TMUX(1)                  BSD General Commands Manual                 TMUX(1)

NAME         top

     tmux — terminal multiplexer

SYNOPSIS         top

     tmux [-2CluvV] [-c shell-command] [-f file] [-L socket-name]
          [-S socket-path] [command [flags]]

DESCRIPTION         top

     tmux is a terminal multiplexer: it enables a number of terminals to be
     created, accessed, and controlled from a single screen.  tmux may be
     detached from a screen and continue running in the background, then
     later reattached.

     When tmux is started it creates a new session with a single window and
     displays it on screen.  A status line at the bottom of the screen shows
     information on the current session and is used to enter interactive

     A session is a single collection of pseudo terminals under the manage‐
     ment of tmux.  Each session has one or more windows linked to it.  A
     window occupies the entire screen and may be split into rectangular
     panes, each of which is a separate pseudo terminal (the pty(4) manual
     page documents the technical details of pseudo terminals).  Any number
     of tmux instances may connect to the same session, and any number of
     windows may be present in the same session.  Once all sessions are
     killed, tmux exits.

     Each session is persistent and will survive accidental disconnection
     (such as ssh(1) connection timeout) or intentional detaching (with the
     ‘C-b d’ key strokes).  tmux may be reattached using:

           $ tmux attach

     In tmux, a session is displayed on screen by a client and all sessions
     are managed by a single server.  The server and each client are sepa‐
     rate processes which communicate through a socket in /tmp.

     The options are as follows:

     -2            Force tmux to assume the terminal supports 256 colours.

     -C            Start in control mode (see the CONTROL MODE section).
                   Given twice (-CC) disables echo.

     -c shell-command
                   Execute shell-command using the default shell.  If neces‐
                   sary, the tmux server will be started to retrieve the
                   default-shell option.  This option is for compatibility
                   with sh(1) when tmux is used as a login shell.

     -f file       Specify an alternative configuration file.  By default,
                   tmux loads the system configuration file from
                   @SYSCONFDIR@/tmux.conf, if present, then looks for a user
                   configuration file at ~/.tmux.conf.

                   The configuration file is a set of tmux commands which
                   are executed in sequence when the server is first
                   started.  tmux loads configuration files once when the
                   server process has started.  The source-file command may
                   be used to load a file later.

                   tmux shows any error messages from commands in configura‐
                   tion files in the first session created, and continues to
                   process the rest of the configuration file.

     -L socket-name
                   tmux stores the server socket in a directory under
                   TMUX_TMPDIR or /tmp if it is unset.  The default socket
                   is named default.  This option allows a different socket
                   name to be specified, allowing several independent tmux
                   servers to be run.  Unlike -S a full path is not neces‐
                   sary: the sockets are all created in the same directory.

                   If the socket is accidentally removed, the SIGUSR1 signal
                   may be sent to the tmux server process to recreate it
                   (note that this will fail if any parent directories are

     -l            Behave as a login shell.  This flag currently has no
                   effect and is for compatibility with other shells when
                   using tmux as a login shell.

     -S socket-path
                   Specify a full alternative path to the server socket.  If
                   -S is specified, the default socket directory is not used
                   and any -L flag is ignored.

     -u            Write UTF-8 output to the terminal even if the first
                   environment variable of LC_ALL, LC_CTYPE, or LANG that is
                   set does not contain "UTF-8" or "UTF8".

     -v            Request verbose logging.  Log messages will be saved into
                   tmux-client-PID.log and tmux-server-PID.log files in the
                   current directory, where PID is the PID of the server or
                   client process.  If -v is specified twice, an additional
                   tmux-out-PID.log file is generated with a copy of every‐
                   thing tmux writes to the terminal.

                   The SIGUSR2 signal may be sent to the tmux server process
                   to toggle logging between on (as if -v was given) and

     -V            Report the tmux version.

     command [flags]
                   This specifies one of a set of commands used to control
                   tmux, as described in the following sections.  If no com‐
                   mands are specified, the new-session command is assumed.


     tmux may be controlled from an attached client by using a key combina‐
     tion of a prefix key, ‘C-b’ (Ctrl-b) by default, followed by a command

     The default command key bindings are:

           C-b         Send the prefix key (C-b) through to the application.
           C-o         Rotate the panes in the current window forwards.
           C-z         Suspend the tmux client.
           !           Break the current pane out of the window.
           "           Split the current pane into two, top and bottom.
           #           List all paste buffers.
           $           Rename the current session.
           %           Split the current pane into two, left and right.
           &           Kill the current window.
           '           Prompt for a window index to select.
           (           Switch the attached client to the previous session.
           )           Switch the attached client to the next session.
           ,           Rename the current window.
           -           Delete the most recently copied buffer of text.
           .           Prompt for an index to move the current window.
           0 to 9      Select windows 0 to 9.
           :           Enter the tmux command prompt.
           ;           Move to the previously active pane.
           =           Choose which buffer to paste interactively from a
           ?           List all key bindings.
           D           Choose a client to detach.
           L           Switch the attached client back to the last session.
           [           Enter copy mode to copy text or view the history.
           ]           Paste the most recently copied buffer of text.
           c           Create a new window.
           d           Detach the current client.
           f           Prompt to search for text in open windows.
           i           Display some information about the current window.
           l           Move to the previously selected window.
           n           Change to the next window.
           o           Select the next pane in the current window.
           p           Change to the previous window.
           q           Briefly display pane indexes.
           r           Force redraw of the attached client.
           m           Mark the current pane (see select-pane -m).
           M           Clear the marked pane.
           s           Select a new session for the attached client interac‐
           t           Show the time.
           w           Choose the current window interactively.
           x           Kill the current pane.
           z           Toggle zoom state of the current pane.
           {           Swap the current pane with the previous pane.
           }           Swap the current pane with the next pane.
           ~           Show previous messages from tmux, if any.
           Page Up     Enter copy mode and scroll one page up.
           Up, Down
           Left, Right
                       Change to the pane above, below, to the left, or to
                       the right of the current pane.
           M-1 to M-5  Arrange panes in one of the five preset layouts:
                       even-horizontal, even-vertical, main-horizontal,
                       main-vertical, or tiled.
           Space       Arrange the current window in the next preset layout.
           M-n         Move to the next window with a bell or activity
           M-o         Rotate the panes in the current window backwards.
           M-p         Move to the previous window with a bell or activity
           C-Up, C-Down
           C-Left, C-Right
                       Resize the current pane in steps of one cell.
           M-Up, M-Down
           M-Left, M-Right
                       Resize the current pane in steps of five cells.

     Key bindings may be changed with the bind-key and unbind-key commands.

COMMANDS         top

     This section contains a list of the commands supported by tmux.  Most
     commands accept the optional -t (and sometimes -s) argument with one of
     target-client, target-session target-window, or target-pane.  These
     specify the client, session, window or pane which a command should

     target-client should be the name of the client, typically the pty(4)
     file to which the client is connected, for example either of /dev/ttyp1
     or ttyp1 for the client attached to /dev/ttyp1.  If no client is speci‐
     fied, tmux attempts to work out the client currently in use; if that
     fails, an error is reported.  Clients may be listed with the
     list-clients command.

     target-session is tried as, in order:

           1.   A session ID prefixed with a $.

           2.   An exact name of a session (as listed by the list-sessions

           3.   The start of a session name, for example ‘mysess’ would
                match a session named ‘mysession’.

           4.   An fnmatch(3) pattern which is matched against the session

     If the session name is prefixed with an ‘=’, only an exact match is
     accepted (so ‘=mysess’ will only match exactly ‘mysess’, not

     If a single session is found, it is used as the target session; multi‐
     ple matches produce an error.  If a session is omitted, the current
     session is used if available; if no current session is available, the
     most recently used is chosen.

     target-window (or src-window or dst-window) specifies a window in the
     form session:window.  session follows the same rules as for
     target-session, and window is looked for in order as:

           1.   A special token, listed below.

           2.   A window index, for example ‘mysession:1’ is window 1 in
                session ‘mysession’.

           3.   A window ID, such as @1.

           4.   An exact window name, such as ‘mysession:mywindow’.

           5.   The start of a window name, such as ‘mysession:mywin’.

           6.   As an fnmatch(3) pattern matched against the window name.

     Like sessions, a ‘=’ prefix will do an exact match only.  An empty win‐
     dow name specifies the next unused index if appropriate (for example
     the new-window and link-window commands) otherwise the current window
     in session is chosen.

     The following special tokens are available to indicate particular win‐
     dows.  Each has a single-character alternative form.

     Token              Meaning
     {start}       ^    The lowest-numbered window
     {end}         $    The highest-numbered window
     {last}        !    The last (previously current) window
     {next}        +    The next window by number
     {previous}    -    The previous window by number

     target-pane (or src-pane or dst-pane) may be a pane ID or takes a simi‐
     lar form to target-window but with the optional addition of a period
     followed by a pane index or pane ID, for example:
     ‘mysession:mywindow.1’.  If the pane index is omitted, the currently
     active pane in the specified window is used.  The following special
     tokens are available for the pane index:

     Token                  Meaning
     {last}            !    The last (previously active) pane
     {next}            +    The next pane by number
     {previous}        -    The previous pane by number
     {top}                  The top pane
     {bottom}               The bottom pane
     {left}                 The leftmost pane
     {right}                The rightmost pane
     {top-left}             The top-left pane
     {top-right}            The top-right pane
     {bottom-left}          The bottom-left pane
     {bottom-right}         The bottom-right pane
     {up-of}                The pane above the active pane
     {down-of}              The pane below the active pane
     {left-of}              The pane to the left of the active pane
     {right-of}             The pane to the right of the active pane

     The tokens ‘+’ and ‘-’ may be followed by an offset, for example:

           select-window -t:+2

     In addition, target-session, target-window or target-pane may consist
     entirely of the token ‘{mouse}’ (alternative form ‘=’) to specify the
     most recent mouse event (see the MOUSE SUPPORT section) or ‘{marked}’
     (alternative form ‘~’) to specify the marked pane (see select-pane -m).

     Sessions, window and panes are each numbered with a unique ID; session
     IDs are prefixed with a ‘$’, windows with a ‘@’, and panes with a ‘%’.
     These are unique and are unchanged for the life of the session, window
     or pane in the tmux server.  The pane ID is passed to the child process
     of the pane in the TMUX_PANE environment variable.  IDs may be dis‐
     played using the ‘session_id’, ‘window_id’, or ‘pane_id’ formats (see
     the FORMATS section) and the display-message, list-sessions,
     list-windows or list-panes commands.

     shell-command arguments are sh(1) commands.  This may be a single argu‐
     ment passed to the shell, for example:

           new-window 'vi /etc/passwd'

     Will run:

           /bin/sh -c 'vi /etc/passwd'

     Additionally, the new-window, new-session, split-window, respawn-window
     and respawn-pane commands allow shell-command to be given as multiple
     arguments and executed directly (without ‘sh -c’).  This can avoid
     issues with shell quoting.  For example:

           $ tmux new-window vi /etc/passwd

     Will run vi(1) directly without invoking the shell.

     command [arguments] refers to a tmux command, passed with the command
     and arguments separately, for example:

           bind-key F1 set-option status off

     Or if using sh(1):

           $ tmux bind-key F1 set-option status off

     Multiple commands may be specified together as part of a command
     sequence.  Each command should be separated by spaces and a semicolon;
     commands are executed sequentially from left to right and lines ending
     with a backslash continue on to the next line, except when escaped by
     another backslash.  A literal semicolon may be included by escaping it
     with a backslash (for example, when specifying a command sequence to

     Example tmux commands include:

           refresh-client -t/dev/ttyp2

           rename-session -tfirst newname

           set-window-option -t:0 monitor-activity on

           new-window ; split-window -d

           bind-key R source-file ~/.tmux.conf \; \
                   display-message "source-file done"

     Or from sh(1):

           $ tmux kill-window -t :1

           $ tmux new-window \; split-window -d

           $ tmux new-session -d 'vi /etc/passwd' \; split-window -d \; attach


     The tmux server manages clients, sessions, windows and panes.  Clients
     are attached to sessions to interact with them, either when they are
     created with the new-session command, or later with the attach-session
     command.  Each session has one or more windows linked into it.  Windows
     may be linked to multiple sessions and are made up of one or more
     panes, each of which contains a pseudo terminal.  Commands for creat‐
     ing, linking and otherwise manipulating windows are covered in the
     WINDOWS AND PANES section.

