NAME | SYNOPSIS | DESCRIPTION | RETURN VALUE | NOTES | EXAMPLE | SEE ALSO | COLOPHON

SYSCALL(2)                Linux Programmer's Manual               SYSCALL(2)

NAME         top

       syscall - indirect system call

SYNOPSIS         top

       #define _GNU_SOURCE         /* See feature_test_macros(7) */
       #include <unistd.h>
       #include <sys/syscall.h>   /* For SYS_xxx definitions */

       long syscall(long number, ...);

DESCRIPTION         top

       syscall() is a small library function that invokes the system call
       whose assembly language interface has the specified number with the
       specified arguments.  Employing syscall() is useful, for example,
       when invoking a system call that has no wrapper function in the C
       library.

       syscall() saves CPU registers before making the system call, restores
       the registers upon return from the system call, and stores any error
       code returned by the system call in errno(3) if an error occurs.

       Symbolic constants for system call numbers can be found in the header
       file <sys/syscall.h>.

RETURN VALUE         top

       The return value is defined by the system call being invoked.  In
       general, a 0 return value indicates success.  A -1 return value
       indicates an error, and an error code is stored in errno.

NOTES         top

       syscall() first appeared in 4BSD.

   Architecture-specific requirements
       Each architecture ABI has its own requirements on how system call
       arguments are passed to the kernel.  For system calls that have a
       glibc wrapper (e.g., most system calls), glibc handles the details of
       copying arguments to the right registers in a manner suitable for the
       architecture.  However, when using syscall() to make a system call,
       the caller might need to handle architecture-dependent details; this
       requirement is most commonly encountered on certain 32-bit
       architectures.

       For example, on the ARM architecture Embedded ABI (EABI), a 64-bit
       value (e.g., long long) must be aligned to an even register pair.
       Thus, using syscall() instead of the wrapper provided by glibc, the
       readahead() system call would be invoked as follows on the ARM
       architecture with the EABI:

           syscall(SYS_readahead, fd, 0,
                   (unsigned int) (offset >> 32),
                   (unsigned int) (offset & 0xFFFFFFFF),
                   count);

       Since the offset argument is 64 bits, and the first argument (fd) is
       passed in r0, the caller must manually split and align the 64-bit
       value so that it is passed in the r2/r3 register pair.  That means
       inserting a dummy value into r1 (the second argument of 0).

       Similar issues can occur on MIPS with the O32 ABI, on PowerPC with
       the 32-bit ABI, and on Xtensa.

       The affected system calls are fadvise64_64(2), ftruncate64(2),
       posix_fadvise(2), pread64(2), pwrite64(2), readahead(2),
       sync_file_range(2), and truncate64(2).

   Architecture calling conventions
       Every architecture has its own way of invoking and passing arguments
       to the kernel.  The details for various architectures are listed in
       the two tables below.

       The first table lists the instruction used to transition to kernel
       mode, (which might not be the fastest or best way to transition to
       the kernel, so you might have to refer to vdso(7)), the register used
       to indicate the system call number, and the register used to return
       the system call result.

       arch/ABI   instruction          syscall #   retval Notes
       ───────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
       arm/OABI   swi NR               -           a1     NR is syscall #
       arm/EABI   swi 0x0              r7          r0
       blackfin   excpt 0x0            P0          R0
       i386       int $0x80            eax         eax
       ia64       break 0x100000       r15         r10/r8 bool error/
                                                          errno value
       parisc     ble 0x100(%sr2, %r0) r20         r28
       s390       svc 0                r1          r2     See below
       s390x      svc 0                r1          r2     See below
       sparc/32   t 0x10               g1          o0
       sparc/64   t 0x6d               g1          o0
       x86_64     syscall              rax         rax

       For s390 and s390x, NR (the system call number) may be passed
       directly with "svc NR" if it is less than 256.

       The second table shows the registers used to pass the system call
       arguments.

       arch/ABI   arg1   arg2   arg3   arg4   arg5   arg6   arg7
       ──────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
       arm/OABI   a1     a2     a3     a4     v1     v2     v3
       arm/EABI   r0     r1     r2     r3     r4     r5     r6
       blackfin   R0     R1     R2     R3     R4     R5     -
       i386       ebx    ecx    edx    esi    edi    ebp    -
       ia64       out0   out1   out2   out3   out4   out5   -
       parisc     r26    r25    r24    r23    r22    r21    -
       s390       r2     r3     r4     r5     r6     r7     -
       s390x      r2     r3     r4     r5     r6     r7     -
       sparc/32   o0     o1     o2     o3     o4     o5     -
       sparc/64   o0     o1     o2     o3     o4     o5     -
       x86_64     rdi    rsi    rdx    r10    r8     r9     -

       Note that these tables don't cover the entire calling convention—some
       architectures may indiscriminately clobber other registers not listed
       here.

EXAMPLE         top

       #define _GNU_SOURCE
       #include <unistd.h>
       #include <sys/syscall.h>
       #include <sys/types.h>
       #include <signal.h>

       int
       main(int argc, char *argv[])
       {
           pid_t tid;

           tid = syscall(SYS_gettid);
           tid = syscall(SYS_tgkill, getpid(), tid, SIGHUP);
       }

SEE ALSO         top

       _syscall(2), intro(2), syscalls(2), vdso(7)

COLOPHON         top

       This page is part of release 3.70 of the Linux man-pages project.  A
       description of the project, information about reporting bugs, and the
       latest version of this page, can be found at
       http://www.kernel.org/doc/man-pages/.

Linux                            2014-05-10                       SYSCALL(2)