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ncurses(3X)                                                      ncurses(3X)

NAME         top

       ncurses - CRT screen handling and optimization package

SYNOPSIS         top

       #include <curses.h>

DESCRIPTION         top

       The ncurses library routines give the user a terminal-independent
       method of updating character screens with reasonable optimization.
       This implementation is “new curses” (ncurses) and is the approved
       replacement for 4.4BSD classic curses, which has been discontinued.
       This describes ncurses version @NCURSES_MAJOR@.@NCURSES_MINOR@ (patch
       @NCURSES_PATCH@).

       The ncurses library emulates the curses library of System V Release 4
       UNIX, and XPG4 (X/Open Portability Guide) curses (also known as XSI
       curses).  XSI stands for X/Open System Interfaces Extension.  The
       ncurses library is freely redistributable in source form.
       Differences from the SVr4 curses are summarized under the EXTENSIONS
       and PORTABILITY sections below and described in detail in the
       respective EXTENSIONS, PORTABILITY and BUGS sections of individual
       man pages.

       The ncurses library also provides many useful extensions, i.e.,
       features which cannot be implemented by a simple add-on library but
       which require access to the internals of the library.

       A program using these routines must be linked with the -lncurses
       option, or (if it has been generated) with the debugging library
       -lncurses_g.  (Your system integrator may also have installed these
       libraries under the names -lcurses and -lcurses_g.)  The ncurses_g
       library generates trace logs (in a file called 'trace' in the current
       directory) that describe curses actions.  See also the section on
       ALTERNATE CONFIGURATIONS.

       The ncurses package supports: overall screen, window and pad
       manipulation; output to windows and pads; reading terminal input;
       control over terminal and curses input and output options;
       environment query routines; color manipulation; use of soft label
       keys; terminfo capabilities; and access to low-level terminal-
       manipulation routines.

   Initialization
       The library uses the locale which the calling program has
       initialized.  That is normally done with setlocale:

               setlocale(LC_ALL, "");
     If the locale is not initialized, the library assumes that characters
     are printable as in ISO-8859-1, to work with certain legacy programs.
     You should initialize the locale and not rely on specific details of
     the library when the locale has not been setup.

       The function initscr or newterm must be called to initialize the
       library before any of the other routines that deal with windows and
       screens are used.  The routine endwin(3X) must be called before
       exiting.

       To get character-at-a-time input without echoing (most interactive,
       screen oriented programs want this), the following sequence should be
       used:

               initscr(); cbreak(); noecho();
     Most programs would additionally use the sequence:

             nonl();
             intrflush(stdscr, FALSE);
             keypad(stdscr, TRUE);
   Before a curses program is run, the tab stops of the terminal should be
   set and its initialization strings, if defined, must be output.  This can
   be done by executing the @TPUT@ init command after the shell environment
   variable TERM has been exported.  @TSET@(1) is usually responsible for
   doing this.  [See terminfo(5) for further details.]

   Datatypes
       The ncurses library permits manipulation of data structures, called
       windows, which can be thought of as two-dimensional arrays of
       characters representing all or part of a CRT screen.  A default
       window called stdscr, which is the size of the terminal screen, is
       supplied.  Others may be created with newwin.

       Note that curses does not handle overlapping windows, that's done by
       the panel(3X) library.  This means that you can either use stdscr or
       divide the screen into tiled windows and not using stdscr at all.
       Mixing the two will result in unpredictable, and undesired, effects.

       Windows are referred to by variables declared as WINDOW *.  These
       data structures are manipulated with routines described here and
       elsewhere in the ncurses manual pages.  Among those, the most basic
       routines are move and addch.  More general versions of these routines
       are included with names beginning with w, allowing the user to
       specify a window.  The routines not beginning with w affect stdscr.

       After using routines to manipulate a window, refresh(3X) is called,
       telling curses to make the user's CRT screen look like stdscr.  The
       characters in a window are actually of type chtype, (character and
       attribute data) so that other information about the character may
       also be stored with each character.

       Special windows called pads may also be manipulated.  These are
       windows which are not constrained to the size of the screen and whose
       contents need not be completely displayed.  See curs_pad(3X) for more
       information.

       In addition to drawing characters on the screen, video attributes and
       colors may be supported, causing the characters to show up in such
       modes as underlined, in reverse video, or in color on terminals that
       support such display enhancements.  Line drawing characters may be
       specified to be output.  On input, curses is also able to translate
       arrow and function keys that transmit escape sequences into single
       values.  The video attributes, line drawing characters, and input
       values use names, defined in <curses.h>, such as A_REVERSE,
       ACS_HLINE, and KEY_LEFT.

   Environment variables
       If the environment variables LINES and COLUMNS are set, or if the
       program is executing in a window environment, line and column
       information in the environment will override information read by
       terminfo.  This would affect a program running in an AT&T 630 layer,
       for example, where the size of a screen is changeable (see
       ENVIRONMENT).

       If the environment variable TERMINFO is defined, any program using
       curses checks for a local terminal definition before checking in the
       standard place.  For example, if TERM is set to att4424, then the
       compiled terminal definition is found in

               @TERMINFO@/a/att4424.
     (The a is copied from the first letter of att4424 to avoid creation of
     huge directories.)  However, if TERMINFO is set to $HOME/myterms,
     curses first checks

             $HOME/myterms/a/att4424,
   and if that fails, it then checks

           @TERMINFO@/a/att4424.
 This is useful for developing experimental definitions or when write
 permission in @TERMINFO@ is not available.

       The integer variables LINES and COLS are defined in <curses.h> and
       will be filled in by initscr with the size of the screen.  The
       constants TRUE and FALSE have the values 1 and 0, respectively.

       The curses routines also define the WINDOW * variable curscr which is
       used for certain low-level operations like clearing and redrawing a
       screen containing garbage.  The curscr can be used in only a few
       routines.

   Routine and Argument Names
       Many curses routines have two or more versions.  The routines
       prefixed with w require a window argument.  The routines prefixed
       with p require a pad argument.  Those without a prefix generally use
       stdscr.

       The routines prefixed with mv require a y and x coordinate to move to
       before performing the appropriate action.  The mv routines imply a
       call to move before the call to the other routine.  The coordinate y
       always refers to the row (of the window), and x always refers to the
       column.  The upper left-hand corner is always (0,0), not (1,1).

