the
              number of online processors cannot be inferred then the
              code will fallback to using serial execution (since dpkg
              1.18.15), although this should only happen on exotic and
              unsupported systems.

       -J, --jobs-try[=jobs|auto]
              This option (since dpkg 1.18.2, long option since dpkg
              1.18.8) is equivalent to the -j option except that it does
              not set the MAKEFLAGS environment variable, and as such it
              is safer to use with any package including those that are
              not parallel-build safe.

              auto is the default behavior (since dpkg 1.18.11). Setting
              the number of jobs to 1 will restore a serial behavior.

       -D, --check-builddeps
              Check build dependencies and conflicts; abort if
              unsatisfied (long option since dpkg 1.18.8).  This is the
              default behavior.

       -d, --no-check-builddeps
              Do not check build dependencies and conflicts (long option
              since dpkg 1.18.8).

              Do not check built-in build dependencies and conflicts
              (since dpkg 1.18.2).  These are the distribution specific
              implicit build dependencies usually required in a build
              environment, the so called Build-Essential package set.

              Do not honor the Rules-Requires-Root field, falling back
              to its legacy default value (since dpkg 1.19.1).

       -nc, --no-pre-clean
              Do not clean the source tree before building (long option
              since dpkg 1.18.8).  Implies -b if nothing else has been
              selected among -F, -g, -G, -B, -A or -S.  Implies -d with
              -S (since dpkg 1.18.0).

              Clean the source tree before building (since dpkg 1.18.8).
              This is the default behavior.

       -tc, --post-clean
              Clean the source tree (using gain-root-command
              debian/rules clean) after the package has been built (long
              option since dpkg 1.18.8).

              Do not clean the source tree after the package has been
              built (since dpkg 1.19.1).  This is the default behavior.

       -r, --root-command=gain-root-command
              When dpkg-buildpackage needs to execute part of the build
              process as root, it prefixes the command it executes with
              gain-root-command if one has been specified (long option
              since dpkg 1.18.8).  Otherwise, if none has been
              specified, fakeroot will be used by default, if the
              command is present.  gain-root-command should start with
              the name of a program on the PATH and will get as
              arguments the name of the real command to run and the
              arguments it should take.  gain-root-command can include
              parameters (they must be space-separated) but no shell
              metacharacters.  gain-root-command might typically be
              fakeroot, sudo, super or really.  su is not suitable,
              since it can only invoke the user's shell with -c instead
              of passing arguments individually to the command to be

       -R, --rules-file=rules-file
              Building a Debian package usually involves invoking
              debian/rules as a command with several standard parameters
              (since dpkg 1.14.17, long option since dpkg 1.18.8).  With
              this option it's possible to use another program
              invocation to build the package (it can include space
              separated parameters).  Alternatively it can be used to
              execute the standard rules file with another make program
              (for example by using /usr/local/bin/make -f debian/rules
              as rules-file).

              Command used to check the .changes file itself and any
              artifact built referenced in the file (since dpkg 1.17.6).
              The command should take the .changes pathname as an
              argument. This command will usually be lintian.

              Pass option opt to the check-command specified with
              DEB_CHECK_COMMAND or --check-command (since dpkg 1.17.6).
              Can be used multiple times.

              Set the specified shell code hook-command as the hook
              hook-name, which will run at the times specified in the
              run steps (since dpkg 1.17.6).  The hooks will always be
              executed even if the following action is not performed
              (except for the binary hook).  All the hooks will run in
              the unpacked source directory.

              Note: Hooks can affect the build process, and cause build
              failures if their commands fail, so watch out for
              unintended consequences.

              The current hook-name supported are:

              init preclean source build binary buildinfo changes
              postclean check sign done

              The hook-command supports the following substitution
              format string, which will get applied to it before

              %%     A single % character.

              %a     A boolean value (0 or 1), representing whether the
                     following action is being performed.

              %p     The source package name.

              %v     The source package version.

              %s     The source package version (without the epoch).

              %u     The upstream version.

              Pass option opt to dpkg-genbuildinfo (since dpkg 1.18.11).
              Can be used multiple times.

       -p, --sign-command=sign-command
              When dpkg-buildpackage needs to execute GPG to sign a
              source control (.dsc) file or a .changes file it will run
              sign-command (searching the PATH if necessary) instead of
              gpg2 or gpg (long option since dpkg 1.18.8).  sign-command
              will get all the arguments that gpg2 or gpg would have
              gotten. sign-command should not contain spaces or any
              other shell metacharacters.

       -k, --sign-key=key-id
              Specify a key-ID to use when signing packages (long option
              since dpkg 1.18.8).

       -us, --unsigned-source
              Do not sign the source package (long option since dpkg

       -ui, --unsigned-buildinfo
              Do not sign the .buildinfo file (since dpkg 1.18.19).

       -uc, --unsigned-changes
              Do not sign the .buildinfo and .changes files (long option
              since dpkg 1.18.8).