     The following commands are available to manage clients and sessions:

     attach-session [-dEr] [-c working-directory] [-t target-session]
                   (alias: attach)
             If run from outside tmux, create a new client in the current
             terminal and attach it to target-session.  If used from inside,
             switch the current client.  If -d is specified, any other
             clients attached to the session are detached.  -r signifies the
             client is read-only (only keys bound to the detach-client or
             switch-client commands have any effect)

             If no server is started, attach-session will attempt to start
             it; this will fail unless sessions are created in the configu‐
             ration file.

             The target-session rules for attach-session are slightly
             adjusted: if tmux needs to select the most recently used ses‐
             sion, it will prefer the most recently used unattached session.

             -c will set the session working directory (used for new win‐
             dows) to working-directory.

             If -E is used, the update-environment option will not be

     detach-client [-aP] [-E shell-command] [-s target-session] [-t
                   (alias: detach)
             Detach the current client if bound to a key, the client speci‐
             fied with -t, or all clients currently attached to the session
             specified by -s.  The -a option kills all but the client given
             with -t.  If -P is given, send SIGHUP to the parent process of
             the client, typically causing it to exit.  With -E, run
             shell-command to replace the client.

     has-session [-t target-session]
                   (alias: has)
             Report an error and exit with 1 if the specified session does
             not exist.  If it does exist, exit with 0.

             Kill the tmux server and clients and destroy all sessions.

     kill-session [-aC] [-t target-session]
             Destroy the given session, closing any windows linked to it and
             no other sessions, and detaching all clients attached to it.
             If -a is given, all sessions but the specified one is killed.
             The -C flag clears alerts (bell, activity, or silence) in all
             windows linked to the session.

     list-clients [-F format] [-t target-session]
                   (alias: lsc)
             List all clients attached to the server.  For the meaning of
             the -F flag, see the FORMATS section.  If target-session is
             specified, list only clients connected to that session.

     list-commands [-F format]
                   (alias: lscm)
             List the syntax of all commands supported by tmux.

     list-sessions [-F format]
                   (alias: ls)
             List all sessions managed by the server.  For the meaning of
             the -F flag, see the FORMATS section.

     lock-client [-t target-client]
                   (alias: lockc)
             Lock target-client, see the lock-server command.

     lock-session [-t target-session]
                   (alias: locks)
             Lock all clients attached to target-session.

     new-session [-AdDEP] [-c start-directory] [-F format] [-n window-name]
             [-s session-name] [-t group-name] [-x width] [-y height]
                   (alias: new)
             Create a new session with name session-name.

             The new session is attached to the current terminal unless -d
             is given.  window-name and shell-command are the name of and
             shell command to execute in the initial window.  With -d, the
             initial size comes from the global default-size option; -x and
             -y can be used to specify a different size.  ‘-’ uses the size
             of the current client if any.  If -x or -y is given, the
             default-size option is set for the session.

             If run from a terminal, any termios(4) special characters are
             saved and used for new windows in the new session.

             The -A flag makes new-session behave like attach-session if
             session-name already exists; in this case, -D behaves like -d
             to attach-session.

             If -t is given, it specifies a session group.  Sessions in the
             same group share the same set of windows - new windows are
             linked to all sessions in the group and any windows closed
             removed from all sessions.  The current and previous window and
             any session options remain independent and any session in a
             group may be killed without affecting the others.  The
             group-name argument may be:

             1.      the name of an existing group, in which case the new
                     session is added to that group;

             2.      the name of an existing session - the new session is
                     added to the same group as that session, creating a new
                     group if necessary;

             3.      the name for a new group containing only the new ses‐

             -n and shell-command are invalid if -t is used.

             The -P option prints information about the new session after it
             has been created.  By default, it uses the format
             ‘#{session_name}:’ but a different format may be specified with

             If -E is used, the update-environment option will not be

     refresh-client [-cDlLRSU] [-C width,height] [-t target-client]
                   (alias: refresh)
             Refresh the current client if bound to a key, or a single
             client if one is given with -t.  If -S is specified, only
             update the client's status line.

             The -U, -D, -L -R, and -c flags allow the visible portion of a
             window which is larger than the client to be changed.  -U moves
             the visible part up by adjustment rows and -D down, -L left by
             adjustment columns and -R right.  -c returns to tracking the
             cursor automatically.  If adjustment is omitted, 1 is used.
             Note that the visible position is a property of the client not
             of the window, changing the current window in the attached ses‐
             sion will reset it.

             -C sets the width and height of a control client.  -l requests
             the clipboard from the client using the xterm(1) escape
             sequence and stores it in a new paste buffer.

             -L, -R, -U and -D move the visible portion of the window left,
             right, up or down by adjustment, if the window is larger than
             the client.  -c resets so that the position follows the cursor.
             See the window-size option.

     rename-session [-t target-session] new-name
                   (alias: rename)
             Rename the session to new-name.

     show-messages [-JT] [-t target-client]
                   (alias: showmsgs)
             Show client messages or server information.  Any messages dis‐
             played on the status line are saved in a per-client message
             log, up to a maximum of the limit set by the message-limit
             server option.  With -t, display the log for target-client.  -J
             and -T show debugging information about jobs and terminals.

     source-file [-q] path
                   (alias: source)
             Execute commands from path (which may be a glob(7) pattern).
             If -q is given, no error will be returned if path does not

             Within a configuration file, commands may be made conditional
             by surrounding them with %if and %endif lines.  Additional
             %elif and %else lines may also be used.  The argument to %if
             and %elif is expanded as a format and if it evaluates to false
             (zero or empty), subsequent lines are ignored until the next
             %elif, %else or %endif.  For example:

                   %if #{==:#{host},myhost}
                   set -g status-style bg=red
                   %elif #{==:#{host},myotherhost}
                   set -g status-style bg=green
                   set -g status-style bg=blue

             Will change the status line to red if running on ‘myhost’,
             green if running on ‘myotherhost’, or blue if running on
             another host.

                   (alias: start)
             Start the tmux server, if not already running, without creating
             any sessions.

     suspend-client [-t target-client]
                   (alias: suspendc)
             Suspend a client by sending SIGTSTP (tty stop).

     switch-client [-Elnpr] [-c target-client] [-t target-session] [-T
                   (alias: switchc)
             Switch the current session for client target-client to
             target-session.  As a special case, -t may refer to a pane (a
             target that contains ‘:’, ‘.’ or ‘%’), in which case the ses‐
             sion, window and pane are all changed.  If -l, -n or -p is
             used, the client is moved to the last, next or previous session
             respectively.  -r toggles whether a client is read-only (see
             the attach-session command).

             If -E is used, update-environment option will not be applied.

             -T sets the client's key table; the next key from the client
             will be interpreted from key-table.  This may be used to con‐
             figure multiple prefix keys, or to bind commands to sequences
             of keys.  For example, to make typing ‘abc’ run the list-keys

                   bind-key -Ttable2 c list-keys
                   bind-key -Ttable1 b switch-client -Ttable2
                   bind-key -Troot   a switch-client -Ttable1


     A tmux window may be in one of two modes.  The default permits direct
     access to the terminal attached to the window.  The other is copy mode,
     which permits a section of a window or its history to be copied to a
     paste buffer for later insertion into another window.  This mode is
     entered with the copy-mode command, bound to ‘[’ by default.  It is
     also entered when a command that produces output, such as list-keys, is
     executed from a key binding.

     Commands are sent to copy mode using the -X flag to the send-keys com‐
     mand.  When a key is pressed, copy mode automatically uses one of two
     key tables, depending on the mode-keys option: copy-mode for emacs, or
     copy-mode-vi for vi.  Key tables may be viewed with the list-keys com‐

     The following commands are supported in copy mode:

           Command                              vi              emacs
           append-selection-and-cancel          A
           back-to-indentation                  ^               M-m
           begin-selection                      Space           C-Space
           bottom-line                          L
           cancel                               q               Escape
           clear-selection                      Escape          C-g
           copy-end-of-line [<prefix>]          D               C-k
           copy-line [<prefix>]
           copy-pipe <command> [<prefix>]
           copy-pipe-no-clear <command> [<prefix>]
           copy-pipe-and-cancel <command> [<prefix>]
           copy-selection [<prefix>]
           copy-selection-no-clear [<prefix>]
           copy-selection-and-cancel [<prefix>] Enter           M-w
           cursor-down                          j               Down
           cursor-left                          h               Left
           cursor-right                         l               Right
           cursor-up                            k               Up
           end-of-line                          $               C-e
           goto-line <line>                     :               g
           halfpage-down                        C-d             M-Down
           halfpage-up                          C-u             M-Up
           history-bottom                       G               M->
           history-top                          g               M-<
           jump-again                           ;               ;
           jump-backward <to>                   F               F
           jump-forward <to>                    f               f
           jump-reverse                         ,               ,
           jump-to-backward <to>                T
           jump-to-forward <to>                 t
           middle-line                          M               M-r
           next-paragraph                       }               M-}
           next-space                           W
           next-space-end                       E
           next-word                            w
           next-word-end                        e               M-f
           other-end                            o
           page-down                            C-f             PageDown
           page-up                              C-b             PageUp
           previous-paragraph                   {               M-{
           previous-space                       B
           previous-word                        b               M-b
           rectangle-toggle                     v               R
           scroll-down                          C-e             C-Down
           scroll-up                            C-y             C-Up
           search-again                         n               n
           search-backward <for>                ?
           search-forward <for>                 /
           search-backward-incremental <for>                    C-r
           search-forward-incremental <for>                     C-s
           search-reverse                       N               N
           select-line                          V
           start-of-line                        0               C-a
           top-line                             H               M-R

     Copy commands may take an optional buffer prefix argument which is used
     to generate the buffer name (the default is ‘buffer’ so buffers are
     named ‘buffer0’, ‘buffer1’ and so on).  Pipe commands take a command
     argument which is the command to which the copied text is piped.  The
     ‘-and-cancel’ variants of some commands exit copy mode after they have
     completed (for copy commands) or when the cursor reaches the bottom
     (for scrolling commands).  ‘-no-clear’ variants do not clear the selec‐

     The next and previous word keys use space and the ‘-’, ‘_’ and ‘@’
     characters as word delimiters by default, but this can be adjusted by
     setting the word-separators session option.  Next word moves to the
     start of the next word, next word end to the end of the next word and
     previous word to the start of the previous word.  The three next and
     previous space keys work similarly but use a space alone as the word

     The jump commands enable quick movement within a line.  For instance,
     typing ‘f’ followed by ‘/’ will move the cursor to the next ‘/’ charac‐
     ter on the current line.  A ‘;’ will then jump to the next occurrence.