       The routines prefixed with mvw take both a window argument and x and
       y coordinates.  The window argument is always specified before the
       coordinates.

       In each case, win is the window affected, and pad is the pad
       affected; win and pad are always pointers to type WINDOW.

       Option setting routines require a Boolean flag bf with the value TRUE
       or FALSE; bf is always of type bool.  Most of the data types used in
       the library routines, such as WINDOW, SCREEN, bool, and chtype are
       defined in <curses.h>.  Types used for the terminfo routines such as
       TERMINAL are defined in <term.h>.

       This manual page describes functions which may appear in any
       configuration of the library.  There are two common configurations of
       the library:

          ncurses
               the "normal" library, which handles 8-bit characters.  The
               normal (8-bit) library stores characters combined with
               attributes in chtype data.

               Attributes alone (no corresponding character) may be stored
               in chtype or the equivalent attr_t data.  In either case, the
               data is stored in something like an integer.

               Each cell (row and column) in a WINDOW is stored as a chtype.

          ncursesw
               the so-called "wide" library, which handles multibyte
               characters (see the section on ALTERNATE CONFIGURATIONS).
               The "wide" library includes all of the calls from the
               "normal" library.  It adds about one third more calls using
               data types which store multibyte characters:

               cchar_t
                    corresponds to chtype.  However it is a structure,
                    because more data is stored than can fit into an
                    integer.  The characters are large enough to require a
                    full integer value - and there may be more than one
                    character per cell.  The video attributes and color are
                    stored in separate fields of the structure.

                    Each cell (row and column) in a WINDOW is stored as a
                    cchar_t.

               wchar_t
                    stores a "wide" character.  Like chtype, this may be an
                    integer.

               wint_t
                    stores a wchar_t or WEOF - not the same, though both may
                    have the same size.

               The "wide" library provides new functions which are analogous
               to functions in the "normal" library.  There is a naming
               convention which relates many of the normal/wide variants: a
               "_w" is inserted into the name.  For example, waddch becomes
               wadd_wch.

   Routine Name Index
       The following table lists each curses routine and the name of the
       manual page on which it is described.  Routines flagged with “*” are
       ncurses-specific, not described by XPG4 or present in SVr4.

                    curses Routine Name     Manual Page Name
                    ────────────────────────────────────────────
                    COLOR_PAIR              curs_color(3X)
                    PAIR_NUMBER             curs_attr(3X)
                    _nc_free_and_exit       curs_memleaks(3X)*
                    _nc_freeall             curs_memleaks(3X)*
                    _nc_tracebits           curs_trace(3X)*
                    _traceattr              curs_trace(3X)*
                    _traceattr2             curs_trace(3X)*
                    _tracechar              curs_trace(3X)*
                    _tracechtype            curs_trace(3X)*
                    _tracechtype2           curs_trace(3X)*
                    _tracedump              curs_trace(3X)*
                    _tracef                 curs_trace(3X)*
                    _tracemouse             curs_trace(3X)*
                    add_wch                 curs_add_wch(3X)
                    add_wchnstr             curs_add_wchstr(3X)
                    add_wchstr              curs_add_wchstr(3X)
                    addch                   curs_addch(3X)
                    addchnstr               curs_addchstr(3X)
                    addchstr                curs_addchstr(3X)
                    addnstr                 curs_addstr(3X)
                    addnwstr                curs_addwstr(3X)
                    addstr                  curs_addstr(3X)
                    addwstr                 curs_addwstr(3X)
                    alloc_pair              new_pair(3X)*
                    assume_default_colors   default_colors(3X)*
                    attr_get                curs_attr(3X)
                    attr_off                curs_attr(3X)
                    attr_on                 curs_attr(3X)
                    attr_set                curs_attr(3X)
                    attroff                 curs_attr(3X)
                    attron                  curs_attr(3X)
                    attrset                 curs_attr(3X)
                    baudrate                curs_termattrs(3X)

                    beep                    curs_beep(3X)
                    bkgd                    curs_bkgd(3X)
                    bkgdset                 curs_bkgd(3X)
                    bkgrnd                  curs_bkgrnd(3X)
                    bkgrndset               curs_bkgrnd(3X)
                    border                  curs_border(3X)
                    border_set              curs_border_set(3X)
                    box                     curs_border(3X)
                    box_set                 curs_border_set(3X)
                    can_change_color        curs_color(3X)
                    cbreak                  curs_inopts(3X)
                    chgat                   curs_attr(3X)
                    clear                   curs_clear(3X)
                    clearok                 curs_outopts(3X)
                    clrtobot                curs_clear(3X)
                    clrtoeol                curs_clear(3X)
                    color_content           curs_color(3X)
                    color_set               curs_attr(3X)
                    copywin                 curs_overlay(3X)
                    curs_set                curs_kernel(3X)
                    curses_version          curs_extend(3X)*
                    def_prog_mode           curs_kernel(3X)
                    def_shell_mode          curs_kernel(3X)
                    define_key              define_key(3X)*
                    del_curterm             curs_terminfo(3X)
                    delay_output            curs_util(3X)
                    delch                   curs_delch(3X)
                    deleteln                curs_deleteln(3X)
                    delscreen               curs_initscr(3X)
                    delwin                  curs_window(3X)
                    derwin                  curs_window(3X)
                    doupdate                curs_refresh(3X)
                    dupwin                  curs_window(3X)
                    echo                    curs_inopts(3X)
                    echo_wchar              curs_add_wch(3X)
                    echochar                curs_addch(3X)
                    endwin                  curs_initscr(3X)
                    erase                   curs_clear(3X)
                    erasechar               curs_termattrs(3X)
                    erasewchar              curs_termattrs(3X)
                    filter                  curs_util(3X)
                    find_pair               new_pair(3X)*
                    flash                   curs_beep(3X)
                    flushinp                curs_util(3X)
                    free_pair               new_pair(3X)*
                    get_wch                 curs_get_wch(3X)
                    get_wstr                curs_get_wstr(3X)
                    getattrs                curs_attr(3X)
                    getbegx                 curs_legacy(3X)*
                    getbegy                 curs_legacy(3X)*
                    getbegyx                curs_getyx(3X)
                    getbkgd                 curs_bkgd(3X)
                    getbkgrnd               curs_bkgrnd(3X)
                    getcchar                curs_getcchar(3X)
                    getch                   curs_getch(3X)
                    getcurx                 curs_legacy(3X)*
                    getcury                 curs_legacy(3X)*
                    getmaxx                 curs_legacy(3X)*
                    getmaxy                 curs_legacy(3X)*
                    getmaxyx                curs_getyx(3X)
                    getmouse                curs_mouse(3X)*
                    getn_wstr               curs_get_wstr(3X)
                    getnstr                 curs_getstr(3X)
                    getparx                 curs_legacy(3X)*
                    getpary                 curs_legacy(3X)*

