terminfo(5)                     File Formats                     terminfo(5)

NAME         top

       terminfo - terminal capability data base

SYNOPSIS         top


DESCRIPTION         top

       Terminfo is a data base describing terminals, used by screen-oriented
       programs such as nvi(1), rogue(1) and libraries such as curses(3X).
       Terminfo describes terminals by giving a set of capabilities which
       they have, by specifying how to perform screen operations, and by
       specifying padding requirements and initialization sequences.  This
       describes ncurses version @NCURSES_MAJOR@.@NCURSES_MINOR@ (patch

   Terminfo Entry Syntax
       Entries in terminfo consist of a sequence of fields:

       ·   Each field ends with a comma “,” (embedded commas may be escaped
           with a backslash or written as “\054”).

       ·   White space between fields is ignored.

       ·   The first field in a terminfo entry begins in the first column.

       ·   Newlines and leading whitespace (spaces or tabs) may be used for
           formatting entries for readability.  These are removed from
           parsed entries.

           The @INFOCMP@ -f and -W options rely on this to format if-then-
           else expressions, or to enforce maximum line-width.  The
           resulting formatted terminal description can be read by @TIC@.

       ·   The first field for each terminal gives the names which are known
           for the terminal, separated by “|” characters.

           The first name given is the most common abbreviation for the
           terminal (its primary name), the last name given should be a long
           name fully identifying the terminal (see longname(3X)), and all
           others are treated as synonyms (aliases) for the primary terminal

           X/Open Curses advises that all names but the last should be in
           lower case and contain no blanks; the last name may well contain
           upper case and blanks for readability.

           This implementation is not so strict; it allows mixed case in the
           primary name and aliases.  If the last name has no embedded
           blanks, it allows that to be both an alias and a verbose name
           (but will warn about this ambiguity).

       ·   Lines beginning with a “#” in the first column are treated as

           While comment lines are legal at any point, the output of
           @CAPTOINFO@ and @INFOTOCAP@ (aliases for @TIC@) will move
           comments so they occur only between entries.

       Terminal names (except for the last, verbose entry) should be chosen
       using the following conventions.  The particular piece of hardware
       making up the terminal should have a root name, thus “hp2621”.  This
       name should not contain hyphens.  Modes that the hardware can be in,
       or user preferences, should be indicated by appending a hyphen and a
       mode suffix.  Thus, a vt100 in 132 column mode would be vt100-w.  The
       following suffixes should be used where possible:

           Suffix                  Meaning                   Example
           -nn      Number of lines on the screen            aaa-60
           -np      Number of pages of memory                c100-4p
           -am      With automargins (usually the default)   vt100-am
           -m       Mono mode; suppress color                ansi-m
           -mc      Magic cookie; spaces when highlighting   wy30-mc
           -na      No arrow keys (leave them in local)      c100-na
           -nam     Without automatic margins                vt100-nam
           -nl      No status line                           att4415-nl
           -ns      No status line                           hp2626-ns
           -rv      Reverse video                            c100-rv
           -s       Enable status line                       vt100-s
           -vb      Use visible bell instead of beep         wy370-vb
           -w       Wide mode (> 80 columns, usually 132)    vt100-w

       For more on terminal naming conventions, see the term(7) manual page.

   Terminfo Capabilities Syntax
       The terminfo entry consists of several capabilities, i.e., features
       that the terminal has, or methods for exercising the terminal's

       After the first field (giving the name(s) of the terminal entry),
       there should be one or more capability fields.  These are boolean,
       numeric or string names with corresponding values:

       ·   Boolean capabilities are true when present, false when absent.
           There is no explicit value for boolean capabilities.

       ·   Numeric capabilities have a “#” following the name, then an
           unsigned decimal integer value.

       ·   String capabilities have a “=” following the name, then an string
           of characters making up the capability value.

           String capabilities can be split into multiple lines, just as the
           fields comprising a terminal entry can be split into multiple
           lines.  While blanks between fields are ignored, blanks embedded
           within a string value are retained, except for leading blanks on
           a line.

       Any capability can be canceled, i.e., suppressed from the terminal
       entry, by following its name with “@” rather than a capability value.

   Similar Terminals
       If there are two very similar terminals, one (the variant) can be
       defined as being just like the other (the base) with certain
       exceptions.  In the definition of the variant, the string capability
       use can be given with the name of the base terminal:

       ·   The capabilities given before use override those in the base type
           named by use.

       ·   If there are multiple use capabilities, they are merged in
           reverse order.  That is, the rightmost use reference is processed
           first, then the one to its left, and so forth.

       ·   Capabilities given explicitly in the entry override those brought
           in by use references.

       A capability can be canceled by placing xx@ to the left of the use
       reference that imports it, where xx is the capability.  For example,
       the entry

              2621-nl, smkx@, rmkx@, use=2621,

       defines a 2621-nl that does not have the smkx or rmkx capabilities,
       and hence does not turn on the function key labels when in visual
       mode.  This is useful for different modes for a terminal, or for
       different user preferences.

       An entry included via use can contain canceled capabilities, which
       have the same effect as if those cancels were inline in the using
       terminal entry.

   Predefined Capabilities
       The following is a complete table of the capabilities included in a
       terminfo description block and available to terminfo-using code.  In
       each line of the table,

       The variable is the name by which the programmer (at the terminfo
       level) accesses the capability.

       The capname is the short name used in the text of the database, and
       is used by a person updating the database.  Whenever possible,
       capnames are chosen to be the same as or similar to the ANSI
       X3.64-1979 standard (now superseded by ECMA-48, which uses identical
       or very similar names).  Semantics are also intended to match those
       of the specification.

       The termcap code is the old termcap capability name (some
       capabilities are new, and have names which termcap did not

       Capability names have no hard length limit, but an informal limit of
       5 characters has been adopted to keep them short and to allow the
       tabs in the source file Caps to line up nicely.

       Finally, the description field attempts to convey the semantics of
       the capability.  You may find some codes in the description field:

       (P)    indicates that padding may be specified

       #[1-9] in the description field indicates that the string is passed
              through tparm with parms as given (#i).

       (P*)   indicates that padding may vary in proportion to the number of
              lines affected

       (#i)   indicates the ith parameter.

       These are the boolean capabilities:

               Variable              Cap-      TCap         Description
               Booleans              name      Code
       auto_left_margin              bw        bw       cub1 wraps from
                                                        column 0 to last
       auto_right_margin             am        am       terminal has
                                                        automatic margins
       back_color_erase              bce       ut       screen erased with
                                                        background color
       can_change                    ccc       cc       terminal can re-
                                                        define existing

       ceol_standout_glitch          xhp       xs       standout not erased
                                                        by overwriting (hp)
       col_addr_glitch               xhpa      YA       only positive motion
                                                        for hpa/mhpa caps
       cpi_changes_res               cpix      YF       changing character
                                                        pitch changes
       cr_cancels_micro_mode         crxm      YB       using cr turns off
                                                        micro mode
       dest_tabs_magic_smso          xt        xt       tabs destructive,
                                                        magic so char
       eat_newline_glitch            xenl      xn       newline ignored
                                                        after 80 cols
       erase_overstrike              eo        eo       can erase
                                                        overstrikes with a
       generic_type                  gn        gn       generic line type
       hard_copy                     hc        hc       hardcopy terminal
       hard_cursor                   chts      HC       cursor is hard to
       has_meta_key                  km        km       Has a meta key
                                                        (i.e., sets 8th-bit)
       has_print_wheel               daisy     YC       printer needs
                                                        operator to change
                                                        character set
       has_status_line               hs        hs       has extra status
       hue_lightness_saturation      hls       hl       terminal uses only
                                                        HLS color notation
       insert_null_glitch            in        in       insert mode
                                                        distinguishes nulls
       lpi_changes_res               lpix      YG       changing line pitch
                                                        changes resolution
       memory_above                  da        da       display may be
                                                        retained above the
       memory_below                  db        db       display may be
                                                        retained below the
       move_insert_mode              mir       mi       safe to move while
                                                        in insert mode
       move_standout_mode            msgr      ms       safe to move while
                                                        in standout mode
       needs_xon_xoff                nxon      nx       padding will not
                                                        work, xon/xoff
       no_esc_ctlc                   xsb       xb       beehive (f1=escape,
                                                        f2=ctrl C)
       no_pad_char                   npc       NP       pad character does
                                                        not exist
       non_dest_scroll_region        ndscr     ND       scrolling region is
       non_rev_rmcup                 nrrmc     NR       smcup does not
                                                        reverse rmcup
       over_strike                   os        os       terminal can
       prtr_silent                   mc5i      5i       printer will not
                                                        echo on screen
       row_addr_glitch               xvpa      YD       only positive motion
                                                        for vpa/mvpa caps
       semi_auto_right_margin        sam       YE       printing in last
                                                        column causes cr

       status_line_esc_ok            eslok     es       escape can be used
                                                        on the status line
       tilde_glitch                  hz        hz       cannot print ~'s
       transparent_underline         ul        ul       underline character
       xon_xoff                      xon       xo       terminal uses
                                                        xon/xoff handshaking

       These are the numeric capabilities:

               Variable              Cap-      TCap         Description
                Numeric              name      Code
       columns                       cols      co       number of columns in
                                                        a line
       init_tabs                     it        it       tabs initially every
                                                        # spaces
       label_height                  lh        lh       rows in each label
       label_width                   lw        lw       columns in each
       lines                         lines     li       number of lines on
                                                        screen or page
       lines_of_memory               lm        lm       lines of memory if >
                                                        line. 0 means varies
       magic_cookie_glitch           xmc       sg       number of blank
                                                        characters left by
                                                        smso or rmso
       max_attributes                ma        ma       maximum combined
                                                        attributes terminal
                                                        can handle
       max_colors                    colors    Co       maximum number of
                                                        colors on screen
       max_pairs                     pairs     pa       maximum number of
                                                        color-pairs on the
       maximum_windows               wnum      MW       maximum number of
                                                        definable windows
       no_color_video                ncv       NC       video attributes
                                                        that cannot be used
                                                        with colors
       num_labels                    nlab      Nl       number of labels on
       padding_baud_rate             pb        pb       lowest baud rate
                                                        where padding needed
       virtual_terminal              vt        vt       virtual terminal
                                                        number (CB/unix)
       width_status_line             wsl       ws       number of columns in
                                                        status line

       The  following  numeric  capabilities  are present in the SVr4.0 term
       structure, but are not yet documented in the man page.  They came  in
       with SVr4's printer support.