     Commands in copy mode may be prefaced by an optional repeat count.
     With vi key bindings, a prefix is entered using the number keys; with
     emacs, the Alt (meta) key and a number begins prefix entry.

     The synopsis for the copy-mode command is:

     copy-mode [-Meu] [-t target-pane]
             Enter copy mode.  The -u option scrolls one page up.  -M begins
             a mouse drag (only valid if bound to a mouse key binding, see
             MOUSE SUPPORT).  -e specifies that scrolling to the bottom of
             the history (to the visible screen) should exit copy mode.
             While in copy mode, pressing a key other than those used for
             scrolling will disable this behaviour.  This is intended to
             allow fast scrolling through a pane's history, for example

                   bind PageUp copy-mode -eu

     Each window displayed by tmux may be split into one or more panes; each
     pane takes up a certain area of the display and is a separate terminal.
     A window may be split into panes using the split-window command.  Win‐
     dows may be split horizontally (with the -h flag) or vertically.  Panes
     may be resized with the resize-pane command (bound to ‘C-Up’, ‘C-Down’
     ‘C-Left’ and ‘C-Right’ by default), the current pane may be changed
     with the select-pane command and the rotate-window and swap-pane com‐
     mands may be used to swap panes without changing their position.  Panes
     are numbered beginning from zero in the order they are created.

     A number of preset layouts are available.  These may be selected with
     the select-layout command or cycled with next-layout (bound to ‘Space’
     by default); once a layout is chosen, panes within it may be moved and
     resized as normal.

     The following layouts are supported:

             Panes are spread out evenly from left to right across the win‐

             Panes are spread evenly from top to bottom.

             A large (main) pane is shown at the top of the window and the
             remaining panes are spread from left to right in the leftover
             space at the bottom.  Use the main-pane-height window option to
             specify the height of the top pane.

             Similar to main-horizontal but the large pane is placed on the
             left and the others spread from top to bottom along the right.
             See the main-pane-width window option.

     tiled   Panes are spread out as evenly as possible over the window in
             both rows and columns.

     In addition, select-layout may be used to apply a previously used lay‐
     out - the list-windows command displays the layout of each window in a
     form suitable for use with select-layout.  For example:

           $ tmux list-windows
           0: ksh [159x48]
               layout: bb62,159x48,0,0{79x48,0,0,79x48,80,0}
           $ tmux select-layout bb62,159x48,0,0{79x48,0,0,79x48,80,0}

     tmux automatically adjusts the size of the layout for the current win‐
     dow size.  Note that a layout cannot be applied to a window with more
     panes than that from which the layout was originally defined.

     Commands related to windows and panes are as follows:

     break-pane [-dP] [-F format] [-n window-name] [-s src-pane] [-t
                   (alias: breakp)
             Break src-pane off from its containing window to make it the
             only pane in dst-window.  If -d is given, the new window does
             not become the current window.  The -P option prints informa‐
             tion about the new window after it has been created.  By
             default, it uses the format ‘#{session_name}:#{window_index}’
             but a different format may be specified with -F.

     capture-pane [-aepPqCJ] [-b buffer-name] [-E end-line] [-S start-line]
             [-t target-pane]
                   (alias: capturep)
             Capture the contents of a pane.  If -p is given, the output
             goes to stdout, otherwise to the buffer specified with -b or a
             new buffer if omitted.  If -a is given, the alternate screen is
             used, and the history is not accessible.  If no alternate
             screen exists, an error will be returned unless -q is given.
             If -e is given, the output includes escape sequences for text
             and background attributes.  -C also escapes non-printable char‐
             acters as octal \xxx.  -J joins wrapped lines and preserves
             trailing spaces at each line's end.  -P captures only any out‐
             put that the pane has received that is the beginning of an as-
             yet incomplete escape sequence.

             -S and -E specify the starting and ending line numbers, zero is
             the first line of the visible pane and negative numbers are
             lines in the history.  ‘-’ to -S is the start of the history
             and to -E the end of the visible pane.  The default is to cap‐
             ture only the visible contents of the pane.

     choose-client [-NZ] [-F format] [-f filter] [-O sort-order] [-t
             target-pane] [template]
             Put a pane into client mode, allowing a client to be selected
             interactively from a list.  -Z zooms the pane.  The following
             keys may be used in client mode:

                   Key    Function
                   Enter  Choose selected client
                   Up     Select previous client
                   Down   Select next client
                   C-s    Search by name
                   n      Repeat last search
                   t      Toggle if client is tagged
                   T      Tag no clients
                   C-t    Tag all clients
                   d      Detach selected client
                   D      Detach tagged clients
                   x      Detach and HUP selected client
                   X      Detach and HUP tagged clients
                   z      Suspend selected client
                   Z      Suspend tagged clients
                   f      Enter a format to filter items
                   O      Change sort order
                   v      Toggle preview
                   q      Exit mode

             After a client is chosen, ‘%%’ is replaced by the client name
             in template and the result executed as a command.  If template
             is not given, "detach-client -t '%%'" is used.

             -O specifies the initial sort order: one of ‘name’, ‘size’,
             ‘creation’, or ‘activity’.  -f specifies an initial filter: the
             filter is a format - if it evaluates to zero, the item in the
             list is not shown, otherwise it is shown.  If a filter would
             lead to an empty list, it is ignored.  -F specifies the format
             for each item in the list.  -N starts without the preview.
             This command works only if at least one client is attached.

     choose-tree [-GNswZ] [-F format] [-f filter] [-O sort-order] [-t
             target-pane] [template]
             Put a pane into tree mode, where a session, window or pane may
             be chosen interactively from a list.  -s starts with sessions
             collapsed and -w with windows collapsed.  -Z zooms the pane.
             The following keys may be used in tree mode:

                   Key    Function
                   Enter  Choose selected item
                   Up     Select previous item
                   Down   Select next item
                   x      Kill selected item
                   X      Kill tagged items
                   <      Scroll list of previews left
                   >      Scroll list of previews right
                   C-s    Search by name
                   n      Repeat last search
                   t      Toggle if item is tagged
                   T      Tag no items
                   C-t    Tag all items
                   :      Run a command for each tagged item
                   f      Enter a format to filter items
                   O      Change sort order
                   v      Toggle preview
                   q      Exit mode

             After a session, window or pane is chosen, ‘%%’ is replaced by
             the target in template and the result executed as a command.
             If template is not given, "switch-client -t '%%'" is used.

             -O specifies the initial sort order: one of ‘index’, ‘name’, or
             ‘time’.  -f specifies an initial filter: the filter is a format
             - if it evaluates to zero, the item in the list is not shown,
             otherwise it is shown.  If a filter would lead to an empty
             list, it is ignored.  -F specifies the format for each item in
             the tree.  -N starts without the preview.  -G includes all ses‐
             sions in any session groups in the tree rather than only the
             first.  This command works only if at least one client is

     display-panes [-b] [-d duration] [-t target-client] [template]
                   (alias: displayp)
             Display a visible indicator of each pane shown by
             target-client.  See the display-panes-colour and
             display-panes-active-colour session options.  The indicator is
             closed when a key is pressed or duration milliseconds have
             passed.  If -d is not given, display-panes-time is used.  A
             duration of zero means the indicator stays until a key is
             pressed.  While the indicator is on screen, a pane may be cho‐
             sen with the ‘0’ to ‘9’ keys, which will cause template to be
             executed as a command with ‘%%’ substituted by the pane ID.
             The default template is "select-pane -t '%%'".  With -b, other
             commands are not blocked from running until the indicator is

     find-window [-CNTZ] [-t target-pane] match-string
                   (alias: findw)
             Search for the fnmatch(3) pattern match-string in window names,
             titles, and visible content (but not history).  The flags con‐
             trol matching behavior: -C matches only visible window con‐
             tents, -N matches only the window name and -T matches only the
             window title.  The default is -CNT.  -Z zooms the pane.

             This command works only if at least one client is attached.

     join-pane [-bdhv] [-l size | -p percentage] [-s src-pane] [-t dst-pane]
                   (alias: joinp)
             Like split-window, but instead of splitting dst-pane and creat‐
             ing a new pane, split it and move src-pane into the space.
             This can be used to reverse break-pane.  The -b option causes
             src-pane to be joined to left of or above dst-pane.

             If -s is omitted and a marked pane is present (see select-pane
             -m), the marked pane is used rather than the current pane.

     kill-pane [-a] [-t target-pane]
                   (alias: killp)
             Destroy the given pane.  If no panes remain in the containing
             window, it is also destroyed.  The -a option kills all but the
             pane given with -t.

     kill-window [-a] [-t target-window]
                   (alias: killw)
             Kill the current window or the window at target-window, remov‐
             ing it from any sessions to which it is linked.  The -a option
             kills all but the window given with -t.

     last-pane [-de] [-t target-window]
                   (alias: lastp)
             Select the last (previously selected) pane.  -e enables or -d
             disables input to the pane.

     last-window [-t target-session]
                   (alias: last)
             Select the last (previously selected) window.  If no
             target-session is specified, select the last window of the cur‐
             rent session.

     link-window [-adk] [-s src-window] [-t dst-window]
                   (alias: linkw)
             Link the window at src-window to the specified dst-window.  If
             dst-window is specified and no such window exists, the
             src-window is linked there.  With -a, the window is moved to
             the next index up (following windows are moved if necessary).
             If -k is given and dst-window exists, it is killed, otherwise
             an error is generated.  If -d is given, the newly linked window
             is not selected.

     list-panes [-as] [-F format] [-t target]
                   (alias: lsp)
             If -a is given, target is ignored and all panes on the server
             are listed.  If -s is given, target is a session (or the cur‐
             rent session).  If neither is given, target is a window (or the
             current window).  For the meaning of the -F flag, see the
             FORMATS section.

     list-windows [-a] [-F format] [-t target-session]
                   (alias: lsw)
             If -a is given, list all windows on the server.  Otherwise,
             list windows in the current session or in target-session.  For
             the meaning of the -F flag, see the FORMATS section.

     move-pane [-bdhv] [-l size | -p percentage] [-s src-pane] [-t dst-pane]
                   (alias: movep)
             Like join-pane, but src-pane and dst-pane may belong to the
             same window.

     move-window [-ardk] [-s src-window] [-t dst-window]
                   (alias: movew)
             This is similar to link-window, except the window at src-window
             is moved to dst-window.  With -r, all windows in the session
             are renumbered in sequential order, respecting the base-index

     new-window [-adkP] [-c start-directory] [-e environment] [-F format]
             [-n window-name] [-t target-window] [shell-command]
                   (alias: neww)
             Create a new window.  With -a, the new window is inserted at
             the next index up from the specified target-window, moving win‐
             dows up if necessary, otherwise target-window is the new window

             If -d is given, the session does not make the new window the
             current window.  target-window represents the window to be cre‐
             ated; if the target already exists an error is shown, unless
             the -k flag is used, in which case it is destroyed.
             shell-command is the command to execute.  If shell-command is
             not specified, the value of the default-command option is used.
             -c specifies the working directory in which the new window is

             When the shell command completes, the window closes.  See the
             remain-on-exit option to change this behaviour.