                    getparyx                curs_getyx(3X)
                    getstr                  curs_getstr(3X)
                    getsyx                  curs_kernel(3X)
                    getwin                  curs_util(3X)
                    getyx                   curs_getyx(3X)
                    halfdelay               curs_inopts(3X)
                    has_colors              curs_color(3X)
                    has_ic                  curs_termattrs(3X)
                    has_il                  curs_termattrs(3X)
                    has_key                 curs_getch(3X)*
                    hline                   curs_border(3X)
                    hline_set               curs_border_set(3X)
                    idcok                   curs_outopts(3X)
                    idlok                   curs_outopts(3X)
                    immedok                 curs_outopts(3X)
                    in_wch                  curs_in_wch(3X)
                    in_wchnstr              curs_in_wchstr(3X)
                    in_wchstr               curs_in_wchstr(3X)
                    inch                    curs_inch(3X)
                    inchnstr                curs_inchstr(3X)
                    inchstr                 curs_inchstr(3X)
                    init_color              curs_color(3X)
                    init_pair               curs_color(3X)
                    initscr                 curs_initscr(3X)
                    innstr                  curs_instr(3X)
                    innwstr                 curs_inwstr(3X)
                    ins_nwstr               curs_ins_wstr(3X)
                    ins_wch                 curs_ins_wch(3X)
                    ins_wstr                curs_ins_wstr(3X)
                    insch                   curs_insch(3X)
                    insdelln                curs_deleteln(3X)
                    insertln                curs_deleteln(3X)
                    insnstr                 curs_insstr(3X)
                    insstr                  curs_insstr(3X)
                    instr                   curs_instr(3X)
                    intrflush               curs_inopts(3X)
                    inwstr                  curs_inwstr(3X)
                    is_cleared              curs_opaque(3X)*
                    is_idcok                curs_opaque(3X)*
                    is_idlok                curs_opaque(3X)*
                    is_immedok              curs_opaque(3X)*
                    is_keypad               curs_opaque(3X)*
                    is_leaveok              curs_opaque(3X)*
                    is_linetouched          curs_touch(3X)
                    is_nodelay              curs_opaque(3X)*
                    is_notimeout            curs_opaque(3X)*
                    is_pad                  curs_opaque(3X)*
                    is_scrollok             curs_opaque(3X)*
                    is_subwin               curs_opaque(3X)*
                    is_syncok               curs_opaque(3X)*
                    is_term_resized         resizeterm(3X)*
                    is_wintouched           curs_touch(3X)
                    isendwin                curs_initscr(3X)
                    key_defined             key_defined(3X)*
                    key_name                curs_util(3X)
                    keybound                keybound(3X)*
                    keyname                 curs_util(3X)
                    keyok                   keyok(3X)*
                    keypad                  curs_inopts(3X)
                    killchar                curs_termattrs(3X)
                    killwchar               curs_termattrs(3X)
                    leaveok                 curs_outopts(3X)
                    longname                curs_termattrs(3X)
                    mcprint                 curs_print(3X)*
                    meta                    curs_inopts(3X)

                    mouse_trafo             curs_mouse(3X)*
                    mouseinterval           curs_mouse(3X)*
                    mousemask               curs_mouse(3X)*
                    move                    curs_move(3X)
                    mvadd_wch               curs_add_wch(3X)
                    mvadd_wchnstr           curs_add_wchstr(3X)
                    mvadd_wchstr            curs_add_wchstr(3X)
                    mvaddch                 curs_addch(3X)
                    mvaddchnstr             curs_addchstr(3X)
                    mvaddchstr              curs_addchstr(3X)
                    mvaddnstr               curs_addstr(3X)
                    mvaddnwstr              curs_addwstr(3X)
                    mvaddstr                curs_addstr(3X)
                    mvaddwstr               curs_addwstr(3X)
                    mvchgat                 curs_attr(3X)
                    mvcur                   curs_terminfo(3X)
                    mvdelch                 curs_delch(3X)
                    mvderwin                curs_window(3X)
                    mvget_wch               curs_get_wch(3X)
                    mvget_wstr              curs_get_wstr(3X)
                    mvgetch                 curs_getch(3X)
                    mvgetn_wstr             curs_get_wstr(3X)
                    mvgetnstr               curs_getstr(3X)
                    mvgetstr                curs_getstr(3X)
                    mvhline                 curs_border(3X)
                    mvhline_set             curs_border_set(3X)
                    mvin_wch                curs_in_wch(3X)
                    mvin_wchnstr            curs_in_wchstr(3X)
                    mvin_wchstr             curs_in_wchstr(3X)
                    mvinch                  curs_inch(3X)
                    mvinchnstr              curs_inchstr(3X)
                    mvinchstr               curs_inchstr(3X)
                    mvinnstr                curs_instr(3X)
                    mvinnwstr               curs_inwstr(3X)
                    mvins_nwstr             curs_ins_wstr(3X)
                    mvins_wch               curs_ins_wch(3X)
                    mvins_wstr              curs_ins_wstr(3X)
                    mvinsch                 curs_insch(3X)
                    mvinsnstr               curs_insstr(3X)
                    mvinsstr                curs_insstr(3X)
                    mvinstr                 curs_instr(3X)
                    mvinwstr                curs_inwstr(3X)
                    mvprintw                curs_printw(3X)
                    mvscanw                 curs_scanw(3X)
                    mvvline                 curs_border(3X)
                    mvvline_set             curs_border_set(3X)
                    mvwadd_wch              curs_add_wch(3X)
                    mvwadd_wchnstr          curs_add_wchstr(3X)
                    mvwadd_wchstr           curs_add_wchstr(3X)
                    mvwaddch                curs_addch(3X)
                    mvwaddchnstr            curs_addchstr(3X)
                    mvwaddchstr             curs_addchstr(3X)
                    mvwaddnstr              curs_addstr(3X)
                    mvwaddnwstr             curs_addwstr(3X)
                    mvwaddstr               curs_addstr(3X)
                    mvwaddwstr              curs_addwstr(3X)
                    mvwchgat                curs_attr(3X)
                    mvwdelch                curs_delch(3X)
                    mvwget_wch              curs_get_wch(3X)
                    mvwget_wstr             curs_get_wstr(3X)
                    mvwgetch                curs_getch(3X)
                    mvwgetn_wstr            curs_get_wstr(3X)
                    mvwgetnstr              curs_getstr(3X)
                    mvwgetstr               curs_getstr(3X)
                    mvwhline                curs_border(3X)