               Variable              Cap-      TCap         Description
                Numeric              name      Code
       bit_image_entwining           bitwin    Yo       number of passes for
                                                        each bit-image row
       bit_image_type                bitype    Yp       type of bit-image
       buffer_capacity               bufsz     Ya       numbers of bytes
                                                        buffered before

       buttons                       btns      BT       number of buttons on
       dot_horz_spacing              spinh     Yc       spacing of dots
                                                        horizontally in dots
                                                        per inch
       dot_vert_spacing              spinv     Yb       spacing of pins
                                                        vertically in pins
                                                        per inch
       max_micro_address             maddr     Yd       maximum value in
       max_micro_jump                mjump     Ye       maximum value in
       micro_col_size                mcs       Yf       character step size
                                                        when in micro mode
       micro_line_size               mls       Yg       line step size when
                                                        in micro mode
       number_of_pins                npins     Yh       numbers of pins in
       output_res_char               orc       Yi       horizontal
                                                        resolution in units
                                                        per line
       output_res_horz_inch          orhi      Yk       horizontal
                                                        resolution in units
                                                        per inch
       output_res_line               orl       Yj       vertical resolution
                                                        in units per line
       output_res_vert_inch          orvi      Yl       vertical resolution
                                                        in units per inch
       print_rate                    cps       Ym       print rate in
                                                        characters per
       wide_char_size                widcs     Yn       character step size
                                                        when in double wide

       These are the string capabilities:

               Variable              Cap-      TCap         Description
                String               name      Code
       acs_chars                     acsc      ac       graphics charset
                                                        pairs, based on
       back_tab                      cbt       bt       back tab (P)
       bell                          bel       bl       audible signal
                                                        (bell) (P)
       carriage_return               cr        cr       carriage return (P*)
       change_char_pitch             cpi       ZA       Change number of
                                                        characters per inch
                                                        to #1
       change_line_pitch             lpi       ZB       Change number of
                                                        lines per inch to #1
       change_res_horz               chr       ZC       Change horizontal
                                                        resolution to #1
       change_res_vert               cvr       ZD       Change vertical
                                                        resolution to #1
       change_scroll_region          csr       cs       change region to
                                                        line #1 to line #2
       char_padding                  rmp       rP       like ip but when in
                                                        insert mode
       clear_all_tabs                tbc       ct       clear all tab stops

       clear_margins                 mgc       MC       clear right and left
                                                        soft margins
       clear_screen                  clear     cl       clear screen and
                                                        home cursor (P*)
       clr_bol                       el1       cb       Clear to beginning
                                                        of line
       clr_eol                       el        ce       clear to end of line
       clr_eos                       ed        cd       clear to end of
                                                        screen (P*)
       column_address                hpa       ch       horizontal position
                                                        #1, absolute (P)
       command_character             cmdch     CC       terminal settable
                                                        cmd character in
                                                        prototype !?
       create_window                 cwin      CW       define a window #1
                                                        from #2,#3 to #4,#5
       cursor_address                cup       cm       move to row #1
                                                        columns #2
       cursor_down                   cud1      do       down one line
       cursor_home                   home      ho       home cursor (if no
       cursor_invisible              civis     vi       make cursor
       cursor_left                   cub1      le       move left one space
       cursor_mem_address            mrcup     CM       memory relative
                                                        cursor addressing,
                                                        move to row #1
                                                        columns #2
       cursor_normal                 cnorm     ve       make cursor appear
                                                        normal (undo
       cursor_right                  cuf1      nd       non-destructive
                                                        space (move right
                                                        one space)
       cursor_to_ll                  ll        ll       last line, first
                                                        column (if no cup)
       cursor_up                     cuu1      up       up one line
       cursor_visible                cvvis     vs       make cursor very
       define_char                   defc      ZE       Define a character
                                                        #1, #2 dots wide,
                                                        descender #3
       delete_character              dch1      dc       delete character
       delete_line                   dl1       dl       delete line (P*)
       dial_phone                    dial      DI       dial number #1
       dis_status_line               dsl       ds       disable status line
       display_clock                 dclk      DK       display clock
       down_half_line                hd        hd       half a line down
       ena_acs                       enacs     eA       enable alternate
                                                        char set
       enter_alt_charset_mode        smacs     as       start alternate
                                                        character set (P)
       enter_am_mode                 smam      SA       turn on automatic
       enter_blink_mode              blink     mb       turn on blinking
       enter_bold_mode               bold      md       turn on bold (extra
                                                        bright) mode
       enter_ca_mode                 smcup     ti       string to start
                                                        programs using cup
       enter_delete_mode             smdc      dm       enter delete mode
       enter_dim_mode                dim       mh       turn on half-bright

       enter_doublewide_mode         swidm     ZF       Enter double-wide
       enter_draft_quality           sdrfq     ZG       Enter draft-quality
       enter_insert_mode             smir      im       enter insert mode
       enter_italics_mode            sitm      ZH       Enter italic mode
       enter_leftward_mode           slm       ZI       Start leftward
                                                        carriage motion
       enter_micro_mode              smicm     ZJ       Start micro-motion
       enter_near_letter_quality     snlq      ZK       Enter NLQ mode
       enter_normal_quality          snrmq     ZL       Enter normal-quality
       enter_protected_mode          prot      mp       turn on protected
       enter_reverse_mode            rev       mr       turn on reverse
                                                        video mode
       enter_secure_mode             invis     mk       turn on blank mode
       enter_shadow_mode             sshm      ZM       Enter shadow-print
       enter_standout_mode           smso      so       begin standout mode
       enter_subscript_mode          ssubm     ZN       Enter subscript mode
       enter_superscript_mode        ssupm     ZO       Enter superscript
       enter_underline_mode          smul      us       begin underline mode
       enter_upward_mode             sum       ZP       Start upward
                                                        carriage motion
       enter_xon_mode                smxon     SX       turn on xon/xoff
       erase_chars                   ech       ec       erase #1 characters
       exit_alt_charset_mode         rmacs     ae       end alternate
                                                        character set (P)
       exit_am_mode                  rmam      RA       turn off automatic
       exit_attribute_mode           sgr0      me       turn off all
       exit_ca_mode                  rmcup     te       strings to end
                                                        programs using cup
       exit_delete_mode              rmdc      ed       end delete mode
       exit_doublewide_mode          rwidm     ZQ       End double-wide mode
       exit_insert_mode              rmir      ei       exit insert mode
       exit_italics_mode             ritm      ZR       End italic mode
       exit_leftward_mode            rlm       ZS       End left-motion mode
       exit_micro_mode               rmicm     ZT       End micro-motion
       exit_shadow_mode              rshm      ZU       End shadow-print
       exit_standout_mode            rmso      se       exit standout mode
       exit_subscript_mode           rsubm     ZV       End subscript mode
       exit_superscript_mode         rsupm     ZW       End superscript mode
       exit_underline_mode           rmul      ue       exit underline mode
       exit_upward_mode              rum       ZX       End reverse
                                                        character motion
       exit_xon_mode                 rmxon     RX       turn off xon/xoff
       fixed_pause                   pause     PA       pause for 2-3
       flash_hook                    hook      fh       flash switch hook
       flash_screen                  flash     vb       visible bell (may
                                                        not move cursor)
       form_feed                     ff        ff       hardcopy terminal
                                                        page eject (P*)

       from_status_line              fsl       fs       return from status
       goto_window                   wingo     WG       go to window #1
       hangup                        hup       HU       hang-up phone
       init_1string                  is1       i1       initialization
       init_2string                  is2       is       initialization
       init_3string                  is3       i3       initialization
       init_file                     if        if       name of
                                                        initialization file
       init_prog                     iprog     iP       path name of program
                                                        for initialization
       initialize_color              initc     Ic       initialize color #1
                                                        to (#2,#3,#4)
       initialize_pair               initp     Ip       Initialize color
                                                        pair #1 to
       insert_character              ich1      ic       insert character (P)
       insert_line                   il1       al       insert line (P*)
       insert_padding                ip        ip       insert padding after
                                                        inserted character
       key_a1                        ka1       K1       upper left of keypad
       key_a3                        ka3       K3       upper right of
       key_b2                        kb2       K2       center of keypad
       key_backspace                 kbs       kb       backspace key
       key_beg                       kbeg      @1       begin key
       key_btab                      kcbt      kB       back-tab key
       key_c1                        kc1       K4       lower left of keypad
       key_c3                        kc3       K5       lower right of
       key_cancel                    kcan      @2       cancel key
       key_catab                     ktbc      ka       clear-all-tabs key
       key_clear                     kclr      kC       clear-screen or
                                                        erase key
       key_close                     kclo      @3       close key
       key_command                   kcmd      @4       command key
       key_copy                      kcpy      @5       copy key
       key_create                    kcrt      @6       create key
       key_ctab                      kctab     kt       clear-tab key
       key_dc                        kdch1     kD       delete-character key
       key_dl                        kdl1      kL       delete-line key
       key_down                      kcud1     kd       down-arrow key
       key_eic                       krmir     kM       sent by rmir or smir
                                                        in insert mode
       key_end                       kend      @7       end key
       key_enter                     kent      @8       enter/send key
       key_eol                       kel       kE       clear-to-end-of-line
       key_eos                       ked       kS       clear-to-end-of-
                                                        screen key
       key_exit                      kext      @9       exit key
       key_f0                        kf0       k0       F0 function key
       key_f1                        kf1       k1       F1 function key
       key_f10                       kf10      k;       F10 function key
       key_f11                       kf11      F1       F11 function key
       key_f12                       kf12      F2       F12 function key
       key_f13                       kf13      F3       F13 function key
       key_f14                       kf14      F4       F14 function key
       key_f15                       kf15      F5       F15 function key
       key_f16                       kf16      F6       F16 function key
       key_f17                       kf17      F7       F17 function key

       key_f18                       kf18      F8       F18 function key
       key_f19                       kf19      F9       F19 function key
       key_f2                        kf2       k2       F2 function key
       key_f20                       kf20      FA       F20 function key
       key_f21                       kf21      FB       F21 function key
       key_f22                       kf22      FC       F22 function key
       key_f23                       kf23      FD       F23 function key
       key_f24                       kf24      FE       F24 function key
       key_f25                       kf25      FF       F25 function key
       key_f26                       kf26      FG       F26 function key
       key_f27                       kf27      FH       F27 function key
       key_f28                       kf28      FI       F28 function key
       key_f29                       kf29      FJ       F29 function key
       key_f3                        kf3       k3       F3 function key
       key_f30                       kf30      FK       F30 function key
       key_f31                       kf31      FL       F31 function key
       key_f32                       kf32      FM       F32 function key
       key_f33                       kf33      FN       F33 function key
       key_f34                       kf34      FO       F34 function key
       key_f35                       kf35      FP       F35 function key
       key_f36                       kf36      FQ       F36 function key
       key_f37                       kf37      FR       F37 function key
       key_f38                       kf38      FS       F38 function key
       key_f39                       kf39      FT       F39 function key
       key_f4                        kf4       k4       F4 function key
       key_f40                       kf40      FU       F40 function key
       key_f41                       kf41      FV       F41 function key
       key_f42                       kf42      FW       F42 function key
       key_f43                       kf43      FX       F43 function key
       key_f44                       kf44      FY       F44 function key
       key_f45                       kf45      FZ       F45 function key
       key_f46                       kf46      Fa       F46 function key
       key_f47                       kf47      Fb       F47 function key
       key_f48                       kf48      Fc       F48 function key
       key_f49                       kf49      Fd       F49 function key
       key_f5                        kf5       k5       F5 function key
       key_f50                       kf50      Fe       F50 function key
       key_f51                       kf51      Ff       F51 function key
       key_f52                       kf52      Fg       F52 function key
       key_f53                       kf53      Fh       F53 function key
       key_f54                       kf54      Fi       F54 function key
       key_f55                       kf55      Fj       F55 function key
       key_f56                       kf56      Fk       F56 function key
       key_f57                       kf57      Fl       F57 function key
       key_f58                       kf58      Fm       F58 function key
       key_f59                       kf59      Fn       F59 function key
       key_f6                        kf6       k6       F6 function key
       key_f60                       kf60      Fo       F60 function key
       key_f61                       kf61      Fp       F61 function key
       key_f62                       kf62      Fq       F62 function key
       key_f63                       kf63      Fr       F63 function key
       key_f7                        kf7       k7       F7 function key
       key_f8                        kf8       k8       F8 function key
       key_f9                        kf9       k9       F9 function key
       key_find                      kfnd      @0       find key
       key_help                      khlp      %1       help key
       key_home                      khome     kh       home key
       key_ic                        kich1     kI       insert-character key
       key_il                        kil1      kA       insert-line key
       key_left                      kcub1     kl       left-arrow key
       key_ll                        kll       kH       lower-left key (home
       key_mark                      kmrk      %2       mark key
       key_message                   kmsg      %3       message key
       key_move                      kmov      %4       move key