             -e takes the form ‘VARIABLE=value’ and sets an environment
             variable for the newly created window; it may be specified mul‐
             tiple times.

             The TERM environment variable must be set to ‘screen’ or ‘tmux’
             for all programs running inside tmux.  New windows will auto‐
             matically have ‘TERM=screen’ added to their environment, but
             care must be taken not to reset this in shell start-up files or
             by the -e option.

             The -P option prints information about the new window after it
             has been created.  By default, it uses the format
             ‘#{session_name}:#{window_index}’ but a different format may be
             specified with -F.

     next-layout [-t target-window]
                   (alias: nextl)
             Move a window to the next layout and rearrange the panes to

     next-window [-a] [-t target-session]
                   (alias: next)
             Move to the next window in the session.  If -a is used, move to
             the next window with an alert.

     pipe-pane [-IOo] [-t target-pane] [shell-command]
                   (alias: pipep)
             Pipe output sent by the program in target-pane to a shell com‐
             mand or vice versa.  A pane may only be connected to one com‐
             mand at a time, any existing pipe is closed before
             shell-command is executed.  The shell-command string may con‐
             tain the special character sequences supported by the
             status-left option.  If no shell-command is given, the current
             pipe (if any) is closed.

             -I and -O specify which of the shell-command output streams are
             connected to the pane: with -I stdout is connected (so anything
             shell-command prints is written to the pane as if it were
             typed); with -O stdin is connected (so any output in the pane
             is piped to shell-command).  Both may be used together and if
             neither are specified, -O is used.

             The -o option only opens a new pipe if no previous pipe exists,
             allowing a pipe to be toggled with a single key, for example:

                   bind-key C-p pipe-pane -o 'cat >>~/output.#I-#P'

     previous-layout [-t target-window]
                   (alias: prevl)
             Move to the previous layout in the session.

     previous-window [-a] [-t target-session]
                   (alias: prev)
             Move to the previous window in the session.  With -a, move to
             the previous window with an alert.

     rename-window [-t target-window] new-name
                   (alias: renamew)
             Rename the current window, or the window at target-window if
             specified, to new-name.

     resize-pane [-DLMRUZ] [-t target-pane] [-x width] [-y height]
                   (alias: resizep)
             Resize a pane, up, down, left or right by adjustment with -U,
             -D, -L or -R, or to an absolute size with -x or -y.  The
             adjustment is given in lines or cells (the default is 1).

             With -Z, the active pane is toggled between zoomed (occupying
             the whole of the window) and unzoomed (its normal position in
             the layout).

             -M begins mouse resizing (only valid if bound to a mouse key
             binding, see MOUSE SUPPORT).

     resize-window [-aADLRU] [-t target-window] [-x width] [-y height]
                   (alias: resizew)
             Resize a window, up, down, left or right by adjustment with -U,
             -D, -L or -R, or to an absolute size with -x or -y.  The
             adjustment is given in lines or cells (the default is 1).  -A
             sets the size of the largest session containing the window; -a
             the size of the smallest.  This command will automatically set
             window-size to manual in the window options.

     respawn-pane [-k] [-c start-directory] [-e environment] [-t
             target-pane] [shell-command]
                   (alias: respawnp)
             Reactivate a pane in which the command has exited (see the
             remain-on-exit window option).  If shell-command is not given,
             the command used when the pane was created is executed.  The
             pane must be already inactive, unless -k is given, in which
             case any existing command is killed.  -c specifies a new work‐
             ing directory for the pane.  The -e option has the same meaning
             as for the new-window command.

     respawn-window [-k] [-c start-directory] [-e environment] [-t
             target-window] [shell-command]
                   (alias: respawnw)
             Reactivate a window in which the command has exited (see the
             remain-on-exit window option).  If shell-command is not given,
             the command used when the window was created is executed.  The
             window must be already inactive, unless -k is given, in which
             case any existing command is killed.  -c specifies a new work‐
             ing directory for the window.  The -e option has the same mean‐
             ing as for the new-window command.

     rotate-window [-DU] [-t target-window]
                   (alias: rotatew)
             Rotate the positions of the panes within a window, either
             upward (numerically lower) with -U or downward (numerically

     select-layout [-Enop] [-t target-pane] [layout-name]
                   (alias: selectl)
             Choose a specific layout for a window.  If layout-name is not
             given, the last preset layout used (if any) is reapplied.  -n
             and -p are equivalent to the next-layout and previous-layout
             commands.  -o applies the last set layout if possible (undoes
             the most recent layout change).  -E spreads the current pane
             and any panes next to it out evenly.

     select-pane [-DdegLlMmRU] [-P style] [-T title] [-t target-pane]
                   (alias: selectp)
             Make pane target-pane the active pane in window target-window,
             or set its style (with -P).  If one of -D, -L, -R, or -U is
             used, respectively the pane below, to the left, to the right,
             or above the target pane is used.  -l is the same as using the
             last-pane command.  -e enables or -d disables input to the

             -m and -M are used to set and clear the marked pane.  There is
             one marked pane at a time, setting a new marked pane clears the
             last.  The marked pane is the default target for -s to
             join-pane, swap-pane and swap-window.

             Each pane has a style: by default the window-style and
             window-active-style options are used, select-pane -P sets the
             style for a single pane.  For example, to set the pane 1 back‐
             ground to red:

                   select-pane -t:.1 -P 'bg=red'

             -g shows the current pane style.

             -T sets the pane title.

     select-window [-lnpT] [-t target-window]
                   (alias: selectw)
             Select the window at target-window.  -l, -n and -p are equiva‐
             lent to the last-window, next-window and previous-window com‐
             mands.  If -T is given and the selected window is already the
             current window, the command behaves like last-window.

     split-window [-bdfhIvP] [-c start-directory] [-e environment] [-l size
             | -p percentage] [-t target-pane] [shell-command] [-F format]
                   (alias: splitw)
             Create a new pane by splitting target-pane: -h does a horizon‐
             tal split and -v a vertical split; if neither is specified, -v
             is assumed.  The -l and -p options specify the size of the new
             pane in lines (for vertical split) or in cells (for horizontal
             split), or as a percentage, respectively.  The -b option causes
             the new pane to be created to the left of or above target-pane.
             The -f option creates a new pane spanning the full window
             height (with -h) or full window width (with -v), instead of
             splitting the active pane.

             An empty shell-command ('') will create a pane with no command
             running in it.  Output can be sent to such a pane with the
             display-message command.  The -I flag (if shell-command is not
             specified or empty) will create an empty pane and forward any
             output from stdin to it.  For example:

                   $ make 2>&1|tmux splitw -dI &

             All other options have the same meaning as for the new-window

     swap-pane [-dDU] [-s src-pane] [-t dst-pane]
                   (alias: swapp)
             Swap two panes.  If -U is used and no source pane is specified
             with -s, dst-pane is swapped with the previous pane (before it
             numerically); -D swaps with the next pane (after it numeri‐
             cally).  -d instructs tmux not to change the active pane.

             If -s is omitted and a marked pane is present (see select-pane
             -m), the marked pane is used rather than the current pane.

     swap-window [-d] [-s src-window] [-t dst-window]
                   (alias: swapw)
             This is similar to link-window, except the source and destina‐
             tion windows are swapped.  It is an error if no window exists
             at src-window.

             Like swap-pane, if -s is omitted and a marked pane is present
             (see select-pane -m), the window containing the marked pane is
             used rather than the current window.

     unlink-window [-k] [-t target-window]
                   (alias: unlinkw)
             Unlink target-window.  Unless -k is given, a window may be
             unlinked only if it is linked to multiple sessions - windows
             may not be linked to no sessions; if -k is specified and the
             window is linked to only one session, it is unlinked and

KEY BINDINGS         top

     tmux allows a command to be bound to most keys, with or without a pre‐
     fix key.  When specifying keys, most represent themselves (for example
     ‘A’ to ‘Z’).  Ctrl keys may be prefixed with ‘C-’ or ‘^’, and Alt
     (meta) with ‘M-’.  In addition, the following special key names are
     accepted: Up, Down, Left, Right, BSpace, BTab, DC (Delete), End, Enter,
     Escape, F1 to F12, Home, IC (Insert), NPage/PageDown/PgDn,
     PPage/PageUp/PgUp, Space, and Tab.  Note that to bind the ‘"’ or ‘'’
     keys, quotation marks are necessary, for example:

           bind-key '"' split-window
           bind-key "'" new-window

     Commands related to key bindings are as follows:

     bind-key [-nr] [-T key-table] key command [arguments]
                   (alias: bind)
             Bind key key to command.  Keys are bound in a key table.  By
             default (without -T), the key is bound in the prefix key table.
             This table is used for keys pressed after the prefix key (for
             example, by default ‘c’ is bound to new-window in the prefix
             table, so ‘C-b c’ creates a new window).  The root table is
             used for keys pressed without the prefix key: binding ‘c’ to
             new-window in the root table (not recommended) means a plain
             ‘c’ will create a new window.  -n is an alias for -T root.
             Keys may also be bound in custom key tables and the
             switch-client -T command used to switch to them from a key
             binding.  The -r flag indicates this key may repeat, see the
             repeat-time option.

             To view the default bindings and possible commands, see the
             list-keys command.

     list-keys [-T key-table]
                   (alias: lsk)
             List all key bindings.  Without -T all key tables are printed.
             With -T only key-table.

     send-keys [-lMRX] [-N repeat-count] [-t target-pane] key ...
                   (alias: send)
             Send a key or keys to a window.  Each argument key is the name
             of the key (such as ‘C-a’ or ‘NPage’) to send; if the string is
             not recognised as a key, it is sent as a series of characters.
             The -l flag disables key name lookup and sends the keys liter‐
             ally.  All arguments are sent sequentially from first to last.
             The -R flag causes the terminal state to be reset.

             -M passes through a mouse event (only valid if bound to a mouse
             key binding, see MOUSE SUPPORT).

             -X is used to send a command into copy mode - see the WINDOWS
             AND PANES section.  -N specifies a repeat count.

     send-prefix [-2] [-t target-pane]
             Send the prefix key, or with -2 the secondary prefix key, to a
             window as if it was pressed.

     unbind-key [-an] [-T key-table] key
                   (alias: unbind)
             Unbind the command bound to key.  -n and -T are the same as for
             bind-key.  If -a is present, all key bindings are removed.

OPTIONS         top

     The appearance and behaviour of tmux may be modified by changing the
     value of various options.  There are three types of option: server
     options, session options and window options.

     The tmux server has a set of global options which do not apply to any
     particular window or session.  These are altered with the set-option -s
     command, or displayed with the show-options -s command.

     In addition, each individual session may have a set of session options,
     and there is a separate set of global session options.  Sessions which
     do not have a particular option configured inherit the value from the
     global session options.  Session options are set or unset with the
     set-option command and may be listed with the show-options command.
     The available server and session options are listed under the
     set-option command.