                    mvwhline_set            curs_border_set(3X)
                    mvwin                   curs_window(3X)
                    mvwin_wch               curs_in_wch(3X)
                    mvwin_wchnstr           curs_in_wchstr(3X)
                    mvwin_wchstr            curs_in_wchstr(3X)
                    mvwinch                 curs_inch(3X)
                    mvwinchnstr             curs_inchstr(3X)
                    mvwinchstr              curs_inchstr(3X)
                    mvwinnstr               curs_instr(3X)
                    mvwinnwstr              curs_inwstr(3X)
                    mvwins_nwstr            curs_ins_wstr(3X)
                    mvwins_wch              curs_ins_wch(3X)
                    mvwins_wstr             curs_ins_wstr(3X)
                    mvwinsch                curs_insch(3X)
                    mvwinsnstr              curs_insstr(3X)
                    mvwinsstr               curs_insstr(3X)
                    mvwinstr                curs_instr(3X)
                    mvwinwstr               curs_inwstr(3X)
                    mvwprintw               curs_printw(3X)
                    mvwscanw                curs_scanw(3X)
                    mvwvline                curs_border(3X)
                    mvwvline_set            curs_border_set(3X)
                    napms                   curs_kernel(3X)
                    newpad                  curs_pad(3X)
                    newterm                 curs_initscr(3X)
                    newwin                  curs_window(3X)
                    nl                      curs_outopts(3X)
                    nocbreak                curs_inopts(3X)
                    nodelay                 curs_inopts(3X)
                    noecho                  curs_inopts(3X)
                    nofilter                curs_util(3X)*
                    nonl                    curs_outopts(3X)
                    noqiflush               curs_inopts(3X)
                    noraw                   curs_inopts(3X)
                    notimeout               curs_inopts(3X)
                    overlay                 curs_overlay(3X)
                    overwrite               curs_overlay(3X)
                    pair_content            curs_color(3X)
                    pechochar               curs_pad(3X)
                    pnoutrefresh            curs_pad(3X)
                    prefresh                curs_pad(3X)
                    printw                  curs_printw(3X)
                    putp                    curs_terminfo(3X)
                    putwin                  curs_util(3X)
                    qiflush                 curs_inopts(3X)
                    raw                     curs_inopts(3X)
                    redrawwin               curs_refresh(3X)
                    refresh                 curs_refresh(3X)
                    reset_prog_mode         curs_kernel(3X)
                    reset_shell_mode        curs_kernel(3X)
                    resetty                 curs_kernel(3X)
                    resize_term             resizeterm(3X)*
                    resizeterm              resizeterm(3X)*
                    restartterm             curs_terminfo(3X)
                    ripoffline              curs_kernel(3X)
                    savetty                 curs_kernel(3X)
                    scanw                   curs_scanw(3X)
                    scr_dump                curs_scr_dump(3X)
                    scr_init                curs_scr_dump(3X)
                    scr_restore             curs_scr_dump(3X)
                    scr_set                 curs_scr_dump(3X)
                    scrl                    curs_scroll(3X)
                    scroll                  curs_scroll(3X)
                    scrollok                curs_outopts(3X)
                    set_curterm             curs_terminfo(3X)

                    set_term                curs_initscr(3X)
                    setcchar                curs_getcchar(3X)
                    setscrreg               curs_outopts(3X)
                    setsyx                  curs_kernel(3X)
                    setterm                 curs_terminfo(3X)
                    setupterm               curs_terminfo(3X)
                    slk_attr                curs_slk(3X)*
                    slk_attr_off            curs_slk(3X)
                    slk_attr_on             curs_slk(3X)
                    slk_attr_set            curs_slk(3X)
                    slk_attroff             curs_slk(3X)
                    slk_attron              curs_slk(3X)
                    slk_attrset             curs_slk(3X)
                    slk_clear               curs_slk(3X)
                    slk_color               curs_slk(3X)
                    slk_init                curs_slk(3X)
                    slk_label               curs_slk(3X)
                    slk_noutrefresh         curs_slk(3X)
                    slk_refresh             curs_slk(3X)
                    slk_restore             curs_slk(3X)
                    slk_set                 curs_slk(3X)
                    slk_touch               curs_slk(3X)
                    standend                curs_attr(3X)
                    standout                curs_attr(3X)
                    start_color             curs_color(3X)
                    subpad                  curs_pad(3X)
                    subwin                  curs_window(3X)
                    syncok                  curs_window(3X)
                    term_attrs              curs_termattrs(3X)
                    termattrs               curs_termattrs(3X)
                    termname                curs_termattrs(3X)
                    tgetent                 curs_termcap(3X)
                    tgetflag                curs_termcap(3X)
                    tgetnum                 curs_termcap(3X)
                    tgetstr                 curs_termcap(3X)
                    tgoto                   curs_termcap(3X)
                    tigetflag               curs_terminfo(3X)
                    tigetnum                curs_terminfo(3X)
                    tigetstr                curs_terminfo(3X)
                    tiparm                  curs_terminfo(3X)*
                    timeout                 curs_inopts(3X)
                    touchline               curs_touch(3X)
                    touchwin                curs_touch(3X)
                    tparm                   curs_terminfo(3X)
                    tputs                   curs_termcap(3X)
                    tputs                   curs_terminfo(3X)
                    trace                   curs_trace(3X)*
                    typeahead               curs_inopts(3X)
                    unctrl                  curs_util(3X)
                    unget_wch               curs_get_wch(3X)
                    ungetch                 curs_getch(3X)
                    ungetmouse              curs_mouse(3X)*
                    untouchwin              curs_touch(3X)
                    use_default_colors      default_colors(3X)*
                    use_env                 curs_util(3X)
                    use_extended_names      curs_extend(3X)*
                    use_legacy_coding       legacy_coding(3X)*
                    use_tioctl              curs_util(3X)
                    vid_attr                curs_terminfo(3X)
                    vid_puts                curs_terminfo(3X)
                    vidattr                 curs_terminfo(3X)
                    vidputs                 curs_terminfo(3X)
                    vline                   curs_border(3X)
                    vline_set               curs_border_set(3X)
                    vw_printw               curs_printw(3X)