       key_next                      knxt      %5       next key
       key_npage                     knp       kN       next-page key
       key_open                      kopn      %6       open key
       key_options                   kopt      %7       options key
       key_ppage                     kpp       kP       previous-page key
       key_previous                  kprv      %8       previous key
       key_print                     kprt      %9       print key
       key_redo                      krdo      %0       redo key
       key_reference                 kref      &1       reference key
       key_refresh                   krfr      &2       refresh key
       key_replace                   krpl      &3       replace key
       key_restart                   krst      &4       restart key
       key_resume                    kres      &5       resume key
       key_right                     kcuf1     kr       right-arrow key
       key_save                      ksav      &6       save key
       key_sbeg                      kBEG      &9       shifted begin key
       key_scancel                   kCAN      &0       shifted cancel key
       key_scommand                  kCMD      *1       shifted command key
       key_scopy                     kCPY      *2       shifted copy key
       key_screate                   kCRT      *3       shifted create key
       key_sdc                       kDC       *4       shifted delete-
                                                        character key
       key_sdl                       kDL       *5       shifted delete-line
       key_select                    kslt      *6       select key
       key_send                      kEND      *7       shifted end key
       key_seol                      kEOL      *8       shifted clear-to-
                                                        end-of-line key
       key_sexit                     kEXT      *9       shifted exit key
       key_sf                        kind      kF       scroll-forward key
       key_sfind                     kFND      *0       shifted find key
       key_shelp                     kHLP      #1       shifted help key
       key_shome                     kHOM      #2       shifted home key
       key_sic                       kIC       #3       shifted insert-
                                                        character key
       key_sleft                     kLFT      #4       shifted left-arrow
       key_smessage                  kMSG      %a       shifted message key
       key_smove                     kMOV      %b       shifted move key
       key_snext                     kNXT      %c       shifted next key
       key_soptions                  kOPT      %d       shifted options key
       key_sprevious                 kPRV      %e       shifted previous key
       key_sprint                    kPRT      %f       shifted print key
       key_sr                        kri       kR       scroll-backward key
       key_sredo                     kRDO      %g       shifted redo key
       key_sreplace                  kRPL      %h       shifted replace key
       key_sright                    kRIT      %i       shifted right-arrow
       key_srsume                    kRES      %j       shifted resume key
       key_ssave                     kSAV      !1       shifted save key
       key_ssuspend                  kSPD      !2       shifted suspend key
       key_stab                      khts      kT       set-tab key
       key_sundo                     kUND      !3       shifted undo key
       key_suspend                   kspd      &7       suspend key
       key_undo                      kund      &8       undo key
       key_up                        kcuu1     ku       up-arrow key
       keypad_local                  rmkx      ke       leave
       keypad_xmit                   smkx      ks       enter
       lab_f0                        lf0       l0       label on function
                                                        key f0 if not f0

       lab_f1                        lf1       l1       label on function
                                                        key f1 if not f1
       lab_f10                       lf10      la       label on function
                                                        key f10 if not f10
       lab_f2                        lf2       l2       label on function
                                                        key f2 if not f2
       lab_f3                        lf3       l3       label on function
                                                        key f3 if not f3
       lab_f4                        lf4       l4       label on function
                                                        key f4 if not f4
       lab_f5                        lf5       l5       label on function
                                                        key f5 if not f5
       lab_f6                        lf6       l6       label on function
                                                        key f6 if not f6
       lab_f7                        lf7       l7       label on function
                                                        key f7 if not f7
       lab_f8                        lf8       l8       label on function
                                                        key f8 if not f8
       lab_f9                        lf9       l9       label on function
                                                        key f9 if not f9
       label_format                  fln       Lf       label format
       label_off                     rmln      LF       turn off soft labels
       label_on                      smln      LO       turn on soft labels
       meta_off                      rmm       mo       turn off meta mode
       meta_on                       smm       mm       turn on meta mode
                                                        (8th-bit on)
       micro_column_address          mhpa      ZY       Like column_address
                                                        in micro mode
       micro_down                    mcud1     ZZ       Like cursor_down in
                                                        micro mode
       micro_left                    mcub1     Za       Like cursor_left in
                                                        micro mode
       micro_right                   mcuf1     Zb       Like cursor_right in
                                                        micro mode
       micro_row_address             mvpa      Zc       Like row_address #1
                                                        in micro mode
       micro_up                      mcuu1     Zd       Like cursor_up in
                                                        micro mode
       newline                       nel       nw       newline (behave like
                                                        cr followed by lf)
       order_of_pins                 porder    Ze       Match software bits
                                                        to print-head pins
       orig_colors                   oc        oc       Set all color pairs
                                                        to the original ones
       orig_pair                     op        op       Set default pair to
                                                        its original value
       pad_char                      pad       pc       padding char
                                                        (instead of null)
       parm_dch                      dch       DC       delete #1 characters
       parm_delete_line              dl        DL       delete #1 lines (P*)
       parm_down_cursor              cud       DO       down #1 lines (P*)
       parm_down_micro               mcud      Zf       Like
                                                        parm_down_cursor in
                                                        micro mode
       parm_ich                      ich       IC       insert #1 characters
       parm_index                    indn      SF       scroll forward #1
                                                        lines (P)
       parm_insert_line              il        AL       insert #1 lines (P*)
       parm_left_cursor              cub       LE       move #1 characters
                                                        to the left (P)
       parm_left_micro               mcub      Zg       Like
                                                        parm_left_cursor in
                                                        micro mode

       parm_right_cursor             cuf       RI       move #1 characters
                                                        to the right (P*)
       parm_right_micro              mcuf      Zh       Like
                                                        parm_right_cursor in
                                                        micro mode
       parm_rindex                   rin       SR       scroll back #1 lines
       parm_up_cursor                cuu       UP       up #1 lines (P*)
       parm_up_micro                 mcuu      Zi       Like parm_up_cursor
                                                        in micro mode
       pkey_key                      pfkey     pk       program function key
                                                        #1 to type string #2
       pkey_local                    pfloc     pl       program function key
                                                        #1 to execute string
       pkey_xmit                     pfx       px       program function key
                                                        #1 to transmit
                                                        string #2
       plab_norm                     pln       pn       program label #1 to
                                                        show string #2
       print_screen                  mc0       ps       print contents of
       prtr_non                      mc5p      pO       turn on printer for
                                                        #1 bytes
       prtr_off                      mc4       pf       turn off printer
       prtr_on                       mc5       po       turn on printer
       pulse                         pulse     PU       select pulse dialing
       quick_dial                    qdial     QD       dial number #1
                                                        without checking
       remove_clock                  rmclk     RC       remove clock
       repeat_char                   rep       rp       repeat char #1 #2
                                                        times (P*)
       req_for_input                 rfi       RF       send next input char
                                                        (for ptys)
       reset_1string                 rs1       r1       reset string
       reset_2string                 rs2       r2       reset string
       reset_3string                 rs3       r3       reset string
       reset_file                    rf        rf       name of reset file
       restore_cursor                rc        rc       restore cursor to
                                                        position of last
       row_address                   vpa       cv       vertical position #1
                                                        absolute (P)
       save_cursor                   sc        sc       save current cursor
                                                        position (P)
       scroll_forward                ind       sf       scroll text up (P)
       scroll_reverse                ri        sr       scroll text down (P)
       select_char_set               scs       Zj       Select character
                                                        set, #1
       set_attributes                sgr       sa       define video
                                                        attributes #1-#9
       set_background                setb      Sb       Set background color
       set_bottom_margin             smgb      Zk       Set bottom margin at
                                                        current line
       set_bottom_margin_parm        smgbp     Zl       Set bottom margin at
                                                        line #1 or (if smgtp
                                                        is not given) #2
                                                        lines from bottom
       set_clock                     sclk      SC       set clock, #1 hrs #2
                                                        mins #3 secs
       set_color_pair                scp       sp       Set current color
                                                        pair to #1

       set_foreground                setf      Sf       Set foreground color
       set_left_margin               smgl      ML       set left soft margin
                                                        at current
                                                        column.       See
                                                        smgl. (ML is not in
                                                        BSD termcap).
       set_left_margin_parm          smglp     Zm       Set left (right)
                                                        margin at column #1
       set_right_margin              smgr      MR       set right soft
                                                        margin at current
       set_right_margin_parm         smgrp     Zn       Set right margin at
                                                        column #1
       set_tab                       hts       st       set a tab in every
                                                        row, current columns
       set_top_margin                smgt      Zo       Set top margin at
                                                        current line
       set_top_margin_parm           smgtp     Zp       Set top (bottom)
                                                        margin at row #1
       set_window                    wind      wi       current window is
                                                        lines #1-#2 cols
       start_bit_image               sbim      Zq       Start printing bit
                                                        image graphics
       start_char_set_def            scsd      Zr       Start character set
                                                        definition #1, with
                                                        #2 characters in the
       stop_bit_image                rbim      Zs       Stop printing bit
                                                        image graphics
       stop_char_set_def             rcsd      Zt       End definition of
                                                        character set #1
       subscript_characters          subcs     Zu       List of
       superscript_characters        supcs     Zv       List of
       tab                           ht        ta       tab to next 8-space
                                                        hardware tab stop
       these_cause_cr                docr      Zw       Printing any of
                                                        these characters
                                                        causes CR
       to_status_line                tsl       ts       move to status line,
                                                        column #1
       tone                          tone      TO       select touch tone
       underline_char                uc        uc       underline char and
                                                        move past it
       up_half_line                  hu        hu       half a line up
       user0                         u0        u0       User string #0
       user1                         u1        u1       User string #1
       user2                         u2        u2       User string #2
       user3                         u3        u3       User string #3
       user4                         u4        u4       User string #4
       user5                         u5        u5       User string #5
       user6                         u6        u6       User string #6
       user7                         u7        u7       User string #7
       user8                         u8        u8       User string #8
       user9                         u9        u9       User string #9
       wait_tone                     wait      WA       wait for dial-tone
       xoff_character                xoffc     XF       XOFF character
       xon_character                 xonc      XN       XON character

       zero_motion                   zerom     Zx       No motion for
                                                        subsequent character

       The  following  string  capabilities  are  present in the SVr4.0 term
       structure, but were originally not documented in the man page.

               Variable              Cap-        TCap        Description
                String               name        Code
       alt_scancode_esc              scesa       S8       Alternate escape
                                                          for scancode
       bit_image_carriage_return     bicr        Yv       Move to beginning
                                                          of same row
       bit_image_newline             binel       Zz       Move to next row
                                                          of the bit image
       bit_image_repeat              birep       Xy       Repeat bit image
                                                          cell #1 #2 times
       char_set_names                csnm        Zy       Produce #1'th item
                                                          from list of
                                                          character set
       code_set_init                 csin        ci       Init sequence for
                                                          multiple codesets
       color_names                   colornm     Yw       Give name for
                                                          color #1
       define_bit_image_region       defbi       Yx       Define rectangular
                                                          bit image region
       device_type                   devt        dv       Indicate
       display_pc_char               dispc       S1       Display PC
                                                          character #1
       end_bit_image_region          endbi       Yy       End a bit-image
       enter_pc_charset_mode         smpch       S2       Enter PC character
                                                          display mode
       enter_scancode_mode           smsc        S4       Enter PC scancode
       exit_pc_charset_mode          rmpch       S3       Exit PC character
                                                          display mode
       exit_scancode_mode            rmsc        S5       Exit PC scancode
       get_mouse                     getm        Gm       Curses should get
                                                          button events,
                                                          parameter #1 not
       key_mouse                     kmous       Km       Mouse event has
       mouse_info                    minfo       Mi       Mouse status
       pc_term_options               pctrm       S6       PC terminal
       pkey_plab                     pfxl        xl       Program function
                                                          key #1 to type
                                                          string #2 and show
                                                          string #3
       req_mouse_pos                 reqmp       RQ       Request mouse
       scancode_escape               scesc       S7       Escape for
                                                          scancode emulation
       set0_des_seq                  s0ds        s0       Shift to codeset 0
                                                          (EUC set 0, ASCII)
       set1_des_seq                  s1ds        s1       Shift to codeset 1
       set2_des_seq                  s2ds        s2       Shift to codeset 2

       set3_des_seq                  s3ds        s3       Shift to codeset 3
       set_a_background              setab       AB       Set background
                                                          color to #1, using
                                                          ANSI escape
       set_a_foreground              setaf       AF       Set foreground
                                                          color to #1, using
                                                          ANSI escape
       set_color_band                setcolor    Yz       Change to ribbon
                                                          color #1
       set_lr_margin                 smglr       ML       Set both left and
                                                          right margins to
                                                          #1, #2.  (ML is
                                                          not in BSD
       set_page_length               slines      YZ       Set page length to
                                                          #1 lines
       set_tb_margin                 smgtb       MT       Sets both top and
                                                          bottom margins to
                                                          #1, #2

        The  XSI  Curses  standard  added these hardcopy capabilities.  They
        were used in some  post-4.1  versions  of  System  V  curses,  e.g.,
        Solaris  2.5 and IRIX 6.x.  Except for YI, the ncurses termcap names
        for them are invented.  According to the XSI Curses  standard,  they
        have no termcap names.  If your compiled terminfo entries use these,
        they may not be binary-compatible with  System  V  terminfo  entries
        after SVr4.1; beware!