     Similarly, a set of window options is attached to each window, and
     there is a set of global window options from which any unset options
     are inherited.  Window options are altered with the set-window-option
     command and can be listed with the show-window-options command.  All
     window options are documented with the set-window-option command.

     tmux also supports user options which are prefixed with a ‘@’.  User
     options may have any name, so long as they are prefixed with ‘@’, and
     be set to any string.  For example:

           $ tmux setw -q @foo "abc123"
           $ tmux showw -v @foo

     Commands which set options are as follows:

     set-option [-aFgoqsuw] [-t target-session | target-window] option value
                   (alias: set)
             Set a window option with -w (equivalent to the
             set-window-option command), a server option with -s, otherwise
             a session option.  If the option is not a user option, -w and
             -s are unnecessary - tmux will infer the type from the option
             name.  If -g is given, the global session or window option is

             -F expands formats in the option value.  The -u flag unsets an
             option, so a session inherits the option from the global
             options (or with -g, restores a global option to the default).

             The -o flag prevents setting an option that is already set and
             the -q flag suppresses errors about unknown or ambiguous

             With -a, and if the option expects a string or a style, value
             is appended to the existing setting.  For example:

                   set -g status-left "foo"
                   set -ag status-left "bar"

             Will result in ‘foobar’.  And:

                   set -g status-style "bg=red"
                   set -ag status-style "fg=blue"

             Will result in a red background and blue foreground.  Without
             -a, the result would be the default background and a blue fore‐

             Available window options are listed under set-window-option.

             value depends on the option and may be a number, a string, or a
             flag (on, off, or omitted to toggle).

             Available server options are:

             buffer-limit number
                     Set the number of buffers; as new buffers are added to
                     the top of the stack, old ones are removed from the
                     bottom if necessary to maintain this maximum length.

             command-alias[] name=value
                     This is an array of custom aliases for commands.  If an
                     unknown command matches name, it is replaced with
                     value.  For example, after:

                           set -s command-alias[100] zoom='resize-pane -Z'


                           zoom -t:.1

                     Is equivalent to:

                           resize-pane -Z -t:.1

                     Note that aliases are expanded when a command is parsed
                     rather than when it is executed, so binding an alias
                     with bind-key will bind the expanded form.

             default-terminal terminal
                     Set the default terminal for new windows created in
                     this session - the default value of the TERM environ‐
                     ment variable.  For tmux to work correctly, this must
                     be set to ‘screen’, ‘tmux’ or a derivative of them.

             escape-time time
                     Set the time in milliseconds for which tmux waits after
                     an escape is input to determine if it is part of a
                     function or meta key sequences.  The default is 500

             exit-empty [on | off]
                     If enabled (the default), the server will exit when
                     there are no active sessions.

             exit-unattached [on | off]
                     If enabled, the server will exit when there are no
                     attached clients.

             focus-events [on | off]
                     When enabled, focus events are requested from the ter‐
                     minal if supported and passed through to applications
                     running in tmux.  Attached clients should be detached
                     and attached again after changing this option.

             history-file path
                     If not empty, a file to which tmux will write command
                     prompt history on exit and load it from on start.

             message-limit number
                     Set the number of error or information messages to save
                     in the message log for each client.  The default is

             set-clipboard [on | external | off]
                     Attempt to set the terminal clipboard content using the
                     xterm(1) escape sequence, if there is an Ms entry in
                     the terminfo(5) description (see the TERMINFO
                     EXTENSIONS section).

                     If set to on, tmux will both accept the escape sequence
                     to create a buffer and attempt to set the terminal
                     clipboard.  If set to external, tmux will attempt to
                     set the terminal clipboard but ignore attempts by
                     applications to set tmux buffers.  If off, tmux will
                     neither accept the clipboard escape sequence nor
                     attempt to set the clipboard.

                     Note that this feature needs to be enabled in xterm(1)
                     by setting the resource:

                           disallowedWindowOps: 20,21,SetXprop

                     Or changing this property from the xterm(1) interactive
                     menu when required.

             terminal-overrides[] string
                     Allow terminal descriptions read using terminfo(5) to
                     be overridden.  Each entry is a colon-separated string
                     made up of a terminal type pattern (matched using
                     fnmatch(3)) and a set of name=value entries.

                     For example, to set the ‘clear’ terminfo(5) entry to
                     ‘\e[H\e[2J’ for all terminal types matching ‘rxvt*’:


                     The terminal entry value is passed through strunvis(3)
                     before interpretation.

             Available session options are:

             activity-action [any | none | current | other]
                     Set action on window activity when monitor-activity is
                     on.  any means activity in any window linked to a ses‐
                     sion causes a bell or message (depending on
                     visual-activity) in the current window of that session,
                     none means all activity is ignored (equivalent to
                     monitor-activity being off), current means only activ‐
                     ity in windows other than the current window are
                     ignored and other means activity in the current window
                     is ignored but not those in other windows.

             assume-paste-time milliseconds
                     If keys are entered faster than one in milliseconds,
                     they are assumed to have been pasted rather than typed
                     and tmux key bindings are not processed.  The default
                     is one millisecond and zero disables.

             base-index index
                     Set the base index from which an unused index should be
                     searched when a new window is created.  The default is

             bell-action [any | none | current | other]
                     Set action on a bell in a window when monitor-bell is
                     on.  The values are the same as those for

             default-command shell-command
                     Set the command used for new windows (if not specified
                     when the window is created) to shell-command, which may
                     be any sh(1) command.  The default is an empty string,
                     which instructs tmux to create a login shell using the
                     value of the default-shell option.

             default-shell path
                     Specify the default shell.  This is used as the login
                     shell for new windows when the default-command option
                     is set to empty, and must be the full path of the exe‐
                     cutable.  When started tmux tries to set a default
                     value from the first suitable of the SHELL environment
                     variable, the shell returned by getpwuid(3), or
                     /bin/sh.  This option should be configured when tmux is
                     used as a login shell.

             default-size XxY
                     Set the default size of new windows when the
                     window-size option is set to manual or when a session
                     is created with new-session -d.  The value is the width
                     and height separated by an ‘x’ character.  The default
                     is 80x24.

             destroy-unattached [on | off]
                     If enabled and the session is no longer attached to any
                     clients, it is destroyed.

             detach-on-destroy [on | off]
                     If on (the default), the client is detached when the
                     session it is attached to is destroyed.  If off, the
                     client is switched to the most recently active of the
                     remaining sessions.

             display-panes-active-colour colour
                     Set the colour used by the display-panes command to
                     show the indicator for the active pane.

             display-panes-colour colour
                     Set the colour used by the display-panes command to
                     show the indicators for inactive panes.

             display-panes-time time
                     Set the time in milliseconds for which the indicators
                     shown by the display-panes command appear.

             display-time time
                     Set the amount of time for which status line messages
                     and other on-screen indicators are displayed.  If set
                     to 0, messages and indicators are displayed until a key
                     is pressed.  time is in milliseconds.

             history-limit lines
                     Set the maximum number of lines held in window history.
                     This setting applies only to new windows - existing
                     window histories are not resized and retain the limit
                     at the point they were created.

             key-table key-table
                     Set the default key table to key-table instead of root.

             lock-after-time number
                     Lock the session (like the lock-session command) after
                     number seconds of inactivity.  The default is not to
                     lock (set to 0).

             lock-command shell-command
                     Command to run when locking each client.  The default
                     is to run lock(1) with -np.

             message-command-style style
                     Set status line message command style.  For how to
                     specify style, see the STYLES section.

             message-style style
                     Set status line message style.  For how to specify
                     style, see the STYLES section.

             mouse [on | off]
                     If on, tmux captures the mouse and allows mouse events
                     to be bound as key bindings.  See the MOUSE SUPPORT
                     section for details.

             prefix key
                     Set the key accepted as a prefix key.  In addition to
                     the standard keys described under KEY BINDINGS, prefix
                     can be set to the special key ‘None’ to set no prefix.

             prefix2 key
                     Set a secondary key accepted as a prefix key.  Like
                     prefix, prefix2 can be set to ‘None’.

             renumber-windows [on | off]
                     If on, when a window is closed in a session, automati‐
                     cally renumber the other windows in numerical order.
                     This respects the base-index option if it has been set.
                     If off, do not renumber the windows.

             repeat-time time
                     Allow multiple commands to be entered without pressing
                     the prefix-key again in the specified time milliseconds
                     (the default is 500).  Whether a key repeats may be set
                     when it is bound using the -r flag to bind-key.  Repeat
                     is enabled for the default keys bound to the
                     resize-pane command.

             set-titles [on | off]
                     Attempt to set the client terminal title using the tsl
                     and fsl terminfo(5) entries if they exist.  tmux auto‐
                     matically sets these to the \e]0;...\007 sequence if
                     the terminal appears to be xterm(1).  This option is
                     off by default.

             set-titles-string string
                     String used to set the window title if set-titles is
                     on.  Formats are expanded, see the FORMATS section.

             silence-action [any | none | current | other]
                     Set action on window silence when monitor-silence is
                     on.  The values are the same as those for

             status [off | on | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5]
                     Show or hide the status line or specify its size.
                     Using on gives a status line one row in height; 2, 3, 4
                     or 5 more rows.

             status-format[] format
                     Specify the format to be used for each line of the sta‐
                     tus line.  The default builds the top status line from
                     the various individual status options below.

             status-interval interval
                     Update the status line every interval seconds.  By
                     default, updates will occur every 15 seconds.  A set‐
                     ting of zero disables redrawing at interval.

             status-justify [left | centre | right]
                     Set the position of the window list component of the
                     status line: left, centre or right justified.

             status-keys [vi | emacs]
                     Use vi or emacs-style key bindings in the status line,
                     for example at the command prompt.  The default is
                     emacs, unless the VISUAL or EDITOR environment vari‐
                     ables are set and contain the string ‘vi’.

             status-left string
                     Display string (by default the session name) to the
                     left of the status line.  string will be passed through
                     strftime(3).  Also see the FORMATS and STYLES sections.

                     For details on how the names and titles can be set see
                     the NAMES AND TITLES section.

                     Examples are:

                           #(sysctl vm.loadavg)
                           #[fg=yellow,bold]#(apm -l)%%#[default] [#S]

                     The default is ‘[#S] ’.

             status-left-length length
                     Set the maximum length of the left component of the
                     status line.  The default is 10.

             status-left-style style
                     Set the style of the left part of the status line.  For
                     how to specify style, see the STYLES section.

             status-position [top | bottom]
                     Set the position of the status line.

             status-right string
                     Display string to the right of the status line.  By
                     default, the current pane title in double quotes, the
                     date and the time are shown.  As with status-left,
                     string will be passed to strftime(3) and character
                     pairs are replaced.

             status-right-length length
                     Set the maximum length of the right component of the
                     status line.  The default is 40.

             status-right-style style
                     Set the style of the right part of the status line.
                     For how to specify style, see the STYLES section.

             status-style style
                     Set status line style.  For how to specify style, see
                     the STYLES section.

             update-environment[] variable
                     Set list of environment variables to be copied into the
                     session environment when a new session is created or an
                     existing session is attached.  Any variables that do
                     not exist in the source environment are set to be
                     removed from the session environment (as if -r was
                     given to the set-environment command).

             user-keys[] key
                     Set list of user-defined key escape sequences.  Each
                     item is associated with a key named ‘User0’, ‘User1’,
                     and so on.