                    vw_scanw                curs_scanw(3X)
                    vwprintw                curs_printw(3X)
                    vwscanw                 curs_scanw(3X)
                    wadd_wch                curs_add_wch(3X)
                    wadd_wchnstr            curs_add_wchstr(3X)
                    wadd_wchstr             curs_add_wchstr(3X)
                    waddch                  curs_addch(3X)
                    waddchnstr              curs_addchstr(3X)
                    waddchstr               curs_addchstr(3X)
                    waddnstr                curs_addstr(3X)
                    waddnwstr               curs_addwstr(3X)
                    waddstr                 curs_addstr(3X)
                    waddwstr                curs_addwstr(3X)
                    wattr_get               curs_attr(3X)
                    wattr_off               curs_attr(3X)
                    wattr_on                curs_attr(3X)
                    wattr_set               curs_attr(3X)
                    wattroff                curs_attr(3X)
                    wattron                 curs_attr(3X)
                    wattrset                curs_attr(3X)
                    wbkgd                   curs_bkgd(3X)
                    wbkgdset                curs_bkgd(3X)
                    wbkgrnd                 curs_bkgrnd(3X)
                    wbkgrndset              curs_bkgrnd(3X)
                    wborder                 curs_border(3X)
                    wborder_set             curs_border_set(3X)
                    wchgat                  curs_attr(3X)
                    wclear                  curs_clear(3X)
                    wclrtobot               curs_clear(3X)
                    wclrtoeol               curs_clear(3X)
                    wcolor_set              curs_attr(3X)
                    wcursyncup              curs_window(3X)
                    wdelch                  curs_delch(3X)
                    wdeleteln               curs_deleteln(3X)
                    wecho_wchar             curs_add_wch(3X)
                    wechochar               curs_addch(3X)
                    wenclose                curs_mouse(3X)*
                    werase                  curs_clear(3X)
                    wget_wch                curs_get_wch(3X)
                    wget_wstr               curs_get_wstr(3X)
                    wgetbkgrnd              curs_bkgrnd(3X)
                    wgetch                  curs_getch(3X)
                    wgetdelay               curs_opaque(3X)*
                    wgetn_wstr              curs_get_wstr(3X)
                    wgetnstr                curs_getstr(3X)
                    wgetparent              curs_opaque(3X)*
                    wgetscrreg              curs_opaque(3X)*
                    wgetstr                 curs_getstr(3X)
                    whline                  curs_border(3X)
                    whline_set              curs_border_set(3X)
                    win_wch                 curs_in_wch(3X)
                    win_wchnstr             curs_in_wchstr(3X)
                    win_wchstr              curs_in_wchstr(3X)
                    winch                   curs_inch(3X)
                    winchnstr               curs_inchstr(3X)
                    winchstr                curs_inchstr(3X)
                    winnstr                 curs_instr(3X)
                    winnwstr                curs_inwstr(3X)
                    wins_nwstr              curs_ins_wstr(3X)
                    wins_wch                curs_ins_wch(3X)
                    wins_wstr               curs_ins_wstr(3X)
                    winsch                  curs_insch(3X)
                    winsdelln               curs_deleteln(3X)
                    winsertln               curs_deleteln(3X)
                    winsnstr                curs_insstr(3X)

                    winsstr                 curs_insstr(3X)
                    winstr                  curs_instr(3X)
                    winwstr                 curs_inwstr(3X)
                    wmouse_trafo            curs_mouse(3X)*
                    wmove                   curs_move(3X)
                    wnoutrefresh            curs_refresh(3X)
                    wprintw                 curs_printw(3X)
                    wredrawln               curs_refresh(3X)
                    wrefresh                curs_refresh(3X)
                    wresize                 wresize(3X)*
                    wscanw                  curs_scanw(3X)
                    wscrl                   curs_scroll(3X)
                    wsetscrreg              curs_outopts(3X)
                    wstandend               curs_attr(3X)
                    wstandout               curs_attr(3X)
                    wsyncdown               curs_window(3X)
                    wsyncup                 curs_window(3X)
                    wtimeout                curs_inopts(3X)
                    wtouchln                curs_touch(3X)
                    wunctrl                 curs_util(3X)
                    wvline                  curs_border(3X)
                    wvline_set              curs_border_set(3X)

RETURN VALUE         top

       Routines that return an integer return ERR upon failure and an
       integer value other than ERR upon successful completion, unless
       otherwise noted in the routine descriptions.

       As a general rule, routines check for null pointers passed as
       parameters, and handle this as an error.

       All macros return the value of the w version, except setscrreg,
       wsetscrreg, getyx, getbegyx, and getmaxyx.  The return values of
       setscrreg, wsetscrreg, getyx, getbegyx, and getmaxyx are undefined
       (i.e., these should not be used as the right-hand side of assignment
       statements).

       Routines that return pointers return NULL on error.

ENVIRONMENT         top

       The following environment symbols are useful for customizing the
       runtime behavior of the ncurses library.  The most important ones
       have been already discussed in detail.

   CC
       When set, change occurrences of the command_character (i.e., the
       cmdch capability) of the loaded terminfo entries to the value of this
       variable.  Very few terminfo entries provide this feature.

       Because this name is also used in development environments to
       represent the C compiler's name, ncurses ignores it if it does not
       happen to be a single character.

   BAUDRATE
       The debugging library checks this environment variable when the
       application has redirected output to a file.  The variable's numeric
       value is used for the baudrate.  If no value is found, ncurses uses
       9600.  This allows testers to construct repeatable test-cases that
       take into account costs that depend on baudrate.