                Variable             Cap-       TCap        Description
                 String              name       Code
        enter_horizontal_hl_mode     ehhlm      Xh      Enter horizontal
                                                        highlight mode
        enter_left_hl_mode           elhlm      Xl      Enter left highlight
        enter_low_hl_mode            elohlm     Xo      Enter low highlight
        enter_right_hl_mode          erhlm      Xr      Enter right
                                                        highlight mode
        enter_top_hl_mode            ethlm      Xt      Enter top highlight
        enter_vertical_hl_mode       evhlm      Xv      Enter vertical
                                                        highlight mode
        set_a_attributes             sgr1       sA      Define second set of
                                                        video attributes
        set_pglen_inch               slength    YI      Set page length to
                                                        #1 hundredth of an
                                                        inch (some
                                                        implementations use
                                                        sL for termcap).

   User-Defined Capabilities
       The  preceding section listed the predefined capabilities.  They deal
       with some special features  for  terminals  no  longer  (or  possibly
       never)  produced.   Occasionally  there are special features of newer
       terminals which are awkward or impossible to represent by reusing the
       predefined capabilities.

       ncurses   addresses   this   limitation   by   allowing  user-defined
       capabilities.  The @TIC@ and @INFOCMP@ programs provide the -x option
       for  this purpose.  When -x is set, @TIC@ treats unknown capabilities
       as user-defined.  That is, if  @TIC@  encounters  a  capability  name
       which  it  does not recognize, it infers its type (boolean, number or
       string) from the syntax and makes an extended table  entry  for  that
       capability.    The   use_extended_names(3X)   function   makes   this
       information conditionally available  to  applications.   The  ncurses
       library   provides   the   data  leaving  most  of  the  behavior  to

       ·   User-defined capability strings whose name begins  with  “k”  are
           treated as function keys.

       ·   The  types  (boolean,  number, string) determined by @TIC@ can be
           inferred by successful calls on tigetflag, etc.

       ·   If  the  capability  name  happens  to  be  two  characters,  the
           capability is also available through the termcap interface.

       While  termcap  is  said  to  be extensible because it does not use a
       predefined set of capabilities, in practice it has  been  limited  to
       the  capabilities  defined  by  terminfo implementations.  As a rule,
       user-defined capabilities intended for use  by  termcap  applications
       should  be  limited to booleans and numbers to avoid running past the
       1023  byte  limit  assumed  by  termcap  implementations  and   their
       applications.   In  particular,  providing  extended sets of function
       keys (past the 60 numbered keys and  the  handful  of  special  named
       keys) is best done using the longer names available using terminfo.

   A Sample Entry
       The   following  entry,  describing  an  ANSI-standard  terminal,  is
       representative of  what  a  terminfo  entry  for  a  modern  terminal
       typically looks like.

       ansi|ansi/pc-term compatible with color,
               am, mc5i, mir, msgr,
               colors#8, cols#80, it#8, lines#24, ncv#3, pairs#64,
               bel=^G, blink=\E[5m, bold=\E[1m, cbt=\E[Z, clear=\E[H\E[J,
               cr=^M, cub=\E[%p1%dD, cub1=\E[D, cud=\E[%p1%dB, cud1=\E[B,
               cuf=\E[%p1%dC, cuf1=\E[C, cup=\E[%i%p1%d;%p2%dH,
               cuu=\E[%p1%dA, cuu1=\E[A, dch=\E[%p1%dP, dch1=\E[P,
               dl=\E[%p1%dM, dl1=\E[M, ech=\E[%p1%dX, ed=\E[J, el=\E[K,
               el1=\E[1K, home=\E[H, hpa=\E[%i%p1%dG, ht=\E[I, hts=\EH,
               ich=\E[%p1%d@, il=\E[%p1%dL, il1=\E[L, ind=^J,
               indn=\E[%p1%dS, invis=\E[8m, kbs=^H, kcbt=\E[Z, kcub1=\E[D,
               kcud1=\E[B, kcuf1=\E[C, kcuu1=\E[A, khome=\E[H, kich1=\E[L,
               mc4=\E[4i, mc5=\E[5i, nel=\r\E[S, op=\E[39;49m,
               rep=%p1%c\E[%p2%{1}%-%db, rev=\E[7m, rin=\E[%p1%dT,
               rmacs=\E[10m, rmpch=\E[10m, rmso=\E[m, rmul=\E[m,
               s0ds=\E(B, s1ds=\E)B, s2ds=\E*B, s3ds=\E+B,
               setab=\E[4%p1%dm, setaf=\E[3%p1%dm,
               sgr0=\E[0;10m, smacs=\E[11m, smpch=\E[11m, smso=\E[7m,
               smul=\E[4m, tbc=\E[3g, u6=\E[%i%d;%dR, u7=\E[6n,
               u8=\E[?%[;0123456789]c, u9=\E[c, vpa=\E[%i%p1%dd,

       Entries  may  continue  onto multiple lines by placing white space at
       the beginning of  each  line  except  the  first.   Comments  may  be
       included  on  lines beginning with “#”.  Capabilities in terminfo are
       of three types:

       ·   Boolean capabilities which indicate that the  terminal  has  some
           particular feature,

       ·   numeric  capabilities giving the size of the terminal or the size
           of particular delays, and

       ·   string capabilities, which give a sequence which can be  used  to
           perform particular terminal operations.

   Types of Capabilities
       All  capabilities  have  names.   For  instance,  the fact that ANSI-
       standard terminals have automatic margins (i.e., an automatic  return
       and  line-feed when the end of a line is reached) is indicated by the
       capability am.  Hence the description of ansi includes  am.   Numeric
       capabilities  are  followed  by the character “#” and then a positive
       value.  Thus cols, which indicates the number of columns the terminal
       has,  gives the value “80” for ansi.  Values for numeric capabilities
       may be specified in  decimal,  octal  or  hexadecimal,  using  the  C
       programming language conventions (e.g., 255, 0377 and 0xff or 0xFF).

       Finally, string valued capabilities, such as el (clear to end of line
       sequence) are given by the two-character code, an  “=”,  and  then  a
       string ending at the next following “,”.

       A  number  of  escape  sequences  are  provided  in the string valued
       capabilities for easy encoding of characters there:

       ·   Both \E and \e map to an ESCAPE character,

       ·   ^x maps to a control-x for any appropriate x, and

       ·   the sequences

             \n, \l, \r, \t, \b, \f, and \s


             newline, line-feed,  return,  tab,  backspace,  form-feed,  and


       X/Open  Curses  does  not  say  what  “appropriate  x”  might be.  In
       practice, that is a printable ASCII graphic character.   The  special
       case  “^?”  is  interpreted  as  DEL  (127).  In all other cases, the
       character value is AND'd with 0x1f, mapping to ASCII control codes in
       the range 0 through 31.

       Other escapes include

       ·   \^ for ^,

       ·   \\ for \,

       ·   \, for comma,

       ·   \: for :,

       ·   and \0 for null.

           \0  will  produce  \200,  which  does  not terminate a string but
           behaves as a null character on most terminals, providing  CS7  is
           specified.  See stty(1).

           The  reason for this quirk is to maintain binary compatibility of
           the compiled terminfo files with other implementations, e.g., the
           SVr4  systems,  which document this.  Compiled terminfo files use
           null-terminated strings, with no lengths.  Modifying  this  would
           require  a  new  binary  format,  which would not work with other

       Finally, characters may be given as three octal digits after a \.

       A delay in milliseconds may appear anywhere in a  string  capability,
       enclosed  in $<..> brackets, as in el=\EK$<5>, and padding characters
       are supplied by tputs(3X) to provide this delay.

       ·   The delay must be a number with at  most  one  decimal  place  of
           precision; it may be followed by suffixes “*” or “/” or both.

       ·   A  “*” indicates that the padding required is proportional to the
           number of lines affected by the operation, and the  amount  given
           is  the  per-affected-unit  padding  required.   (In  the case of
           insert character,  the  factor  is  still  the  number  of  lines

           Normally,   padding  is  advisory  if  the  device  has  the  xon
           capability; it is used for cost computation but does not  trigger

       ·   A “/” suffix indicates that the padding is mandatory and forces a
           delay of the given number of milliseconds  even  on  devices  for
           which xon is present to indicate flow control.

       Sometimes individual capabilities must be commented out.  To do this,
       put a period before the capability name.  For example, see the second
       ind in the example above.

   Fetching Compiled Descriptions
       The  ncurses  library  searches  for terminal descriptions in several
       places.  It uses only the first description found.  The library has a
       compiled-in  list  of  places  to  search  which can be overridden by
       environment variables.  Before starting to search, ncurses eliminates
       duplicates in its search list.

       ·   If the environment variable TERMINFO is set, it is interpreted as
           the pathname of a directory containing the  compiled  description
           you are working on.  Only that directory is searched.

       ·   If  TERMINFO  is  not  set,  ncurses  will  instead  look  in the
           directory $HOME/.terminfo for a compiled description.

       ·   Next, if the environment variable TERMINFO_DIRS is  set,  ncurses
           will  interpret the contents of that variable as a list of colon-
           separated directories (or database files) to be searched.

           An empty directory name (i.e., if the  variable  begins  or  ends
           with  a colon, or contains adjacent colons) is interpreted as the
           system location @TERMINFO@.

       ·   Finally, ncurses searches these compiled-in locations:

           ·   a list of directories (@TERMINFO_DIRS@), and

           ·   the system terminfo directory,  @TERMINFO@  (the  compiled-in

   Preparing Descriptions
       We  now  outline  how to prepare descriptions of terminals.  The most
       effective way to prepare a terminal description is by  imitating  the
       description  of  a  similar  terminal  in  terminfo and to build up a
       description gradually, using partial descriptions  with  vi  or  some
       other  screen-oriented  program  to  check that they are correct.  Be
       aware that a very unusual terminal may  expose  deficiencies  in  the
       ability  of  the  terminfo file to describe it or bugs in the screen-
       handling code of the test program.

       To  get  the  padding  for  insert  line  right  (if   the   terminal
       manufacturer  did  not  document it) a severe test is to edit a large
       file at 9600 baud, delete 16 or so  lines  from  the  middle  of  the
       screen,  then hit the “u” key several times quickly.  If the terminal
       messes up, more padding is usually needed.  A  similar  test  can  be
       used for insert character.

   Basic Capabilities
       The  number  of columns on each line for the terminal is given by the
       cols numeric capability.  If the terminal is a CRT, then  the  number
       of  lines  on  the  screen  is given by the lines capability.  If the
       terminal wraps around to the beginning  of  the  next  line  when  it
       reaches  the right margin, then it should have the am capability.  If
       the terminal can clear its screen, leaving the  cursor  in  the  home
       position,  then this is given by the clear string capability.  If the
       terminal  overstrikes  (rather  than  clearing  a  position  when   a
       character  is struck over) then it should have the os capability.  If
       the terminal is a printing terminal, with no soft copy unit, give  it
       both  hc  and  os.   (os  applies to storage scope terminals, such as
       TEKTRONIX 4010 series, as well as hard copy and APL  terminals.)   If
       there  is  a  code to move the cursor to the left edge of the current
       row, give this as  cr.   (Normally  this  will  be  carriage  return,
       control  M.)   If there is a code to produce an audible signal (bell,
       beep, etc) give this as bel.

       If there is a code to move the cursor one position to the left  (such
       as  backspace)  that  capability should be given as cub1.  Similarly,
       codes to move to the right, up, and down should  be  given  as  cuf1,
       cuu1, and cud1.  These local cursor motions should not alter the text
       they pass over, for example, you  would  not  normally  use  “cuf1= ”
       because the space would erase the character moved over.

       A  very important point here is that the local cursor motions encoded
       in terminfo are undefined  at  the  left  and  top  edges  of  a  CRT
       terminal.  Programs should never attempt to backspace around the left
       edge, unless bw is given, and never attempt to go up locally off  the
       top.   In  order  to  scroll text up, a program will go to the bottom
       left corner of the screen and send the ind (index) string.