                     For example:

                           set -s user-keys[0] "\e[5;30012~"
                           bind User0 resize-pane -L 3

             visual-activity [on | off | both]
                     If on, display a message instead of sending a bell when
                     activity occurs in a window for which the
                     monitor-activity window option is enabled.  If set to
                     both, a bell and a message are produced.

             visual-bell [on | off | both]
                     If on, a message is shown on a bell in a window for
                     which the monitor-bell window option is enabled instead
                     of it being passed through to the terminal (which nor‐
                     mally makes a sound).  If set to both, a bell and a
                     message are produced.  Also see the bell-action option.

             visual-silence [on | off | both]
                     If monitor-silence is enabled, prints a message after
                     the interval has expired on a given window instead of
                     sending a bell.  If set to both, a bell and a message
                     are produced.

             word-separators string
                     Sets the session's conception of what characters are
                     considered word separators, for the purposes of the
                     next and previous word commands in copy mode.  The
                     default is ‘ -_@’.

     set-window-option [-aFgoqu] [-t target-window] option value
                   (alias: setw)
             Set a window option.  The -a, -F, -g, -o, -q and -u flags work
             similarly to the set-option command.

             Supported window options are:

             aggressive-resize [on | off]
                     Aggressively resize the chosen window.  This means that
                     tmux will resize the window to the size of the smallest
                     or largest session (see the window-size option) for
                     which it is the current window, rather than the session
                     to which it is attached.  The window may resize when
                     the current window is changed on another session; this
                     option is good for full-screen programs which support
                     SIGWINCH and poor for interactive programs such as

             allow-rename [on | off]
                     Allow programs to change the window name using a termi‐
                     nal escape sequence (\ek...\e\\).  The default is off.

             alternate-screen [on | off]
                     This option configures whether programs running inside
                     tmux may use the terminal alternate screen feature,
                     which allows the smcup and rmcup terminfo(5) capabili‐
                     ties.  The alternate screen feature preserves the con‐
                     tents of the window when an interactive application
                     starts and restores it on exit, so that any output vis‐
                     ible before the application starts reappears unchanged
                     after it exits.  The default is on.

             automatic-rename [on | off]
                     Control automatic window renaming.  When this setting
                     is enabled, tmux will rename the window automatically
                     using the format specified by automatic-rename-format.
                     This flag is automatically disabled for an individual
                     window when a name is specified at creation with
                     new-window or new-session, or later with rename-window,
                     or with a terminal escape sequence.  It may be switched
                     off globally with:

                           set-window-option -g automatic-rename off

             automatic-rename-format format
                     The format (see FORMATS) used when the automatic-rename
                     option is enabled.

             clock-mode-colour colour
                     Set clock colour.

             clock-mode-style [12 | 24]
                     Set clock hour format.

             main-pane-height height
             main-pane-width width
                     Set the width or height of the main (left or top) pane
                     in the main-horizontal or main-vertical layouts.

             mode-keys [vi | emacs]
                     Use vi or emacs-style key bindings in copy mode.  The
                     default is emacs, unless VISUAL or EDITOR contains

             mode-style style
                     Set window modes style.  For how to specify style, see
                     the STYLES section.

             monitor-activity [on | off]
                     Monitor for activity in the window.  Windows with
                     activity are highlighted in the status line.

             monitor-bell [on | off]
                     Monitor for a bell in the window.  Windows with a bell
                     are highlighted in the status line.

             monitor-silence [interval]
                     Monitor for silence (no activity) in the window within
                     interval seconds.  Windows that have been silent for
                     the interval are highlighted in the status line.  An
                     interval of zero disables the monitoring.

             other-pane-height height
                     Set the height of the other panes (not the main pane)
                     in the main-horizontal layout.  If this option is set
                     to 0 (the default), it will have no effect.  If both
                     the main-pane-height and other-pane-height options are
                     set, the main pane will grow taller to make the other
                     panes the specified height, but will never shrink to do

             other-pane-width width
                     Like other-pane-height, but set the width of other
                     panes in the main-vertical layout.

             pane-active-border-style style
                     Set the pane border style for the currently active
                     pane.  For how to specify style, see the STYLES sec‐
                     tion.  Attributes are ignored.

             pane-base-index index
                     Like base-index, but set the starting index for pane

             pane-border-format format
                     Set the text shown in pane border status lines.

             pane-border-status [off | top | bottom]
                     Turn pane border status lines off or set their posi‐

             pane-border-style style
                     Set the pane border style for panes aside from the
                     active pane.  For how to specify style, see the STYLES
                     section.  Attributes are ignored.

             remain-on-exit [on | off]
                     A window with this flag set is not destroyed when the
                     program running in it exits.  The window may be reacti‐
                     vated with the respawn-window command.

             synchronize-panes [on | off]
                     Duplicate input to any pane to all other panes in the
                     same window (only for panes that are not in any special

             window-active-style style
                     Set the style for the window's active pane.  For how to
                     specify style, see the STYLES section.

             window-status-activity-style style
                     Set status line style for windows with an activity
                     alert.  For how to specify style, see the STYLES sec‐

             window-status-bell-style style
                     Set status line style for windows with a bell alert.
                     For how to specify style, see the STYLES section.

             window-status-current-format string
                     Like window-status-format, but is the format used when
                     the window is the current window.

             window-status-current-style style
                     Set status line style for the currently active window.
                     For how to specify style, see the STYLES section.

             window-status-format string
                     Set the format in which the window is displayed in the
                     status line window list.  See the FORMATS and STYLES

             window-status-last-style style
                     Set status line style for the last active window.  For
                     how to specify style, see the STYLES section.

             window-status-separator string
                     Sets the separator drawn between windows in the status
                     line.  The default is a single space character.

             window-status-style style
                     Set status line style for a single window.  For how to
                     specify style, see the STYLES section.

             window-size largest | smallest | manual
                     Configure how tmux determines the window size.  If set
                     to largest, the size of the largest attached session is
                     used; if smallest, the size of the smallest.  If
                     manual, the size of a new window is set from the
                     default-size option and windows are resized automati‐
                     cally.  See also the resize-window command and the
                     aggressive-resize option.

             window-style style
                     Set the default window style.  For how to specify
                     style, see the STYLES section.

             wrap-search [on | off]
                     If this option is set, searches will wrap around the
                     end of the pane contents.  The default is on.

             xterm-keys [on | off]
                     If this option is set, tmux will generate xterm(1)
                     -style function key sequences; these have a number
                     included to indicate modifiers such as Shift, Alt or

     show-options [-gHqsvw] [-t target-session | target-window] [option]
                   (alias: show)
             Show the window options (or a single window option if given)
             with -w (equivalent to show-window-options), the server options
             with -s, otherwise the session options for target session.  If
             option is given and is not a user option, -w and -s are unnec‐
             essary - tmux will infer the type from the option name.  Global
             session or window options are listed if -g is used.  -v shows
             only the option value, not the name.  If -q is set, no error
             will be returned if option is unset.  -H includes hooks (omit‐
             ted by default).

     show-window-options [-gv] [-t target-window] [option]
                   (alias: showw)
             List the window options or a single option for target-window,
             or the global window options if -g is used.  -v shows only the
             option value, not the name.

HOOKS         top

     tmux allows commands to run on various triggers, called hooks.  Most
     tmux commands have an after hook and there are a number of hooks not
     associated with commands.

     Hooks are stored as array options, members of the array are executed in
     order when the hook is triggered.  Hooks may be configured with the
     set-hook or set-option commands and displayed with show-hooks or
     show-options -H.  The following two commands are equivalent:

            set-hook -g pane-mode-changed[42] 'set -g status-left-style bg=red'
            set-option -g pane-mode-changed[42] 'set -g status-left-style bg=red'

     Setting a hook without specifying an array index clears the hook and
     sets the first member of the array.

     A command's after hook is run after it completes, except when the com‐
     mand is run as part of a hook itself.  They are named with an ‘after-’
     prefix.  For example, the following command adds a hook to select the
     even-vertical layout after every split-window:

           set-hook -g after-split-window "selectl even-vertical"

     All the notifications listed in the CONTROL MODE section are hooks
     (without any arguments), except %exit.  The following additional hooks
     are available:

     alert-activity          Run when a window has activity.  See

     alert-bell              Run when a window has received a bell.  See

     alert-silence           Run when a window has been silent.  See

     client-attached         Run when a client is attached.

     client-detached         Run when a client is detached

     client-resized          Run when a client is resized.

     client-session-changed  Run when a client's attached session is

     pane-died               Run when the program running in a pane exits,
                             but remain-on-exit is on so the pane has not

     pane-exited             Run when the program running in a pane exits.

     pane-focus-in           Run when the focus enters a pane, if the
                             focus-events option is on.

     pane-focus-out          Run when the focus exits a pane, if the
                             focus-events option is on.

     pane-set-clipboard      Run when the terminal clipboard is set using
                             the xterm(1) escape sequence.

     session-created         Run when a new session created.

     session-closed          Run when a session closed.

     session-renamed         Run when a session is renamed.

     window-linked           Run when a window is linked into a session.

     window-renamed          Run when a window is renamed.

     window-unlinked         Run when a window is unlinked from a session.

     Hooks are managed with these commands:

     set-hook [-agRu] [-t target-session] hook-name command
             Without -R, sets (or with -u unsets) hook hook-name to command.
             If -g is given, hook-name is added to the global list of hooks,
             otherwise it is added to the session hooks (for target-session
             with -t).  -a appends to a hook.  Like options, session hooks
             inherit from the global ones.

             With -R, run hook-name immediately.

     show-hooks [-g] [-t target-session]
             Shows the global list of hooks with -g, otherwise the session

MOUSE SUPPORT         top

     If the mouse option is on (the default is off), tmux allows mouse
     events to be bound as keys.  The name of each key is made up of a mouse
     event (such as ‘MouseUp1’) and a location suffix, one of the following:

           Pane             the contents of a pane
           Border           a pane border
           Status           the status line window list
           StatusLeft       the left part of the status line
           StatusRight      the right part of the status line
           StatusDefault    any other part of the status line

     The following mouse events are available:

           WheelUp       WheelDown
           MouseDown1    MouseUp1      MouseDrag1   MouseDragEnd1
           MouseDown2    MouseUp2      MouseDrag2   MouseDragEnd2
           MouseDown3    MouseUp3      MouseDrag3   MouseDragEnd3
           DoubleClick1  DoubleClick2  DoubleClick3
           TripleClick1  TripleClick2  TripleClick3

     Each should be suffixed with a location, for example

     The special token ‘{mouse}’ or ‘=’ may be used as target-window or
     target-pane in commands bound to mouse key bindings.  It resolves to
     the window or pane over which the mouse event took place (for example,
     the window in the status line over which button 1 was released for a
     ‘MouseUp1Status’ binding, or the pane over which the wheel was scrolled
     for a ‘WheelDownPane’ binding).

     The send-keys -M flag may be used to forward a mouse event to a pane.