   COLUMNS
       Specify the width of the screen in characters.  Applications running
       in a windowing environment usually are able to obtain the width of
       the window in which they are executing.  If neither the COLUMNS value
       nor the terminal's screen size is available, ncurses uses the size
       which may be specified in the terminfo database (i.e., the cols
       capability).

       It is important that your application use a correct size for the
       screen.  This is not always possible because your application may be
       running on a host which does not honor NAWS (Negotiations About
       Window Size), or because you are temporarily running as another user.
       However, setting COLUMNS and/or LINES overrides the library's use of
       the screen size obtained from the operating system.

       Either COLUMNS or LINES symbols may be specified independently.  This
       is mainly useful to circumvent legacy misfeatures of terminal
       descriptions, e.g., xterm which commonly specifies a 65 line screen.
       For best results, lines and cols should not be specified in a
       terminal description for terminals which are run as emulations.

       Use the use_env function to disable all use of external environment
       (but not including system calls) to determine the screen size.  Use
       the use_tioctl function to update COLUMNS or LINES to match the
       screen size obtained from system calls or the terminal database.

   ESCDELAY
       Specifies the total time, in milliseconds, for which ncurses will
       await a character sequence, e.g., a function key.  The default value,
       1000 milliseconds, is enough for most uses.  However, it is made a
       variable to accommodate unusual applications.

       The most common instance where you may wish to change this value is
       to work with slow hosts, e.g., running on a network.  If the host
       cannot read characters rapidly enough, it will have the same effect
       as if the terminal did not send characters rapidly enough.  The
       library will still see a timeout.

       Note that xterm mouse events are built up from character sequences
       received from the xterm.  If your application makes heavy use of
       multiple-clicking, you may wish to lengthen this default value
       because the timeout applies to the composed multi-click event as well
       as the individual clicks.

       In addition to the environment variable, this implementation provides
       a global variable with the same name.  Portable applications should
       not rely upon the presence of ESCDELAY in either form, but setting
       the environment variable rather than the global variable does not
       create problems when compiling an application.

   HOME
       Tells ncurses where your home directory is.  That is where it may
       read and write auxiliary terminal descriptions:

       $HOME/.termcap
       $HOME/.terminfo

   LINES
       Like COLUMNS, specify the height of the screen in characters.  See
       COLUMNS for a detailed description.

   MOUSE_BUTTONS_123
       This applies only to the OS/2 EMX port.  It specifies the order of
       buttons on the mouse.  OS/2 numbers a 3-button mouse inconsistently
       from other platforms:

       1 = left
       2 = right
       3 = middle.

       This variable lets you customize the mouse.  The variable must be
       three numeric digits 1-3 in any order, e.g., 123 or 321.  If it is
       not specified, ncurses uses 132.

   NCURSES_ASSUMED_COLORS
       Override the compiled-in assumption that the terminal's default
       colors are white-on-black (see default_colors(3X)).  You may set the
       foreground and background color values with this environment variable
       by proving a 2-element list: foreground,background.  For example, to
       tell ncurses to not assume anything about the colors, set this to
       "-1,-1".  To make it green-on-black, set it to "2,0".  Any positive
       value from zero to the terminfo max_colors value is allowed.

   NCURSES_CONSOLE2
       This applies only to the MinGW port of ncurses.

       The Console2 program's handling of the Microsoft Console API call
       CreateConsoleScreenBuffer is defective.  Applications which use this
       will hang.  However, it is possible to simulate the action of this
       call by mapping coordinates, explicitly saving and restoring the
       original screen contents.  Setting the environment variable NCGDB has
       the same effect.

   NCURSES_GPM_TERMS
       This applies only to ncurses configured to use the GPM interface.

       If present, the environment variable is a list of one or more
       terminal names against which the TERM environment variable is
       matched.  Setting it to an empty value disables the GPM interface;
       using the built-in support for xterm, etc.

       If the environment variable is absent, ncurses will attempt to open
       GPM if TERM contains "linux".

   NCURSES_NO_HARD_TABS
       Ncurses may use tabs as part of the cursor movement optimization.  In
       some cases, your terminal driver may not handle these properly.  Set
       this environment variable to disable the feature.  You can also
       adjust your stty settings to avoid the problem.
       NCURSES_NO_MAGIC_COOKIE Some terminals use a magic-cookie feature
       which requires special handling to make highlighting and other video
       attributes display properly.  You can suppress the highlighting
       entirely for these terminals by setting this environment variable.

   NCURSES_NO_PADDING
       Most of the terminal descriptions in the terminfo database are
       written for real "hardware" terminals.  Many people use terminal
       emulators which run in a windowing environment and use curses-based
       applications.  Terminal emulators can duplicate all of the important
       aspects of a hardware terminal, but they do not have the same
       limitations.  The chief limitation of a hardware terminal from the
       standpoint of your application is the management of dataflow, i.e.,
       timing.  Unless a hardware terminal is interfaced into a terminal
       concentrator (which does flow control), it (or your application) must
       manage dataflow, preventing overruns.  The cheapest solution (no
       hardware cost) is for your program to do this by pausing after
       operations that the terminal does slowly, such as clearing the
       display.

       As a result, many terminal descriptions (including the vt100) have
       delay times embedded.  You may wish to use these descriptions, but
       not want to pay the performance penalty.

       Set the NCURSES_NO_PADDING environment variable to disable all but
       mandatory padding.  Mandatory padding is used as a part of special
       control sequences such as flash.

   NCURSES_NO_SETBUF
       This setting is obsolete.  Before changes

          ·   started with 5.9 patch 20120825 and

          ·   continued though 5.9 patch 20130126

       ncurses enabled buffered output during terminal initialization.  This
       was done (as in SVr4 curses) for performance reasons.  For testing
       purposes, both of ncurses and certain applications, this feature was
       made optional.  Setting the NCURSES_NO_SETBUF variable disabled
       output buffering, leaving the output in the original (usually line
       buffered) mode.

       In the current implementation, ncurses performs its own buffering and
       does not require this workaround.  It does not modify the buffering
       of the standard output.

       The reason for the change was to make the behavior for interrupts and
       other signals more robust.  One drawback is that certain
       nonconventional programs would mix ordinary stdio calls with ncurses
       calls and (usually) work.  This is no longer possible since ncurses
       is not using the buffered standard output but its own output (to the
       same file descriptor).  As a special case, the low-level calls such
       as putp still use the standard output.  But high-level curses calls
       do not.