       To scroll text down, a program goes to the top  left  corner  of  the
       screen  and sends the ri (reverse index) string.  The strings ind and
       ri are undefined when not on their respective corners of the screen.

       Parameterized versions of the scrolling sequences are  indn  and  rin
       which have the same semantics as ind and ri except that they take one
       parameter, and scroll that  many  lines.   They  are  also  undefined
       except at the appropriate edge of the screen.

       The  am  capability tells whether the cursor sticks at the right edge
       of the screen when text is output,  but  this  does  not  necessarily
       apply to a cuf1 from the last column.  The only local motion which is
       defined from the left edge is if bw is given, then a  cub1  from  the
       left  edge will move to the right edge of the previous row.  If bw is
       not given, the effect is undefined.  This is useful for drawing a box
       around  the  edge  of  the  screen, for example.  If the terminal has
       switch  selectable  automatic  margins,  the  terminfo  file  usually
       assumes  that  this  is  on; i.e., am.  If the terminal has a command
       which moves to the first column of the next line, that command can be
       given as nel (newline).  It does not matter if the command clears the
       remainder of the current line, so if the terminal has no cr and lf it
       may  still  be  possible to craft a working nel out of one or both of

       These capabilities suffice  to  describe  hard-copy  and  “glass-tty”
       terminals.  Thus the model 33 teletype is described as

       33|tty33|tty|model 33 teletype,
               bel=^G, cols#72, cr=^M, cud1=^J, hc, ind=^J, os,

       while the Lear Siegler ADM-3 is described as

       adm3|3|lsi adm3,
               am, bel=^G, clear=^Z, cols#80, cr=^M, cub1=^H, cud1=^J,
               ind=^J, lines#24,

   Parameterized Strings
       Cursor  addressing  and  other  strings  requiring  parameters in the
       terminal are described by a  parameterized  string  capability,  with
       printf-like  escapes  such  as %x in it.  For example, to address the
       cursor, the cup capability is given, using two  parameters:  the  row
       and  column  to address to.  (Rows and columns are numbered from zero
       and refer to the physical screen visible to  the  user,  not  to  any
       unseen   memory.)    If  the  terminal  has  memory  relative  cursor
       addressing, that can be indicated by mrcup.

       The  parameter  mechanism  uses  a  stack  and  special  %  codes  to
       manipulate  it.  Typically a sequence will push one of the parameters
       onto the stack and then print it in some format.  Print (e.g.,  "%d")
       is  a  special  case.   Other  operations,  including  "%t" pop their
       operand from the stack.  It is noted that more complex operations are
       often necessary, e.g., in the sgr string.

       The % encodings have the following meanings:

       %%   outputs “%”

            as in printf, flags are [-+#] and space.  Use a “:” to allow the
            next character to be a “-” flag, avoiding interpreting  "%-"  as
            an operator.

       %c   print pop() like %c in printf

       %s   print pop() like %s in printf

            push i'th parameter

            set dynamic variable [a-z] to pop()

            get dynamic variable [a-z] and push it

            set static variable [a-z] to pop()

            get static variable [a-z] and push it

            The  terms "static" and "dynamic" are misleading.  Historically,
            these are simply two different sets of variables,  whose  values
            are not reset between calls to tparm(3X).  However, that fact is
            not documented in other implementations.   Relying  on  it  will
            adversely impact portability to other implementations.

       %'c' char constant c

            integer constant nn

       %l   push strlen(pop)

       %+, %-, %*, %/, %m
            arithmetic (%m is mod): push(pop() op pop())

       %&, %|, %^
            bit operations (AND, OR and exclusive-OR): push(pop() op pop())

       %=, %>, %<
            logical operations: push(pop() op pop())

       %A, %O
            logical AND and OR operations (for conditionals)

       %!, %~
            unary operations (logical and bit complement): push(op pop())

       %i   add 1 to first two parameters (for ANSI terminals)

       %? expr %t thenpart %e elsepart %;
            This  forms  an  if-then-else.   The  %e  elsepart  is optional.
            Usually the %? expr part pushes a value onto the stack,  and  %t
            pops  it from the stack, testing if it is nonzero (true).  If it
            is zero (false), control passes to the %e (else) part.

            It is possible to form else-if's a la Algol 68:
            %? c1 %t b1 %e c2 %t b2 %e c3 %t b3 %e c4 %t b4 %e %;

            where ci are conditions, bi are bodies.

            Use the -f option of @TIC@ or @INFOCMP@ to see the structure  of
            if-then-else's.  Some strings, e.g., sgr can be very complicated
            when written on one line.  The -f option splits the string  into
            lines with the parts indented.

       Binary  operations are in postfix form with the operands in the usual
       order.  That is, to get x-5 one would use  "%gx%{5}%-".   %P  and  %g
       variables are persistent across escape-string evaluations.

       Consider  the  HP2645, which, to get to row 3 and column 12, needs to
       be sent \E&a12c03Y padded for 6 milliseconds.  Note that the order of
       the  rows  and  columns is inverted here, and that the row and column
       are  printed  as  two   digits.    Thus   its   cup   capability   is

       The  Microterm  ACT-IV needs the current row and column sent preceded
       by  a  ^T,  with  the  row  and  column  simply  encoded  in  binary,
       “cup=^T%p1%c%p2%c”.   Terminals  which  use  “%c”  need to be able to
       backspace the cursor (cub1), and to move the cursor up  one  line  on
       the  screen  (cuu1).  This is necessary because it is not always safe
       to transmit \n ^D and \r, as the system may change or  discard  them.
       (The  library  routines  dealing  with terminfo set tty modes so that
       tabs are never expanded, so \t is safe to send.  This turns out to be
       essential for the Ann Arbor 4080.)

       A  final  example is the LSI ADM-3a, which uses row and column offset
       by a blank character, thus “cup=\E=%p1%'  '%+%c%p2%'  '%+%c”.   After
       sending  “\E=”,  this  pushes  the  first parameter, pushes the ASCII
       value for a space (32), adds them (pushing the sum on  the  stack  in
       place  of  the  two  previous  values)  and  outputs  that value as a
       character.  Then the same is done for  the  second  parameter.   More
       complex arithmetic is possible using the stack.

   Cursor Motions
       If the terminal has a fast way to home the cursor (to very upper left
       corner of screen) then this can be given as home;  similarly  a  fast
       way of getting to the lower left-hand corner can be given as ll; this
       may involve going up with cuu1 from the home position, but a  program
       should  never  do this itself (unless ll does) because it can make no
       assumption about the effect of moving  up  from  the  home  position.
       Note  that  the  home position is the same as addressing to (0,0): to
       the top left corner of the screen, not of  memory.   (Thus,  the  \EH
       sequence on HP terminals cannot be used for home.)

       If  the  terminal has row or column absolute cursor addressing, these
       can  be  given  as  single  parameter  capabilities  hpa  (horizontal
       position  absolute)  and vpa (vertical position absolute).  Sometimes
       these are shorter than the more general two  parameter  sequence  (as
       with  the hp2645) and can be used in preference to cup.  If there are
       parameterized local motions (e.g., move n spaces to the right)  these
       can  be  given  as  cud,  cub,  cuf,  and cuu with a single parameter
       indicating how many spaces to move.  These are  primarily  useful  if
       the terminal does not have cup, such as the TEKTRONIX 4025.

       If  the terminal needs to be in a special mode when running a program
       that uses these capabilities, the codes to enter and exit  this  mode
       can  be  given  as  smcup  and rmcup.  This arises, for example, from
       terminals like the Concept with more than one page of memory.  If the
       terminal  has  only  memory relative cursor addressing and not screen
       relative cursor addressing, a one screen-sized window must  be  fixed
       into  the  terminal  for cursor addressing to work properly.  This is
       also used for the  TEKTRONIX  4025,  where  smcup  sets  the  command
       character to be the one used by terminfo.  If the smcup sequence will
       not restore the screen after an rmcup  sequence  is  output  (to  the
       state prior to outputting rmcup), specify nrrmc.

   Area Clears
       If the terminal can clear from the current position to the end of the
       line, leaving the cursor where it is, this should be given as el.  If
       the  terminal can clear from the beginning of the line to the current
       position inclusive, leaving the cursor where it is,  this  should  be
       given as el1.  If the terminal can clear from the current position to
       the end of the display, then this should be given as ed.  Ed is  only
       defined  from the first column of a line.  (Thus, it can be simulated
       by a request to delete a large number of lines, if a true ed  is  not

   Insert/delete line and vertical motions
       If  the  terminal can open a new blank line before the line where the
       cursor is, this should be given as il1; this is done  only  from  the
       first  position  of a line.  The cursor must then appear on the newly
       blank line.  If the terminal can delete the line which the cursor  is
       on,  then  this  should  be  given as dl1; this is done only from the
       first position on the line to be deleted.  Versions of  il1  and  dl1
       which  take  a  single parameter and insert or delete that many lines
       can be given as il and dl.

       If the terminal has a settable scrolling region (like the vt100)  the
       command  to  set this can be described with the csr capability, which
       takes two parameters: the top  and  bottom  lines  of  the  scrolling
       region.   The  cursor  position  is, alas, undefined after using this

       It is possible to get the effect of insert or delete line  using  csr
       on  a properly chosen region; the sc and rc (save and restore cursor)
       commands  may  be  useful  for   ensuring   that   your   synthesized
       insert/delete  string  does  not  move  the  cursor.   (Note that the
       ncurses(3X) library does this synthesis automatically,  so  you  need
       not compose insert/delete strings for an entry with csr).

       Yet  another  way  to  construct  insert and delete might be to use a
       combination of index with  the  memory-lock  feature  found  on  some
       terminals   (like  the  HP-700/90  series,  which  however  also  has

       Inserting lines at the top or bottom of the screen can also  be  done
       using  ri or ind on many terminals without a true insert/delete line,
       and is often faster even on terminals with those features.

       The boolean non_dest_scroll_region should be set  if  each  scrolling
       window  is effectively a view port on a screen-sized canvas.  To test
       for this capability, create a scrolling region in the middle  of  the
       screen,  write  something  to the bottom line, move the cursor to the
       top of the region, and do ri followed by dl1 or  ind.   If  the  data
       scrolled  off  the  bottom  of  the region by the ri re-appears, then
       scrolling is non-destructive.  System V and XSI  Curses  expect  that
       ind,  ri,  indn,  and  rin will simulate destructive scrolling; their
       documentation cautions you not to define csr  unless  this  is  true.
       This  curses  implementation  is  more  liberal  and will do explicit
       erases after scrolling if ndsrc is defined.

       If the terminal has the ability to define a window as part of memory,
       which  all  commands  affect, it should be given as the parameterized
       string wind.  The four parameters are the starting and  ending  lines
       in  memory  and  the  starting  and ending columns in memory, in that

       If the  terminal  can  retain  display  memory  above,  then  the  da
       capability  should be given; if display memory can be retained below,
       then db should be given.  These indicate  that  deleting  a  line  or
       scrolling  may  bring non-blank lines up from below or that scrolling
       back with ri may bring down non-blank lines.

   Insert/Delete Character
       There are two basic kinds of intelligent terminals  with  respect  to
       insert/delete  character  which can be described using terminfo.  The
       most  common  insert/delete  character  operations  affect  only  the
       characters  on  the  current line and shift characters off the end of
       the line rigidly.  Other terminals, such as the Concept 100  and  the
       Perkin Elmer Owl, make a distinction between typed and untyped blanks
       on the screen, shifting upon an insert or delete only to  an  untyped
       blank  on  the  screen which is either eliminated, or expanded to two
       untyped blanks.

       You can determine the kind of  terminal  you  have  by  clearing  the
       screen  and  then  typing  text  separated  by  cursor motions.  Type
       “abc    def” using local cursor  motions  (not  spaces)  between  the
       “abc”  and  the “def”.  Then position the cursor before the “abc” and
       put the terminal in insert mode.  If  typing  characters  causes  the
       rest of the line to shift rigidly and characters to fall off the end,
       then your terminal does not distinguish between  blanks  and  untyped
       positions.   If  the  “abc”  shifts over to the “def” which then move
       together around the end of the current line and onto the next as  you
       insert,  you  have  the  second type of terminal, and should give the
       capability in, which stands for “insert null”.