     The default key bindings allow the mouse to be used to select and
     resize panes, to copy text and to change window using the status line.
     These take effect if the mouse option is turned on.

FORMATS         top

     Certain commands accept the -F flag with a format argument.  This is a
     string which controls the output format of the command.  Replacement
     variables are enclosed in ‘#{’ and ‘}’, for example ‘#{session_name}’.
     The possible variables are listed in the table below, or the name of a
     tmux option may be used for an option's value.  Some variables have a
     shorter alias such as ‘#S’; ‘##’ is replaced by a single ‘#’, ‘#,’ by a
     ‘,’ and ‘#}’ by a ‘}’.

     Conditionals are available by prefixing with ‘?’ and separating two
     alternatives with a comma; if the specified variable exists and is not
     zero, the first alternative is chosen, otherwise the second is used.
     For example ‘#{?session_attached,attached,not attached}’ will include
     the string ‘attached’ if the session is attached and the string ‘not
     attached’ if it is unattached, or ‘#{?automatic-rename,yes,no}’ will
     include ‘yes’ if automatic-rename is enabled, or ‘no’ if not.  Condi‐
     tionals can be nested arbitrarily.  Inside a conditional, ‘,’ and ‘}’
     must be escaped as ‘#,’ and ‘#}’, unless they are part of a ‘#{...}’
     replacement.  For example:

           #{?pane_in_mode,#[fg=white#,bg=red],#[fg=red#,bg=white]}#W .

     Comparisons may be expressed by prefixing two comma-separated alterna‐
     tives by ‘==’ or ‘!=’ and a colon.  For example ‘#{==:#{host},myhost}’
     will be replaced by ‘1’ if running on ‘myhost’, otherwise by ‘0’.  An
     ‘m’ specifies an fnmatch(3) comparison where the first argument is the
     pattern and the second the string to compare, for example
     ‘#{m:*foo*,#{host}}’.  ‘||’ and ‘&&’ evaluate to true if either or both
     of two comma-separated alternatives are true, for example
     ‘#{||:#{pane_in_mode},#{alternate_on}}’.  A ‘C’ performs a search for
     an fnmatch(3) pattern in the pane content and evaluates to zero if not
     found, or a line number if found.

     A limit may be placed on the length of the resultant string by prefix‐
     ing it by an ‘=’, a number and a colon.  Positive numbers count from
     the start of the string and negative from the end, so
     ‘#{=5:pane_title}’ will include at most the first 5 characters of the
     pane title, or ‘#{=-5:pane_title}’ the last 5 characters.  Prefixing a
     time variable with ‘t:’ will convert it to a string, so if
     ‘#{window_activity}’ gives ‘1445765102’, ‘#{t:window_activity}’ gives
     ‘Sun Oct 25 09:25:02 2015’.  The ‘b:’ and ‘d:’ prefixes are basename(3)
     and dirname(3) of the variable respectively.  ‘q:’ will escape sh(1)
     special characters.  ‘E:’ will expand the format twice, for example
     ‘#{E:status-left}’ is the result of expanding the content of the
     status-left option rather than the content itself.  ‘T:’ is like ‘E:’
     but also expands strftime(3) specifiers.  ‘S:’, ‘W:’ or ‘P:’ will loop
     over each session, window or pane and insert the format once for each.
     For windows and panes, two comma-separated formats may be given: the
     second is used for the current window or active pane.  For example, to
     get a list of windows formatted like the status line:

           #{W:#{E:window-status-format} ,#{E:window-status-current-format} }

     A prefix of the form ‘s/foo/bar/:’ will substitute ‘foo’ with ‘bar’

     In addition, the first line of a shell command's output may be inserted
     using ‘#()’.  For example, ‘#(uptime)’ will insert the system's uptime.
     When constructing formats, tmux does not wait for ‘#()’ commands to
     finish; instead, the previous result from running the same command is
     used, or a placeholder if the command has not been run before.  If the
     command hasn't exited, the most recent line of output will be used, but
     the status line will not be updated more than once a second.  Commands
     are executed with the tmux global environment set (see the GLOBAL AND

     The following variables are available, where appropriate:

     Variable name          Alias    Replaced with
     alternate_on                    If pane is in alternate screen
     alternate_saved_x               Saved cursor X in alternate screen
     alternate_saved_y               Saved cursor Y in alternate screen
     buffer_created                  Time buffer created
     buffer_name                     Name of buffer
     buffer_sample                   Sample of start of buffer
     buffer_size                     Size of the specified buffer in bytes
     client_activity                 Time client last had activity
     client_created                  Time client created
     client_control_mode             1 if client is in control mode
     client_discarded                Bytes discarded when client behind
     client_height                   Height of client
     client_key_table                Current key table
     client_last_session             Name of the client's last session
     client_name                     Name of client
     client_pid                      PID of client process
     client_prefix                   1 if prefix key has been pressed
     client_readonly                 1 if client is readonly
     client_session                  Name of the client's session
     client_termname                 Terminal name of client
     client_termtype                 Terminal type of client
     client_tty                      Pseudo terminal of client
     client_utf8                     1 if client supports utf8
     client_width                    Width of client
     client_written                  Bytes written to client
     command                         Name of command in use, if any
     command_list_name               Command name if listing commands
     command_list_alias              Command alias if listing commands
     command_list_usage              Command usage if listing commands
     cursor_flag                     Pane cursor flag
     cursor_character                Character at cursor in pane
     cursor_x                        Cursor X position in pane
     cursor_y                        Cursor Y position in pane
     history_bytes                   Number of bytes in window history
     history_limit                   Maximum window history lines
     history_size                    Size of history in lines
     hook                            Name of running hook, if any
     hook_pane                       ID of pane where hook was run, if any
     hook_session                    ID of session where hook was run, if
     hook_session_name               Name of session where hook was run, if
     hook_window                     ID of window where hook was run, if any
     hook_window_name                Name of window where hook was run, if
     host                   #H       Hostname of local host
     host_short             #h       Hostname of local host (no domain name)
     insert_flag                     Pane insert flag
     keypad_cursor_flag              Pane keypad cursor flag
     keypad_flag                     Pane keypad flag
     line                            Line number in the list
     mouse_any_flag                  Pane mouse any flag
     mouse_button_flag               Pane mouse button flag
     mouse_standard_flag             Pane mouse standard flag
     mouse_all_flag                  Pane mouse all flag
     pane_active                     1 if active pane
     pane_at_bottom                  1 if pane is at the bottom of window
     pane_at_left                    1 if pane is at the left of window
     pane_at_right                   1 if pane is at the right of window
     pane_at_top                     1 if pane is at the top of window
     pane_bottom                     Bottom of pane
     pane_current_command            Current command if available
     pane_current_path               Current path if available
     pane_dead                       1 if pane is dead
     pane_dead_status                Exit status of process in dead pane
     pane_format                     1 if format is for a pane (not assuming
                                     the current)
     pane_height                     Height of pane
     pane_id                #D       Unique pane ID
     pane_in_mode                    If pane is in a mode
     pane_input_off                  If input to pane is disabled
     pane_index             #P       Index of pane
     pane_left                       Left of pane
     pane_mode                       Name of pane mode, if any.
     pane_pid                        PID of first process in pane
     pane_pipe                       1 if pane is being piped
     pane_right                      Right of pane
     pane_search_string              Last search string in copy mode
     pane_start_command              Command pane started with
     pane_synchronized               If pane is synchronized
     pane_tabs                       Pane tab positions
     pane_title             #T       Title of pane
     pane_top                        Top of pane
     pane_tty                        Pseudo terminal of pane
     pane_width                      Width of pane
     pid                             Server PID
     rectangle_toggle                1 if rectangle selection is activated
     scroll_region_lower             Bottom of scroll region in pane
     scroll_region_upper             Top of scroll region in pane
     scroll_position                 Scroll position in copy mode
     selection_present               1 if selection started in copy mode
     session_alerts                  List of window indexes with alerts
     session_attached                Number of clients session is attached
     session_activity                Time of session last activity
     session_created                 Time session created
     session_format                  1 if format is for a session (not
                                     assuming the current)
     session_last_attached           Time session last attached
     session_group                   Name of session group
     session_group_size              Size of session group
     session_group_list              List of sessions in group
     session_grouped                 1 if session in a group
     session_id                      Unique session ID
     session_many_attached           1 if multiple clients attached
     session_name           #S       Name of session
     session_stack                   Window indexes in most recent order
     session_windows                 Number of windows in session
     socket_path                     Server socket path
     start_time                      Server start time
     version                         Server version
     window_activity                 Time of window last activity
     window_activity_flag            1 if window has activity
     window_active                   1 if window active
     window_bell_flag                1 if window has bell
     window_bigger                   1 if window is larger than client
     window_end_flag                 1 if window has the highest index
     window_flags           #F       Window flags
     window_format                   1 if format is for a window (not
                                     assuming the current)
     window_height                   Height of window
     window_id                       Unique window ID
     window_index           #I       Index of window
     window_last_flag                1 if window is the last used
     window_layout                   Window layout description, ignoring
                                     zoomed window panes
     window_linked                   1 if window is linked across sessions
     window_name            #W       Name of window
     window_offset_x                 X offset into window if larger than
     window_offset_y                 Y offset into window if larger than
     window_panes                    Number of panes in window
     window_silence_flag             1 if window has silence alert
     window_stack_index              Index in session most recent stack
     window_start_flag               1 if window has the lowest index
     window_visible_layout           Window layout description, respecting
                                     zoomed window panes
     window_width                    Width of window
     window_zoomed_flag              1 if window is zoomed
     wrap_flag                       Pane wrap flag

STYLES         top

     tmux offers various options to specify the colour and attributes of
     aspects of the interface, for example status-style for the status line.
     In addition, embedded styles may be specified in format options, such
     as status-left-format, by enclosing them in ‘#[’ and ‘]’.

     A style may be the single term ‘default’ to specify the default style
     (which may inherit from another option) or a space or comma separated
     list of the following:

             Set the foreground colour.  The colour is one of: black, red,
             green, yellow, blue, magenta, cyan, white; if supported the
             bright variants brightred, brightgreen, brightyellow; colour0
             to colour255 from the 256-colour set; default for the default
             colour; terminal for the terminal default colour; or a hexadec‐
             imal RGB string such as ‘#ffffff’.

             Set the background colour.

     none    Set no attributes (turn off any active attributes).

     bright (or bold), dim, underscore, blink, reverse, hidden, italics,
             strikethrough, double-underscore, curly-underscore,
             dotted-underscore, dashed-underscore
             Set an attribute.  Any of the attributes may be prefixed with
             ‘no’ to unset.

     align=left (or noalign), align=centre, align=right
             Align text to the left, centre or right of the available space
             if appropriate.

     list=on, list=focus, list=left-marker, list=right=marker, nolist
             Mark the position of the various window list components in the
             status-format option: list=on marks the start of the list;
             list=focus is the part of the list that should be kept in focus
             if the entire list won't fit in the available space (typically
             the current window); list=left-marker and list=right-marker
             mark the text to be used to mark that text has been trimmed
             from the left or right of the list if there is not enough

     range=left, range=right, range=window|X, norange
             Mark a range in the status-format option.  range=left and
             range=right are the text used for the ‘StatusLeft’ and
             ‘StatusRight’ mouse keys.  range=window|X is the range for a
             window passed to the ‘Status’ mouse key, where ‘X’ is a window

     Examples are:

           fg=yellow bold underscore blink

NAMES AND TITLES         top

     tmux distinguishes between names and titles.  Windows and sessions have
     names, which may be used to specify them in targets and are displayed
     in the status line and various lists: the name is the tmux identifier
     for a window or session.  Only panes have titles.  A pane's title is
     typically set by the program running inside the pane using an escape
     sequence (like it would set the xterm(1) window title in X(7)).  Win‐
     dows themselves do not have titles - a window's title is the title of
     its active pane.  tmux itself may set the title of the terminal in
     which the client is running, see the set-titles option.