   NCURSES_NO_UTF8_ACS
       During initialization, the ncurses library checks for special cases
       where VT100 line-drawing (and the corresponding alternate character
       set capabilities) described in the terminfo are known to be missing.
       Specifically, when running in a UTF-8 locale, the Linux console
       emulator and the GNU screen program ignore these.  Ncurses checks the
       TERM environment variable for these.  For other special cases, you
       should set this environment variable.  Doing this tells ncurses to
       use Unicode values which correspond to the VT100 line-drawing glyphs.
       That works for the special cases cited, and is likely to work for
       terminal emulators.

       When setting this variable, you should set it to a nonzero value.
       Setting it to zero (or to a nonnumber) disables the special check for
       "linux" and "screen".

       As an alternative to the environment variable, ncurses checks for an
       extended terminfo capability U8.  This is a numeric capability which
       can be compiled using @TIC@ -x.  For example

          # linux console, if patched to provide working
          # VT100 shift-in/shift-out, with corresponding font.
          linux-vt100|linux console with VT100 line-graphics,
                  U8#0, use=linux,

          # uxterm with vt100Graphics resource set to false
          xterm-utf8|xterm relying on UTF-8 line-graphics,
                  U8#1, use=xterm,

       The name "U8" is chosen to be two characters, to permit it to be used
       by applications that use ncurses' termcap interface.

   NCURSES_TRACE
       During initialization, the ncurses debugging library checks the
       NCURSES_TRACE environment variable.  If it is defined, to a numeric
       value, ncurses calls the trace function, using that value as the
       argument.

       The argument values, which are defined in curses.h, provide several
       types of information.  When running with traces enabled, your
       application will write the file trace to the current directory.

       See curs_trace(3X) for more information.

   TERM
       Denotes your terminal type.  Each terminal type is distinct, though
       many are similar.

       TERM is commonly set by terminal emulators to help applications find
       a workable terminal description.  Some of those choose a popular
       approximation, e.g., “ansi”, “vt100”, “xterm” rather than an exact
       fit.  Not infrequently, your application will have problems with that
       approach, e.g., incorrect function-key definitions.

       If you set TERM in your environment, it has no effect on the
       operation of the terminal emulator.  It only affects the way
       applications work within the terminal.  Likewise, as a general rule
       (xterm being a rare exception), terminal emulators which allow you to
       specify TERM as a parameter or configuration value do not change
       their behavior to match that setting.

   TERMCAP
       If the ncurses library has been configured with termcap support,
       ncurses will check for a terminal's description in termcap form if it
       is not available in the terminfo database.

       The TERMCAP environment variable contains either a terminal
       description (with newlines stripped out), or a file name telling
       where the information denoted by the TERM environment variable
       exists.  In either case, setting it directs ncurses to ignore the
       usual place for this information, e.g., /etc/termcap.

   TERMINFO
       ncurses can be configured to read from multiple terminal databases.
       The TERMINFO variable overrides the location for the default terminal
       database.  Terminal descriptions (in terminal format) are stored in
       terminal databases:

       ·   Normally these are stored in a directory tree, using
           subdirectories named by the first letter of the terminal names
           therein.

           This is the scheme used in System V, which legacy Unix systems
           use, and the TERMINFO variable is used by curses applications on
           those systems to override the default location of the terminal
           database.

       ·   If ncurses is built to use hashed databases, then each entry in
           this list may be the path of a hashed database file, e.g.,

             /usr/share/terminfo.db

           rather than

             /usr/share/terminfo/

           The hashed database uses less disk-space and is a little faster
           than the directory tree.  However, some applications assume the
           existence of the directory tree, reading it directly rather than
           using the terminfo library calls.

       ·   If ncurses is built with a support for reading termcap files
           directly, then an entry in this list may be the path of a termcap
           file.

       ·   If the TERMINFO variable begins with “hex:” or “b64:”, ncurses
           uses the remainder of that variable as a compiled terminal
           description.  You might produce the base64 format using
           infocmp(1M):

             TERMINFO="$(infocmp -0 -Q2 -q)"
             export TERMINFO

           The compiled description is used if it corresponds to the
           terminal identified by the TERM variable.

       Setting TERMINFO is the simplest, but not the only way to set
       location of the default terminal database.  The complete list of
       database locations in order follows:

          ·   the last terminal database to which ncurses wrote, if any, is
              searched first

          ·   the location specified by the TERMINFO environment variable

          ·   $HOME/.terminfo

          ·   locations listed in the TERMINFO_DIRS environment variable

          ·   one or more locations whose names are configured and compiled
              into the ncurses library, i.e.,

             ·   @TERMINFO_DIRS@ (corresponding to the TERMINFO_DIRS
                 variable)

             ·   @TERMINFO@ (corresponding to the TERMINFO variable)

   TERMINFO_DIRS
       Specifies a list of locations to search for terminal descriptions.
       Each location in the list is a terminal database as described in the
       section on the TERMINFO variable.  The list is separated by colons
       (i.e., ":") on Unix, semicolons on OS/2 EMX.

       There is no corresponding feature in System V terminfo; it is an
       extension developed for ncurses.

   TERMPATH
       If TERMCAP does not hold a file name then ncurses checks the TERMPATH
       environment variable.  This is a list of filenames separated by
       spaces or colons (i.e., ":") on Unix, semicolons on OS/2 EMX.

       If the TERMPATH environment variable is not set, ncurses looks in the
       files

         /etc/termcap, /usr/share/misc/termcap and $HOME/.termcap,

       in that order.

       The library may be configured to disregard the following variables
       when the current user is the superuser (root), or if the application
       uses setuid or setgid permissions:

         $TERMINFO, $TERMINFO_DIRS, $TERMPATH, as well as $HOME.

ALTERNATE CONFIGURATIONS         top

       Several different configurations are possible, depending on the
       configure script options used when building ncurses.  There are a few
       main options whose effects are visible to the applications developer
       using ncurses:

       --disable-overwrite
            The standard include for ncurses is as noted in SYNOPSIS:

          #include <curses.h>

            This option is used to avoid filename conflicts when ncurses is
            not the main implementation of curses of the computer.  If
            ncurses is installed disabling overwrite, it puts its headers in
            a subdirectory, e.g.,

          #include <ncurses/curses.h>

            It also omits a symbolic link which would allow you to use
            -lcurses to build executables.