       While these are two logically separate attributes  (one  line  versus
       multi-line  insert  mode, and special treatment of untyped spaces) we
       have seen no terminals whose insert mode cannot be described with the
       single attribute.

       Terminfo  can  describe both terminals which have an insert mode, and
       terminals which send a simple sequence to open a  blank  position  on
       the current line.  Give as smir the sequence to get into insert mode.
       Give as rmir the sequence to leave insert mode.  Now give as ich1 any
       sequence  needed  to  be sent just before sending the character to be
       inserted.  Most terminals with a true insert mode will not give ich1;
       terminals which send a sequence to open a screen position should give
       it here.

       If your terminal has both, insert mode is usually preferable to ich1.
       Technically,  you  should  not give both unless the terminal actually
       requires both to be used  in  combination.   Accordingly,  some  non-
       curses  applications get confused if both are present; the symptom is
       doubled characters in an update using insert.   This  requirement  is
       now  rare;  most ich sequences do not require previous smir, and most
       smir  insert  modes  do  not  require  ich1  before  each  character.
       Therefore,  the new curses actually assumes this is the case and uses
       either rmir/smir or ich/ich1 as appropriate (but not both).   If  you
       have to write an entry to be used under new curses for a terminal old
       enough to need both, include the rmir/smir sequences in ich1.

       If  post  insert  padding  is  needed,  give  this  as  a  number  of
       milliseconds  in  ip (a string option).  Any other sequence which may
       need to be sent after an insert of a single  character  may  also  be
       given  in  ip.   If  your  terminal  needs  both to be placed into an
       “insert mode” and a special code to precede each inserted  character,
       then  both  smir/rmir  and  ich1 can be given, and both will be used.
       The ich capability, with one parameter, n, will repeat the effects of
       ich1 n times.

       If  padding is necessary between characters typed while not in insert
       mode, give this as a number of milliseconds padding in rmp.

       It is occasionally necessary to move around while in insert  mode  to
       delete characters on the same line (e.g., if there is a tab after the
       insertion position).  If your terminal allows motion while in  insert
       mode  you  can  give the capability mir to speed up inserting in this
       case.  Omitting mir will affect only speed.  Some terminals  (notably
       Datamedia's)  must  not have mir because of the way their insert mode

       Finally, you can specify dch1 to delete a single character, dch  with
       one  parameter,  n, to delete n characters, and delete mode by giving
       smdc and rmdc to enter and exit delete mode (any  mode  the  terminal
       needs to be placed in for dch1 to work).

       A  command  to  erase n characters (equivalent to outputting n blanks
       without moving the cursor) can be given as ech with one parameter.

   Highlighting, Underlining, and Visible Bells
       If your terminal has one or more kinds of display  attributes,  these
       can  be represented in a number of different ways.  You should choose
       one  display  form  as  standout  mode,  representing  a  good,  high
       contrast,  easy-on-the-eyes,  format  for highlighting error messages
       and other attention getters.  (If you have a  choice,  reverse  video
       plus  half-bright is good, or reverse video alone.)  The sequences to
       enter  and  exit  standout  mode  are  given  as   smso   and   rmso,
       respectively.   If  the  code  to change into or out of standout mode
       leaves one or even two blank spaces on the screen, as the TVI 912 and
       Teleray 1061 do, then xmc should be given to tell how many spaces are

       Codes to begin underlining and end underlining can be given  as  smul
       and  rmul  respectively.  If the terminal has a code to underline the
       current character and move the cursor one space to the right, such as
       the Microterm Mime, this can be given as uc.

       Other  capabilities to enter various highlighting modes include blink
       (blinking) bold (bold or extra bright) dim (dim or half-bright) invis
       (blanking  or  invisible  text)  prot (protected) rev (reverse video)
       sgr0 (turn off all attribute modes) smacs (enter alternate  character
       set  mode) and rmacs (exit alternate character set mode).  Turning on
       any of these modes singly may or may not turn off other modes.

       If there is a sequence to set arbitrary combinations of  modes,  this
       should  be  given as sgr (set attributes), taking 9 parameters.  Each
       parameter is either 0 or nonzero, as the corresponding  attribute  is
       on  or  off.   The  9  parameters are, in order: standout, underline,
       reverse, blink, dim, bold, blank, protect, alternate  character  set.
       Not  all  modes  need  be  supported  by  sgr,  only  those for which
       corresponding separate attribute commands exist.

       For example, the DEC vt220 supports most of the modes:

             tparm parameter      attribute        escape sequence

             none                 none             \E[0m
             p1                   standout         \E[0;1;7m
             p2                   underline        \E[0;4m
             p3                   reverse          \E[0;7m
             p4                   blink            \E[0;5m
             p5                   dim              not available
             p6                   bold             \E[0;1m
             p7                   invis            \E[0;8m
             p8                   protect          not used
             p9                   altcharset       ^O (off) ^N (on)

       We begin each escape sequence by  turning  off  any  existing  modes,
       since  there  is  no  quick way to determine whether they are active.
       Standout is set up to be the combination of reverse  and  bold.   The
       vt220  terminal has a protect mode, though it is not commonly used in
       sgr because it protects characters on  the  screen  from  the  host's
       erasures.  The altcharset mode also is different in that it is either
       ^O or ^N, depending on whether it is off or on.   If  all  modes  are
       turned on, the resulting sequence is \E[0;1;4;5;7;8m^N.

       Some  sequences  are  common  to different modes.  For example, ;7 is
       output when either p1 or p3 is true, that is, if either  standout  or
       reverse modes are turned on.

       Writing out the above sequences, along with their dependencies yields

           sequence             when to output      terminfo translation

           \E[0                 always              \E[0
           ;1                   if p1 or p6         %?%p1%p6%|%t;1%;
           ;4                   if p2               %?%p2%|%t;4%;
           ;5                   if p4               %?%p4%|%t;5%;
           ;7                   if p1 or p3         %?%p1%p3%|%t;7%;
           ;8                   if p7               %?%p7%|%t;8%;
           m                    always              m
           ^N or ^O             if p9 ^N, else ^O   %?%p9%t^N%e^O%;

       Putting this all together into the sgr sequence gives:


       Remember  that if you specify sgr, you must also specify sgr0.  Also,
       some implementations rely on sgr being given  if  sgr0  is,  Not  all
       terminfo  entries  necessarily  have  an  sgr  string, however.  Many
       terminfo entries are derived from termcap entries which have  no  sgr
       string.   The  only  drawback to adding an sgr string is that termcap
       also assumes that sgr0 does not exit alternate character set mode.

       Terminals with  the  “magic  cookie”  glitch  (xmc)  deposit  special
       “cookies”  when they receive mode-setting sequences, which affect the
       display algorithm rather than having extra bits for  each  character.
       Some  terminals,  such  as  the HP 2621, automatically leave standout
       mode when they move to  a  new  line  or  the  cursor  is  addressed.
       Programs  using standout mode should exit standout mode before moving
       the  cursor  or  sending  a  newline,  unless  the  msgr  capability,
       asserting that it is safe to move in standout mode, is present.

       If the terminal has a way of flashing the screen to indicate an error
       quietly (a bell replacement) then this can be given as flash; it must
       not move the cursor.

       If  the  cursor  needs to be made more visible than normal when it is
       not on  the  bottom  line  (to  make,  for  example,  a  non-blinking
       underline  into  an  easier to find block or blinking underline) give
       this sequence as cvvis.  If  there  is  a  way  to  make  the  cursor
       completely  invisible,  give  that  as  civis.   The capability cnorm
       should be given which undoes the effects of both of these modes.

       If your terminal correctly generates underlined characters  (with  no
       special  codes  needed)  even though it does not overstrike, then you
       should give the capability ul.  If a character  overstriking  another
       leaves  both characters on the screen, specify the capability os.  If
       overstrikes are erasable with a blank, then this should be  indicated
       by giving eo.

   Keypad and Function Keys
       If  the  terminal has a keypad that transmits codes when the keys are
       pressed, this information can be given.  Note that it is not possible
       to  handle  terminals  where  the  keypad  only  works in local (this
       applies, for example, to the unshifted HP 2621 keys).  If the  keypad
       can  be set to transmit or not transmit, give these codes as smkx and
       rmkx.  Otherwise the keypad is assumed to always transmit.

       The codes sent by the left arrow, right arrow, up arrow, down  arrow,
       and  home  keys can be given as kcub1, kcuf1, kcuu1, kcud1, and khome
       respectively.  If there are function keys such as f0, f1,  ...,  f10,
       the  codes  they  send can be given as kf0, kf1, ..., kf10.  If these
       keys have labels other than the default f0 through  f10,  the  labels
       can be given as lf0, lf1, ..., lf10.

       The codes transmitted by certain other special keys can be given:

       ·   kll (home down),

       ·   kbs (backspace),

       ·   ktbc (clear all tabs),

       ·   kctab (clear the tab stop in this column),

       ·   kclr (clear screen or erase key),

       ·   kdch1 (delete character),

       ·   kdl1 (delete line),

       ·   krmir (exit insert mode),

       ·   kel (clear to end of line),

       ·   ked (clear to end of screen),

       ·   kich1 (insert character or enter insert mode),

       ·   kil1 (insert line),

       ·   knp (next page),

       ·   kpp (previous page),

       ·   kind (scroll forward/down),

       ·   kri (scroll backward/up),

       ·   khts (set a tab stop in this column).

       In  addition,  if the keypad has a 3 by 3 array of keys including the
       four arrow keys, the other five keys can be given as ka1,  ka3,  kb2,
       kc1,  and  kc3.   These  keys are useful when the effects of a 3 by 3
       directional pad are needed.

       Strings to program function keys can be given as  pfkey,  pfloc,  and
       pfx.   A  string to program screen labels should be specified as pln.
       Each of these strings takes two parameters: the function  key  number
       to  program  (from  0  to  10)  and  the  string  to program it with.
       Function key numbers out of this range may program undefined keys  in
       a terminal dependent manner.  The difference between the capabilities
       is that pfkey causes pressing the given key to be  the  same  as  the
       user  typing the given string; pfloc causes the string to be executed
       by the terminal in local; and pfx causes the string to be transmitted
       to the computer.

       The  capabilities  nlab,  lw and lh define the number of programmable
       screen labels and their width and height.  If there are  commands  to
       turn  the  labels  on  and  off, give them in smln and rmln.  smln is
       normally output after one or more pln sequences to make sure that the
       change becomes visible.

   Tabs and Initialization
       If the terminal has hardware tabs, the command to advance to the next
       tab stop can be given  as  ht  (usually  control  I).   A  “back-tab”
       command  which  moves leftward to the preceding tab stop can be given
       as cbt.  By convention, if the teletype modes indicate that tabs  are
       being  expanded  by  the  computer  rather  than  being  sent  to the
       terminal, programs should not use ht or cbt even if they are present,
       since  the  user  may  not  have  the tab stops properly set.  If the
       terminal has hardware tabs which are initially  set  every  n  spaces
       when  the  terminal is powered up, the numeric parameter it is given,
       showing the number of spaces the tabs are set to.  This  is  normally
       used  by  the @TSET@ command to determine whether to set the mode for
       hardware tab expansion, and whether to set the  tab  stops.   If  the
       terminal  has tab stops that can be saved in non-volatile memory, the
       terminfo description can assume that they are properly set.

       Other capabilities include is1, is2, and is3, initialization  strings
       for  the  terminal,  iprog,  the  path name of a program to be run to
       initialize the terminal, and if, the name of a file  containing  long
       initialization  strings.   These  strings  are  expected  to  set the
       terminal  into  modes  consistent  with  the  rest  of  the  terminfo
       description.   They  are  normally  sent to the terminal, by the init
       option of the @TPUT@ program, each time the user logs in.  They  will
       be printed in the following order:

              run the program

              output is1 is2

              set the margins using
                     mgc, smgl and smgr

              set tabs using
                     tbc and hts

              print the file

              and finally
                     output is3.

       Most  initialization is done with is2.  Special terminal modes can be
       set up without duplicating strings by putting the common sequences in
       is2 and special cases in is1 and is3.

