When no option is used ss displays a list of open non-listening
sockets (e.g. TCP/UNIX/UDP) that have established connection.
Show summary of options.
Output version information.
Suppress header line.
Do not try to resolve service names.
Try to resolve numeric address/ports.
Display both listening and non-listening (for TCP this means
established connections) sockets.
Display only listening sockets (these are omitted by default).
Show timer information.
Show detailed socket information
Show socket memory usage.
Show process using socket.
Show internal TCP information.
Attempts to forcibly close sockets. This option displays
sockets that are successfully closed and silently skips
sockets that the kernel does not support closing. It supports
IPv4 and IPv6 sockets only.
Print summary statistics. This option does not parse socket
lists obtaining summary from various sources. It is useful
when amount of sockets is so huge that parsing /proc/net/tcp
As the -p option but also shows process security context.
For netlink(7) sockets the initiating process context is
displayed as follows:
1. If valid pid show the process context.
2. If destination is kernel (pid = 0) show kernel
3. If a unique identifier has been allocated by the
kernel or netlink user, show context as
"unavailable". This will generally indicate that a
process has more than one netlink socket active.
As the -Z option but also shows the socket context. The socket
context is taken from the associated inode and is not the
actual socket context held by the kernel. Sockets are
typically labeled with the context of the creating process,
however the context shown will reflect any policy role, type
and/or range transition rules applied, and is therefore a
-N NSNAME, --net=NSNAME
Switch to the specified network namespace name.
Show socket BPF filters (only administrators are allowed to
get these information).
Display only IP version 4 sockets (alias for -f inet).
Display only IP version 6 sockets (alias for -f inet6).
Display PACKET sockets (alias for -f link).
Display TCP sockets.
Display UDP sockets.
Display DCCP sockets.
Display RAW sockets.
Display Unix domain sockets (alias for -f unix).
Display SCTP sockets.
-f FAMILY, --family=FAMILY
Display sockets of type FAMILY. Currently the following
families are supported: unix, inet, inet6, link, netlink.
-A QUERY, --query=QUERY, --socket=QUERY
List of socket tables to dump, separated by commas. The
following identifiers are understood: all, inet, tcp, udp,
raw, unix, packet, netlink, unix_dgram, unix_stream,
unix_seqpacket, packet_raw, packet_dgram, dccp, sctp.
-D FILE, --diag=FILE
Do not display anything, just dump raw information about TCP
sockets to FILE after applying filters. If FILE is - stdout is
-F FILE, --filter=FILE
Read filter information from FILE. Each line of FILE is
interpreted like single command line option. If FILE is -
stdin is used.
FILTER := [ state STATE-FILTER ] [ EXPRESSION ]
Please take a look at the official documentation (Debian
package iproute-doc) for details regarding filters.
STATE-FILTER allows to construct arbitrary set of states to match.
Its syntax is sequence of keywords state and exclude followed by
identifier of state.
Available identifiers are:
All standard TCP states: established, syn-sent, syn-recv, fin-wait-1, fin-wait-2, time-wait, closed, close-wait, last-ack,
listen and closing.all - for all the states
connected - all the states except for listen and closedsynchronized - all the connected states except for syn-sentbucket - states, which are maintained as minisockets, i.e.
time-wait and syn-recvbig - opposite to bucket
ss -t -a
Display all TCP sockets.
ss -t -a -Z
Display all TCP sockets with process SELinux security
ss -u -a
Display all UDP sockets.
ss -o state established '( dport = :ssh or sport = :ssh )'
Display all established ssh connections.
ss -x src /tmp/.X11-unix/*
Find all local processes connected to X server.
ss -o state fin-wait-1 '( sport = :http or sport = :https )' dst193.233.7/24
List all the tcp sockets in state FIN-WAIT-1 for our apache to
network 193.233.7/24 and look at their timers.
This page is part of the iproute2 (utilities for controlling TCP/IP
networking and traffic) project. Information about the project can
be found at
If you have a bug report for this manual page, send it to
email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org. This page was obtained
from the project's upstream Git repository
on 2017-03-13. If you discover any rendering problems in this HTML
version of the page, or you believe there is a better or more up-to-
date source for the page, or you have corrections or improvements to
the information in this COLOPHON (which is not part of the original
manual page), send a mail to email@example.com