       --enable-widec
            The configure script renames the library and (if the
            --disable-overwrite option is used) puts the header files in a
            different subdirectory.  All of the library names have a "w"
            appended to them, i.e., instead of

          -lncurses

            you link with

          -lncursesw

            You must also define _XOPEN_SOURCE_EXTENDED when compiling for
            the wide-character library to use the extended (wide-character)
            functions.  The curses.h file which is installed for the wide-
            character library is designed to be compatible with the normal
            library's header.  Only the size of the WINDOW structure
            differs, and very few applications require more than a pointer
            to WINDOWs.  If the headers are installed allowing overwrite,
            the wide-character library's headers should be installed last,
            to allow applications to be built using either library from the
            same set of headers.

       --with-pthread
            The configure script renames the library.  All of the library
            names have a "t" appended to them (before any "w" added by
            --enable-widec).

            The global variables such as LINES are replaced by macros to
            allow read-only access.  At the same time, setter-functions are
            provided to set these values.  Some applications (very few) may
            require changes to work with this convention.

       --with-shared

       --with-normal

       --with-debug

       --with-profile
            The shared and normal (static) library names differ by their
            suffixes, e.g., libncurses.so and libncurses.a.  The debug and
            profiling libraries add a "_g" and a "_p" to the root names
            respectively, e.g., libncurses_g.a and libncurses_p.a.

       --with-trace
            The trace function normally resides in the debug library, but it
            is sometimes useful to configure this in the shared library.
            Configure scripts should check for the function's existence
            rather than assuming it is always in the debug library.

FILES         top

       @DATADIR@/tabset
            directory containing initialization files for the terminal
            capability database @TERMINFO@ terminal capability database

SEE ALSO         top

       terminfo(5) and related pages whose names begin "curs_" for detailed
       routine descriptions.
       curs_variables(3X)

EXTENSIONS         top

       The ncurses library can be compiled with an option (-DUSE_GETCAP)
       that falls back to the old-style /etc/termcap file if the terminal
       setup code cannot find a terminfo entry corresponding to TERM.  Use
       of this feature is not recommended, as it essentially includes an
       entire termcap compiler in the ncurses startup code, at significant
       cost in core and startup cycles.

       The ncurses library includes facilities for capturing mouse events on
       certain terminals (including xterm).  See the curs_mouse(3X) manual
       page for details.

       The ncurses library includes facilities for responding to window
       resizing events, e.g., when running in an xterm.  See the
       resizeterm(3X) and wresize(3X) manual pages for details.  In
       addition, the library may be configured with a SIGWINCH handler.

       The ncurses library extends the fixed set of function key
       capabilities of terminals by allowing the application designer to
       define additional key sequences at runtime.  See the define_key(3X)
       key_defined(3X), and keyok(3X) manual pages for details.

       The ncurses library can exploit the capabilities of terminals which
       implement the ISO-6429 SGR 39 and SGR 49 controls, which allow an
       application to reset the terminal to its original foreground and
       background colors.  From the users' perspective, the application is
       able to draw colored text on a background whose color is set
       independently, providing better control over color contrasts.  See
       the default_colors(3X) manual page for details.

       The ncurses library includes a function for directing application
       output to a printer attached to the terminal device.  See the
       curs_print(3X) manual page for details.

PORTABILITY         top

       The ncurses library is intended to be BASE-level conformant with XSI
       Curses.  The EXTENDED XSI Curses functionality (including color
       support) is supported.

       A small number of local differences (that is, individual differences
       between the XSI Curses and ncurses calls) are described in
       PORTABILITY sections of the library man pages.

       Unlike other implementations, this one checks parameters such as
       pointers to WINDOW structures to ensure they are not null.  The main
       reason for providing this behavior is to guard against programmer
       error.  The standard interface does not provide a way for the library
       to tell an application which of several possible errors were
       detected.  Relying on this (or some other) extension will adversely
       affect the portability of curses applications.

       This implementation also contains several extensions:

       ·   The routine has_key is not part of XPG4, nor is it present in
           SVr4.  See the curs_getch(3X) manual page for details.

       ·   The routine slk_attr is not part of XPG4, nor is it present in
           SVr4.  See the curs_slk(3X) manual page for details.

       ·   The routines getmouse, mousemask, ungetmouse, mouseinterval, and
           wenclose relating to mouse interfacing are not part of XPG4, nor
           are they present in SVr4.  See the curs_mouse(3X) manual page for
           details.

       ·   The routine mcprint was not present in any previous curses
           implementation.  See the curs_print(3X) manual page for details.

       ·   The routine wresize is not part of XPG4, nor is it present in
           SVr4.  See the wresize(3X) manual page for details.

       ·   The WINDOW structure's internal details can be hidden from
           application programs.  See curs_opaque(3X) for the discussion of
           is_scrollok, etc.

       ·   This implementation can be configured to provide rudimentary
           support for multi-threaded applications.  See curs_threads(3X)
           for details.

       ·   This implementation can also be configured to provide a set of
           functions which improve the ability to manage multiple screens.
           See curs_sp_funcs(3X) for details.

       In historic curses versions, delays embedded in the capabilities cr,
       ind, cub1, ff and tab activated corresponding delay bits in the UNIX
       tty driver.  In this implementation, all padding is done by sending
       NUL bytes.  This method is slightly more expensive, but narrows the
       interface to the UNIX kernel significantly and increases the
       package's portability correspondingly.

NOTES         top

       The header file <curses.h> automatically includes the header files
       <stdio.h> and <unctrl.h>.

       If standard output from a ncurses program is re-directed to something
       which is not a tty, screen updates will be directed to standard
       error.  This was an undocumented feature of AT&T System V Release 3
       curses.

AUTHORS         top

       Zeyd M. Ben-Halim, Eric S. Raymond, Thomas E. Dickey.  Based on
       pcurses by Pavel Curtis.

COLOPHON         top

       This page is part of the ncurses (new curses) project.  Information
       about the project can be found at 
       ⟨https://www.gnu.org/software/ncurses/ncurses.html⟩.  If you have a
       bug report for this manual page, send it to
       bug-ncurses-request@gnu.org.  This page was obtained from the
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                                                                 ncurses(3X)