       A  set  of  sequences that does a harder reset from a totally unknown
       state can be given as rs1, rs2, rf and rs3, analogous to is1 , is2  ,
       if  and  is3  respectively.   These strings are output by the @RESET@
       program, which is used when the terminal gets into  a  wedged  state.
       Commands  are  normally  placed  in  rs1, rs2 rs3 and rf only if they
       produce annoying effects on the screen and  are  not  necessary  when
       logging in.  For example, the command to set the vt100 into 80-column
       mode would normally be part of is2, but it causes an annoying  glitch
       of  the  screen  and  is  not  normally  needed since the terminal is
       usually already in 80 column mode.

       The @RESET@ program writes strings including iprog, etc., in the same
       order  as the init program, using rs1, etc., instead of is1, etc.  If
       any of rs1, rs2, rs3, or rf reset capability strings are missing, the
       @RESET@  program  falls  back  upon  the corresponding initialization
       capability string.

       If there are commands to set and clear tab stops, they can  be  given
       as  tbc  (clear all tab stops) and hts (set a tab stop in the current
       column of every row).  If a more complex sequence is  needed  to  set
       the tabs than can be described by this, the sequence can be placed in
       is2 or if.

   Delays and Padding
       Many older and slower terminals do not support either XON/XOFF or DTR
       handshaking, including hard copy terminals and some very archaic CRTs
       (including, for example, DEC  VT100s).   These  may  require  padding
       characters after certain cursor motions and screen changes.

       If  the terminal uses xon/xoff handshaking for flow control (that is,
       it automatically emits ^S back to the host when its input buffers are
       close  to full), set xon.  This capability suppresses the emission of
       padding.  You can also  set  it  for  memory-mapped  console  devices
       effectively  that  do  not  have  a speed limit.  Padding information
       should still be included so that routines can make  better  decisions
       about   relative  costs,  but  actual  pad  characters  will  not  be

       If pb (padding baud rate) is given, padding  is  suppressed  at  baud
       rates  below the value of pb.  If the entry has no padding baud rate,
       then whether padding is emitted or not is  completely  controlled  by

       If the terminal requires other than a null (zero) character as a pad,
       then this can be given as pad.  Only the first character of  the  pad
       string is used.

   Status Lines
       Some terminals have an extra “status line” which is not normally used
       by  software  (and  thus  not  counted  in   the   terminal's   lines

       The  simplest  case  is a status line which is cursor-addressable but
       not part of the main scrolling region on the screen; the Heathkit H19
       has  a  status  line  of  this  kind, as would a 24-line VT100 with a
       23-line scrolling region set up on initialization.  This situation is
       indicated by the hs capability.

       Some terminals with status lines need special sequences to access the
       status line.   These  may  be  expressed  as  a  string  with  single
       parameter tsl which takes the cursor to a given zero-origin column on
       the status line.  The capability fsl must return to  the  main-screen
       cursor  positions  before  the  last  tsl.  You may need to embed the
       string values of sc (save cursor) and rc (restore cursor) in tsl  and
       fsl to accomplish this.

       The status line is normally assumed to be the same width as the width
       of the terminal.  If this is untrue, you  can  specify  it  with  the
       numeric capability wsl.

       A command to erase or blank the status line may be specified as dsl.

       The  boolean  capability eslok specifies that escape sequences, tabs,
       etc., work ordinarily in the status line.

       The  ncurses  implementation  does  not  yet   use   any   of   these
       capabilities.   They  are  documented  here  in case they ever become

   Line Graphics
       Many terminals  have  alternate  character  sets  useful  for  forms-
       drawing.   Terminfo  and curses have built-in support for most of the
       drawing characters supported by the VT100, with some characters  from
       the AT&T 4410v1 added.  This alternate character set may be specified
       by the acsc capability.

       Glyph                       ACS            Ascii      acsc     acsc
       Name                        Name           Default    Char     Value
       arrow pointing right        ACS_RARROW     >          +        0x2b
       arrow pointing left         ACS_LARROW     <          ,        0x2c
       arrow pointing up           ACS_UARROW     ^          -        0x2d
       arrow pointing down         ACS_DARROW     v          .        0x2e
       solid square block          ACS_BLOCK      #          0        0x30
       diamond                     ACS_DIAMOND    +          `        0x60
       checker board (stipple)     ACS_CKBOARD    :          a        0x61
       degree symbol               ACS_DEGREE     \          f        0x66
       plus/minus                  ACS_PLMINUS    #          g        0x67
       board of squares            ACS_BOARD      #          h        0x68
       lantern symbol              ACS_LANTERN    #          i        0x69
       lower right corner          ACS_LRCORNER   +          j        0x6a
       upper right corner          ACS_URCORNER   +          k        0x6b
       upper left corner           ACS_ULCORNER   +          l        0x6c
       lower left corner           ACS_LLCORNER   +          m        0x6d
       large plus or crossover     ACS_PLUS       +          n        0x6e
       scan line 1                 ACS_S1         ~          o        0x6f
       scan line 3                 ACS_S3         -          p        0x70
       horizontal line             ACS_HLINE      -          q        0x71
       scan line 7                 ACS_S7         -          r        0x72
       scan line 9                 ACS_S9         _          s        0x73
       tee pointing right          ACS_LTEE       +          t        0x74
       tee pointing left           ACS_RTEE       +          u        0x75
       tee pointing up             ACS_BTEE       +          v        0x76
       tee pointing down           ACS_TTEE       +          w        0x77
       vertical line               ACS_VLINE      |          x        0x78
       less-than-or-equal-to       ACS_LEQUAL     <          y        0x79
       greater-than-or-equal-to    ACS_GEQUAL     >          z        0x7a
       greek pi                    ACS_PI         *          {        0x7b
       not-equal                   ACS_NEQUAL     !          |        0x7c
       UK pound sign               ACS_STERLING   f          }        0x7d
       bullet                      ACS_BULLET     o          ~        0x7e

       A few notes apply to the table itself:

       ·   X/Open Curses incorrectly states that the mapping for lantern  is
           uppercase “I” although Unix implementations use the lowercase “i”

       ·   The DEC VT100 implemented graphics using the alternate  character
           set  feature,  temporarily switching modes and sending characters
           in the range 0x60 (96) to 0x7e (126) (the acsc  Value  column  in
           the table).

       ·   The AT&T terminal added graphics characters outside that range.

           Some  of  the characters within the range do not match the VT100;
           presumably they were used in the AT&T terminal: board of  squares
           replaces  the VT100 newline symbol, while lantern symbol replaces
           the VT100 vertical tab  symbol.   The  other  VT100  symbols  for
           control  characters  (horizontal  tab,  carriage return and line-
           feed) are not (re)used in curses.

       The best way to define a new device's graphics set is to add a column
       to a copy of this table for your terminal, giving the character which
       (when emitted between smacs/rmacs switches) will be rendered  as  the
       corresponding   graphic.   Then  read  off  the  VT100/your  terminal
       character pairs right to left in  sequence;  these  become  the  ACSC

   Color Handling
       The  curses library functions init_pair and init_color manipulate the
       color  pairs  and  color  values  discussed  in  this  section   (see
       curs_color(3X) for details on these and related functions).

       Most color terminals are either “Tektronix-like” or “HP-like”:

       ·   Tektronix-like terminals have a predefined set of N colors (where
           N is usually  8),  and  can  set  character-cell  foreground  and
           background  characters  independently,  mixing  them  into  N * N

       ·   On HP-like terminals, the  user  must  set  each  color  pair  up
           separately  (foreground  and  background  are  not  independently
           settable).  Up to M color-pairs may be set up from 2*M  different
           colors.  ANSI-compatible terminals are Tektronix-like.

       Some  basic  color  capabilities are independent of the color method.
       The numeric capabilities colors and pairs specify the maximum numbers
       of  colors and color-pairs that can be displayed simultaneously.  The
       op (original pair) string resets foreground and background colors  to
       their  default  values  for  the  terminal.  The oc string resets all
       colors or color-pairs to their default values for the terminal.  Some
       terminals  (including  many PC terminal emulators) erase screen areas
       with the current background color rather than  the  power-up  default
       background; these should have the boolean capability bce.

       While  the  curses  library  works  with  color pairs (reflecting the
       inability of some devices to set  foreground  and  background  colors
       independently),  there  are  separate  capabilities for setting these

       ·   To change  the  current  foreground  or  background  color  on  a
           Tektronix-type  terminal,  use  setaf  (set  ANSI foreground) and
           setab (set ANSI background) or setf  (set  foreground)  and  setb
           (set  background).   These  take one parameter, the color number.
           The SVr4 documentation describes only setaf/setab; the XPG4 draft
           says  that "If the terminal supports ANSI escape sequences to set
           background and foreground, they should  be  coded  as  setaf  and
           setab, respectively.

       ·   If the terminal supports other escape sequences to set background
           and  foreground,  they  should  be  coded  as  setf   and   setb,
           respectively.   The vidputs and the refresh(3X) functions use the
           setaf and setab capabilities if they are defined.

       The setaf/setab and setf/setb  capabilities  take  a  single  numeric
       argument  each.   Argument  values  0-7  of  setaf/setab are portably
       defined as  follows  (the  middle  column  is  the  symbolic  #define
       available  in  the  header for the curses or ncurses libraries).  The
       terminal hardware is free to map these  as  it  likes,  but  the  RGB
       values indicate normal locations in color space.

                   Color       #define       Value       RGB
                   black     COLOR_BLACK       0     0, 0, 0
                   red       COLOR_RED         1     max,0,0
                   green     COLOR_GREEN       2     0,max,0
                   yellow    COLOR_YELLOW      3     max,max,0

                   blue      COLOR_BLUE        4     0,0,max
                   magenta   COLOR_MAGENTA     5     max,0,max
                   cyan      COLOR_CYAN        6     0,max,max
                   white     COLOR_WHITE       7     max,max,max

       The  argument  values  of  setf/setb  historically  correspond  to  a
       different mapping, i.e.,

                   Color       #define       Value       RGB
                   black     COLOR_BLACK       0     0, 0, 0
                   blue      COLOR_BLUE        1     0,0,max
                   green     COLOR_GREEN       2     0,max,0
                   cyan      COLOR_CYAN        3     0,max,max
                   red       COLOR_RED         4     max,0,0
                   magenta   COLOR_MAGENTA     5     max,0,max
                   yellow    COLOR_YELLOW      6     max,max,0
                   white     COLOR_WHITE       7     max,max,max

       It is important to not confuse the two sets  of  color  capabilities;
       otherwise red/blue will be interchanged on the display.

       On an HP-like terminal, use scp with a color-pair number parameter to
       set which color pair is current.

       Some terminals allow the color values to be modified:

       ·   On a Tektronix-like terminal, the capability ccc may  be  present
           to  indicate  that  colors  can  be  modified.   If so, the initc
           capability will take a color number (0 to colors  -  1)and  three
           more parameters which describe the color.  These three parameters
           default to being interpreted as RGB (Red,  Green,  Blue)  values.
           If the boolean capability hls is present, they are instead as HLS
           (Hue, Lightness, Saturation) indices.  The ranges  are  terminal-

       ·   On  an HP-like terminal, initp may give a capability for changing
           a color-pair value.  It will take seven parameters; a  color-pair
           number  (0  to  max_pairs  - 1), and two triples describing first
           background and then foreground colors.  These parameters must  be
           (Red,  Green,  Blue) or (Hue, Lightness, Saturation) depending on

       On some color terminals, colors collide  with  highlights.   You  can
       register  these  collisions  with the ncv capability.  This is a bit-
       mask of attributes not to be  used  when  colors  are  enabled.   The
       correspondence  with  the  attributes  understood  by  curses  is  as

               Attribute              Bit   Decimal      Set by
               A_STANDOUT             0     1            sgr
               A_UNDERLINE            1     2            sgr
               A_REVERSE              2     4            sgr
               A_BLINK                3     8            sgr
               A_DIM                  4     16           sgr
               A_BOLD                 5     32           sgr
               A_INVIS                6     64           sgr
               A_PROTECT              7     128          sgr
               A_ALTCHARSET           8     256          sgr
               A_HORIZONTAL           9     512          sgr1
               A_LEFT                 10    1024         sgr1
               A_LOW                  11    2048         sgr1
               A_RIGHT                12    4096         sgr1
               A_TOP                  13    8192         sgr1
               A_VERTICAL             14    16384        sgr1
               A_ITALIC               15    32768        sitm

       For example,  on  many  IBM  PC  consoles,  the  underline  attribute
       collides with the foreground color blue and is not available in color
       mode.  These should have an ncv capability of 2.