              Do not sign any file, this includes the source package,
              the .buildinfo file and the .changes file (since dpkg

              Force the signing of the resulting files (since dpkg
              1.17.0), regardless of -us, --unsigned-source, -ui,
              --unsigned-buildinfo, -uc, --unsigned-changes or other
              internal heuristics.

       -i, --diff-ignore[=regex]
       -I, --tar-ignore[=pattern]
       -z, --compression-level=level
       -Z, --compression=compressor
              Passed unchanged to dpkg-source. See its manual page.

              Pass option opt to dpkg-source (since dpkg 1.15.6).  Can
              be used multiple times.

              Pass option opt to dpkg-genchanges (since dpkg 1.15.6).
              Can be used multiple times.

       --admindir dir
              Change the location of the dpkg database (since dpkg
              1.14.0).  The default location is /usr/local/var/lib/dpkg.

       -?, --help
              Show the usage message and exit.

              Show the version and exit.

ENVIRONMENT         top

   External environment
              If set, it will be used as the command to check the
              .changes file (since dpkg 1.17.6).  Overridden by the
              --check-command option.

              If set, it will be used to sign the .changes and .dsc
              files (since dpkg 1.17.2).  Overridden by the --sign-key

              If set, it will contain a space-separated list of options
              that might affect the build process in debian/rules, and
              the behavior of some dpkg commands.

              With nocheck the DEB_CHECK_COMMAND variable will be
              ignored.  With parallel=N the parallel jobs will be set to
              N, overridden by the --jobs-try option.

              If set, it will be used as the active build profile(s) for
              the package being built (since dpkg 1.17.2).  It is a
              space separated list of profile names.  Overridden by the
              -P option.

              Sets the color mode (since dpkg 1.18.5).  The currently
              accepted values are: auto (default), always and never.

              If set, it will be used to decide whether to activate
              Native Language Support, also known as
              internationalization (or i18n) support (since dpkg
              1.19.0).  The accepted values are: 0 and 1 (default).

   Internal environment
       Even if dpkg-buildpackage exports some variables, debian/rules
       should not rely on their presence and should instead use the
       respective interface to retrieve the needed values, because that
       file is the main entry point to build packages and running it
       standalone should be supported.

              dpkg-architecture is called with the -a and -t parameters
              forwarded. Any variable that is output by its -s option is
              integrated in the build environment.

              This variable is set to the value obtained from the
              Rules-Requires-Root field or from the command-line.  When
              set, it will be a valid value for the Rules-Requires-Root
              field.  It is used to notify debian/rules whether the
              rootless-builds.txt specification is supported.

              This variable is set to gain-root-command when the field
              Rules-Requires-Root is set to a value different to no and

              This variable is set to the Unix timestamp since the epoch
              of the latest entry in debian/changelog, if it is not
              already defined.

FILES         top

              System wide configuration file

       $XDG_CONFIG_HOME/dpkg/buildpackage.conf or
              User configuration file.

NOTES         top

   Compiler flags are no longer exported
       Between dpkg 1.14.17 and 1.16.1, dpkg-buildpackage exported
       compiler flags (CFLAGS, CXXFLAGS, FFLAGS, CPPFLAGS and LDFLAGS)
       with values as returned by dpkg-buildflags. This is no longer the

   Default build targets
       dpkg-buildpackage is using the build-arch and build-indep targets
       since dpkg 1.16.2. Those targets are thus mandatory. But to avoid
       breakages of existing packages, and ease the transition, if the
       source package does not build both architecture independent and
       dependent binary packages (since dpkg 1.18.8) it will fallback to
       use the build target if make -f debian/rules -qn build-target
       returns 2 as exit code.

BUGS         top

       It should be possible to specify spaces and shell metacharacters
       and initial arguments for gain-root-command and sign-command.

SEE ALSO         top

       dpkg-source(1), dpkg-architecture(1), dpkg-buildflags(1),
       dpkg-genbuildinfo(1), dpkg-genchanges(1), fakeroot(1),
       lintian(1), gpg2(1), gpg(1).

COLOPHON         top

       This page is part of the dpkg (Debian Package Manager) project.
       Information about the project can be found at 
       ⟨https://wiki.debian.org/Teams/Dpkg/⟩.  If you have a bug report
       for this manual page, see
       ⟨http://bugs.debian.org/cgi-bin/pkgreport.cgi?src=dpkg⟩.  This
       page was obtained from the project's upstream Git repository
       ⟨https://salsa.debian.org/dpkg-team/dpkg.git⟩ on 2021-08-27.  (At
       that time, the date of the most recent commit that was found in
       the repository was 2021-06-17.)  If you discover any rendering
       problems in this HTML version of the page, or you believe there
       is a better or more up-to-date source for the page, or you have
       corrections or improvements to the information in this COLOPHON
       (which is not part of the original manual page), send a mail to

1.19.6-2-g6e42d5               2019-03-25           dpkg-buildpackage(1)

Pages that refer to this page: dpkg-architecture(1)