       SVr4  curses  does  nothing  with  ncv,  ncurses  recognizes  it  and
       optimizes the output in favor of colors.

       If the terminal requires other than a null (zero) character as a pad,
       then this can be given as pad.  Only the first character of  the  pad
       string  is  used.   If  the  terminal  does not have a pad character,
       specify npc.  Note that ncurses implements the termcap-compatible  PC
       variable;  though  the  application  may  set this value to something
       other than a null, ncurses will test npc first and use napms  if  the
       terminal has no pad character.

       If  the  terminal  can  move  up  or  down  half  a line, this can be
       indicated with hu (half-line up) and hd (half-line  down).   This  is
       primarily   useful  for  superscripts  and  subscripts  on  hard-copy
       terminals.  If a hard-copy terminal can eject to the next page  (form
       feed), give this as ff (usually control L).

       If  there  is a command to repeat a given character a given number of
       times  (to  save  time  transmitting  a  large  number  of  identical
       characters)  this can be indicated with the parameterized string rep.
       The first parameter is the character to be repeated and the second is
       the  number of times to repeat it.  Thus, tparm(repeat_char, 'x', 10)
       is the same as “xxxxxxxxxx”.

       If the terminal  has  a  settable  command  character,  such  as  the
       TEKTRONIX  4025,  this  can  be  indicated  with  cmdch.  A prototype
       command character is chosen which is used in all capabilities.   This
       character  is  given  in  the  cmdch  capability to identify it.  The
       following  convention  is  supported  on  some  UNIX   systems:   The
       environment  is  to  be searched for a CC variable, and if found, all
       occurrences  of  the  prototype  character  are  replaced  with   the
       character in the environment variable.

       Terminal  descriptions that do not represent a specific kind of known
       terminal, such as switch, dialup, patch, and network, should  include
       the  gn  (generic) capability so that programs can complain that they
       do not know how to talk to the terminal.  (This capability  does  not
       apply to virtual terminal descriptions for which the escape sequences
       are known.)

       If the terminal has a “meta key” which acts as a shift  key,  setting
       the  8th bit of any character transmitted, this fact can be indicated
       with km.  Otherwise, software will assume that the 8th bit is  parity
       and  it will usually be cleared.  If strings exist to turn this “meta
       mode” on and off, they can be given as smm and rmm.

       If the terminal has more lines of memory than will fit on the  screen
       at  once,  the number of lines of memory can be indicated with lm.  A
       value of lm#0 indicates that the number of lines is  not  fixed,  but
       that there is still more memory than fits on the screen.

       If  the  terminal  is  one  of  those  supported  by the UNIX virtual
       terminal protocol, the terminal number can be given as vt.

       Media copy strings which control an auxiliary  printer  connected  to
       the  terminal  can be given as mc0: print the contents of the screen,
       mc4: turn off the printer, and mc5: turn on the  printer.   When  the
       printer  is  on,  all  text  sent to the terminal will be sent to the
       printer.  It is undefined whether the text is also displayed  on  the
       terminal  screen  when the printer is on.  A variation mc5p takes one
       parameter, and leaves the printer on for as many  characters  as  the
       value  of  the  parameter, then turns the printer off.  The parameter
       should not exceed 255.  All text,  including  mc4,  is  transparently
       passed to the printer while an mc5p is in effect.

   Glitches and Braindamage
       Hazeltine  terminals,  which  do  not  allow  “~”  characters  to  be
       displayed should indicate hz.

       Terminals which ignore a line-feed immediately after an am wrap, such
       as the Concept and vt100, should indicate xenl.

       If  el  is required to get rid of standout (instead of merely writing
       normal text on top of it), xhp should be given.

       Teleray terminals, where tabs  turn  all  characters  moved  over  to
       blanks,  should  indicate  xt (destructive tabs).  Note: the variable
       indicating this is now “dest_tabs_magic_smso”; in older versions,  it
       was teleray_glitch.  This glitch is also taken to mean that it is not
       possible to position the cursor on top of a “magic cookie”,  that  to
       erase  standout mode it is instead necessary to use delete and insert
       line.  The ncurses implementation ignores this glitch.

       The Beehive Superbee, which  is  unable  to  correctly  transmit  the
       escape  or  control C characters, has xsb, indicating that the f1 key
       is used for escape and f2 for control  C.   (Only  certain  Superbees
       have  this  problem,  depending  on  the  ROM.)   Note  that in older
       terminfo versions, this capability was called “beehive_glitch”; it is
       now “no_esc_ctl_c”.

       Other  specific  terminal  problems  may  be corrected by adding more
       capabilities of the form xx.

   Pitfalls of Long Entries
       Long terminfo entries are unlikely to be a problem; to date, no entry
       has   even  approached  terminfo's  4096-byte  string-table  maximum.
       Unfortunately,  the  termcap  translations  are  much  more  strictly
       limited  (to  1023 bytes), thus termcap translations of long terminfo
       entries can cause problems.

       The man pages for 4.3BSD and older versions of tgetent  instruct  the
       user to allocate a 1024-byte buffer for the termcap entry.  The entry
       gets null-terminated by  the  termcap  library,  so  that  makes  the
       maximum safe length for a termcap entry 1k-1 (1023) bytes.  Depending
       on what the application and the termcap library being used does,  and
       where in the termcap file the terminal type that tgetent is searching
       for is, several bad things can happen.

       Some termcap libraries print a warning message or exit if  they  find
       an  entry  that's  longer  than  1023  bytes;  others  do not; others
       truncate the  entries  to  1023  bytes.   Some  application  programs
       allocate  more  than the recommended 1K for the termcap entry; others
       do not.

       Each termcap entry has two important sizes associated with it: before
       "tc"  expansion,  and  after  "tc" expansion.  "tc" is the capability
       that tacks on another termcap entry to the end of the current one, to
       add  on  its  capabilities.  If a termcap entry does not use the "tc"
       capability, then of course the two lengths are the same.

       The "before tc expansion" length is the most important  one,  because
       it affects more than just users of that particular terminal.  This is
       the length of the entry as  it  exists  in  /etc/termcap,  minus  the
       backslash-newline  pairs,  which tgetent strips out while reading it.
       Some termcap libraries strip off the final newline, too (GNU  termcap
       does not).  Now suppose:

       ·   a termcap entry before expansion is more than 1023 bytes long,

       ·   and the application has only allocated a 1k buffer,

       ·   and  the  termcap  library  (like  the one in BSD/OS 1.1 and GNU)
           reads the whole entry into the buffer, no matter what its length,
           to see if it is the entry it wants,

       ·   and  tgetent  is searching for a terminal type that either is the
           long entry, appears in the termcap file after the long entry,  or
           does not appear in the file at all (so that tgetent has to search
           the whole termcap file).

       Then tgetent will overwrite memory, perhaps its stack,  and  probably
       core  dump  the  program.   Programs  like  telnet  are  particularly
       vulnerable; modern telnets pass along values like the  terminal  type
       automatically.   The results are almost as undesirable with a termcap
       library, like  SunOS  4.1.3  and  Ultrix  4.4,  that  prints  warning
       messages  when  it  reads an overly long termcap entry.  If a termcap
       library truncates long entries, like OSF/1 3.0, it is immune to dying
       here but will return incorrect data for the terminal.

       The  "after  tc  expansion"  length will have a similar effect to the
       above, but only for people who actually set  TERM  to  that  terminal
       type,  since  tgetent  only  does "tc" expansion once it is found the
       terminal type it was looking for, not while searching.

       In summary, a termcap entry that is longer than 1023 bytes can cause,
       on various combinations of termcap libraries and applications, a core
       dump, warnings, or incorrect operation.   If  it  is  too  long  even
       before  "tc"  expansion,  it  will have this effect even for users of
       some other terminal types and users whose TERM variable does not have
       a termcap entry.

       When in -C (translate to termcap) mode, the ncurses implementation of
       @TIC@(1M) issues warning messages when the pre-tc length of a termcap
       translation  is too long.  The -c (check) option also checks resolved
       (after tc expansion) lengths.

   Binary Compatibility
       It is not wise to count on portability  of  binary  terminfo  entries
       between  commercial  UNIX versions.  The problem is that there are at
       least two versions of terminfo (under HP-UX and AIX)  which  diverged
       from   System  V  terminfo  after  SVr1,  and  have  added  extension
       capabilities to the string table that (in the binary format)  collide
       with System V and XSI Curses extensions.

EXTENSIONS         top

       Searching for terminal descriptions in $HOME/.terminfo and
       TERMINFO_DIRS is not supported by older implementations.

       Some SVr4 curses implementations, and all previous to SVr4, do not
       interpret the %A and %O operators in parameter strings.

       SVr4/XPG4 do not specify whether msgr licenses movement while in an
       alternate-character-set mode (such modes may, among other things, map
       CR and NL to characters that do not trigger local motions).  The
       ncurses implementation ignores msgr in ALTCHARSET mode.  This raises
       the possibility that an XPG4 implementation making the opposite
       interpretation may need terminfo entries made for ncurses to have
       msgr turned off.

       The ncurses library handles insert-character and insert-character
       modes in a slightly non-standard way to get better update efficiency.
       See the Insert/Delete Character subsection above.

       The parameter substitutions for set_clock and display_clock are not
       documented in SVr4 or the XSI Curses standard.  They are deduced from
       the documentation for the AT&T 505 terminal.

       Be careful assigning the kmous capability.  The ncurses library wants
       to interpret it as KEY_MOUSE, for use by terminals and emulators like
       xterm that can return mouse-tracking information in the keyboard-
       input stream.

       X/Open Curses does not mention italics.  Portable applications must
       assume that numeric capabilities are signed 16-bit values.  This
       includes the no_color_video (ncv) capability.  The 32768 mask value
       used for italics with ncv can be confused with an absent or cancelled
       ncv.  If italics should work with colors, then the ncv value must be
       specified, even if it is zero.

       Different commercial ports of terminfo and curses support different
       subsets of the XSI Curses standard and (in some cases) different
       extension sets.  Here is a summary, accurate as of October 1995:

       ·   SVR4, Solaris, ncurses -- These support all SVr4 capabilities.

       ·   SGI -- Supports the SVr4 set, adds one undocumented extended
           string capability (set_pglen).

       ·   SVr1, Ultrix -- These support a restricted subset of terminfo
           capabilities.  The booleans end with xon_xoff; the numerics with
           width_status_line; and the strings with prtr_non.

       ·   HP/UX -- Supports the SVr1 subset, plus the SVr[234] numerics
           num_labels, label_height, label_width, plus function keys 11
           through 63, plus plab_norm, label_on, and label_off, plus some
           incompatible extensions in the string table.

       ·   AIX -- Supports the SVr1 subset, plus function keys 11 through
           63, plus a number of incompatible string table extensions.

       ·   OSF -- Supports both the SVr4 set and the AIX extensions.

FILES         top

       @TERMINFO@/?/*           files containing terminal descriptions

SEE ALSO         top

       @TIC@(1M), @INFOCMP@(1M), curses(3X), curs_color(3X), printf(3),
       term(5).  term_variables(3X).  user_caps(5).

AUTHORS         top

       Zeyd M. Ben-Halim, Eric S. Raymond, Thomas E. Dickey.  Based on
       pcurses by Pavel Curtis.

COLOPHON         top

       This page is part of the ncurses (new curses) project.  Information
       about the project can be found at 
       ⟨⟩.  If you have a
       bug report for this manual page, send it to  This page was obtained from the
       project's upstream Git mirror of the CVS repository
       ⟨git://⟩ on 2018-02-02.  (At that
       time, the date of the most recent commit that was found in the repos‐
       itory was 2018-01-30.)  If you discover any rendering problems in
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       of the original manual page), send a mail to


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