     A session's name is set with the new-session and rename-session com‐
     mands.  A window's name is set with one of:

     1.      A command argument (such as -n for new-window or new-session).

     2.      An escape sequence (if the allow-rename option is turned on):

                   $ printf '\033kWINDOW_NAME\033\\'

     3.      Automatic renaming, which sets the name to the active command
             in the window's active pane.  See the automatic-rename option.

     When a pane is first created, its title is the hostname.  A pane's
     title can be set via the title setting escape sequence, for example:

           $ printf '\033]2;My Title\033\\'

     It can also be modified with the select-pane -T command.


     When the server is started, tmux copies the environment into the global
     environment; in addition, each session has a session environment.  When
     a window is created, the session and global environments are merged.
     If a variable exists in both, the value from the session environment is
     used.  The result is the initial environment passed to the new process.

     The update-environment session option may be used to update the session
     environment from the client when a new session is created or an old
     reattached.  tmux also initialises the TMUX variable with some internal
     information to allow commands to be executed from inside, and the TERM
     variable with the correct terminal setting of ‘screen’.

     Commands to alter and view the environment are:

     set-environment [-gru] [-t target-session] name [value]
                   (alias: setenv)
             Set or unset an environment variable.  If -g is used, the
             change is made in the global environment; otherwise, it is
             applied to the session environment for target-session.  The -u
             flag unsets a variable.  -r indicates the variable is to be
             removed from the environment before starting a new process.

     show-environment [-gs] [-t target-session] [variable]
                   (alias: showenv)
             Display the environment for target-session or the global envi‐
             ronment with -g.  If variable is omitted, all variables are
             shown.  Variables removed from the environment are prefixed
             with ‘-’.  If -s is used, the output is formatted as a set of
             Bourne shell commands.

STATUS LINE         top

     tmux includes an optional status line which is displayed in the bottom
     line of each terminal.

     By default, the status line is enabled and one line in height (it may
     be disabled or made multiple lines with the status session option) and
     contains, from left-to-right: the name of the current session in square
     brackets; the window list; the title of the active pane in double
     quotes; and the time and date.

     Each line of the status line is configured with the status-format
     option.  The default is made of three parts: configurable left and
     right sections (which may contain dynamic content such as the time or
     output from a shell command, see the status-left, status-left-length,
     status-right, and status-right-length options below), and a central
     window list.  By default, the window list shows the index, name and (if
     any) flag of the windows present in the current session in ascending
     numerical order.  It may be customised with the window-status-format
     and window-status-current-format options.  The flag is one of the fol‐
     lowing symbols appended to the window name:

           Symbol    Meaning
           *         Denotes the current window.
           -         Marks the last window (previously selected).
           #         Window activity is monitored and activity has been
           !         Window bells are monitored and a bell has occurred in
                                the window.
           ~         The window has been silent for the monitor-silence
           M         The window contains the marked pane.
           Z         The window's active pane is zoomed.

     The # symbol relates to the monitor-activity window option.  The window
     name is printed in inverted colours if an alert (bell, activity or
     silence) is present.

     The colour and attributes of the status line may be configured, the
     entire status line using the status-style session option and individual
     windows using the window-status-style window option.

     The status line is automatically refreshed at interval if it has
     changed, the interval may be controlled with the status-interval ses‐
     sion option.

     Commands related to the status line are as follows:

     command-prompt [-1i] [-I inputs] [-p prompts] [-t target-client]
             Open the command prompt in a client.  This may be used from
             inside tmux to execute commands interactively.

             If template is specified, it is used as the command.  If
             present, -I is a comma-separated list of the initial text for
             each prompt.  If -p is given, prompts is a comma-separated list
             of prompts which are displayed in order; otherwise a single
             prompt is displayed, constructed from template if it is
             present, or ‘:’ if not.

             Before the command is executed, the first occurrence of the
             string ‘%%’ and all occurrences of ‘%1’ are replaced by the
             response to the first prompt, all ‘%2’ are replaced with the
             response to the second prompt, and so on for further prompts.
             Up to nine prompt responses may be replaced (‘%1’ to ‘%9’).
             ‘%%%’ is like ‘%%’ but any quotation marks are escaped.

             -1 makes the prompt only accept one key press, in this case the
             resulting input is a single character.  -i executes the command
             every time the prompt input changes instead of when the user
             exits the command prompt.

             The following keys have a special meaning in the command
             prompt, depending on the value of the status-keys option:

                   Function                             vi        emacs
                   Cancel command prompt                Escape    Escape
                   Delete current word                            C-w
                   Delete entire command                d         C-u
                   Delete from cursor to end            D         C-k
                   Execute command                      Enter     Enter
                   Get next command from history                  Down
                   Get previous command from history              Up
                   Insert top paste buffer              p         C-y
                   Look for completions                 Tab       Tab
                   Move cursor left                     h         Left
                   Move cursor right                    l         Right
                   Move cursor to end                   $         C-e
                   Move cursor to next word             w         M-f
                   Move cursor to previous word         b         M-b
                   Move cursor to start                 0         C-a
                   Transpose characters                           C-t

     confirm-before [-p prompt] [-t target-client] command
                   (alias: confirm)
             Ask for confirmation before executing command.  If -p is given,
             prompt is the prompt to display; otherwise a prompt is con‐
             structed from command.  It may contain the special character
             sequences supported by the status-left option.

             This command works only from inside tmux.

     display-message [-aIpv] [-c target-client] [-t target-pane] [message]
                   (alias: display)
             Display a message.  If -p is given, the output is printed to
             stdout, otherwise it is displayed in the target-client status
             line.  The format of message is described in the FORMATS sec‐
             tion; information is taken from target-pane if -t is given,
             otherwise the active pane for the session attached to

             -v prints verbose logging as the format is parsed and -a lists
             the format variables and their values.

             -I forwards any input read from stdin to the empty pane given
             by target-pane.

BUFFERS         top

     tmux maintains a set of named paste buffers.  Each buffer may be either
     explicitly or automatically named.  Explicitly named buffers are named
     when created with the set-buffer or load-buffer commands, or by renam‐
     ing an automatically named buffer with set-buffer -n.  Automatically
     named buffers are given a name such as ‘buffer0001’, ‘buffer0002’ and
     so on.  When the buffer-limit option is reached, the oldest automati‐
     cally named buffer is deleted.  Explicitly named buffers are not sub‐
     ject to buffer-limit and may be deleted with delete-buffer command.

     Buffers may be added using copy-mode or the set-buffer and load-buffer
     commands, and pasted into a window using the paste-buffer command.  If
     a buffer command is used and no buffer is specified, the most recently
     added automatically named buffer is assumed.

     A configurable history buffer is also maintained for each window.  By
     default, up to 2000 lines are kept; this can be altered with the
     history-limit option (see the set-option command above).

     The buffer commands are as follows:

     choose-buffer [-NZ] [-F format] [-f filter] [-O sort-order] [-t
             target-pane] [template]
             Put a pane into buffer mode, where a buffer may be chosen
             interactively from a list.  -Z zooms the pane.  The following
             keys may be used in buffer mode:

                   Key    Function
                   Enter  Paste selected buffer
                   Up     Select previous buffer
                   Down   Select next buffer
                   C-s    Search by name or content
                   n      Repeat last search
                   t      Toggle if buffer is tagged
                   T      Tag no buffers
                   C-t    Tag all buffers
                   p      Paste selected buffer
                   P      Paste tagged buffers
                   d      Delete selected buffer
                   D      Delete tagged buffers
                   f      Enter a format to filter items
                   O      Change sort order
                   v      Toggle preview
                   q      Exit mode

             After a buffer is chosen, ‘%%’ is replaced by the buffer name
             in template and the result executed as a command.  If template
             is not given, "paste-buffer -b '%%'" is used.

             -O specifies the initial sort order: one of ‘time’, ‘name’ or
             ‘size’.  -f specifies an initial filter: the filter is a format
             - if it evaluates to zero, the item in the list is not shown,
             otherwise it is shown.  If a filter would lead to an empty
             list, it is ignored.  -F specifies the format for each item in
             the list.  -N starts without the preview.  This command works
             only if at least one client is attached.

     clear-history [-t target-pane]
                   (alias: clearhist)
             Remove and free the history for the specified pane.

     delete-buffer [-b buffer-name]
                   (alias: deleteb)
             Delete the buffer named buffer-name, or the most recently added
             automatically named buffer if not specified.

     list-buffers [-F format]
                   (alias: lsb)
             List the global buffers.  For the meaning of the -F flag, see
             the FORMATS section.

     load-buffer [-b buffer-name] path
                   (alias: loadb)
             Load the contents of the specified paste buffer from path.

     paste-buffer [-dpr] [-b buffer-name] [-s separator] [-t target-pane]
                   (alias: pasteb)
             Insert the contents of a paste buffer into the specified pane.
             If not specified, paste into the current one.  With -d, also
             delete the paste buffer.  When output, any linefeed (LF) char‐
             acters in the paste buffer are replaced with a separator, by
             default carriage return (CR).  A custom separator may be speci‐
             fied using the -s flag.  The -r flag means to do no replacement
             (equivalent to a separator of LF).  If -p is specified, paste
             bracket control codes are inserted around the buffer if the
             application has requested bracketed paste mode.

     save-buffer [-a] [-b buffer-name] path
                   (alias: saveb)
             Save the contents of the specified paste buffer to path.  The
             -a option appends to rather than overwriting the file.

     set-buffer [-a] [-b buffer-name] [-n new-buffer-name] data
                   (alias: setb)
             Set the contents of the specified buffer to data.  The -a
             option appends to rather than overwriting the buffer.  The -n
             option renames the buffer to new-buffer-name.

     show-buffer [-b buffer-name]
                   (alias: showb)
             Display the contents of the specified buffer.


     Miscellaneous commands are as follows:

     clock-mode [-t target-pane]
             Display a large clock.

     if-shell [-bF] [-t target-pane] shell-command command [command]
                   (alias: if)
             Execute the first command if shell-command returns success or
             the second command otherwise.  Before being executed,
             shell-command is expanded using the rules specified in the
             FORMATS section, including those relevant to target-pane.  With
             -b, shell-command is run in the background.

             If -F is given, shell-command is not executed but considered
             success if neither empty nor zero (after formats are expanded).

                   (alias: lock)
             Lock each client individually by running the command specified
             by the lock-command option.

     run-shell [-b] [-t target-pane] shell-command
                   (alias: run)
             Execute shell-command in the background without creating a win‐
             dow.  Before being executed, shell-command is expanded using
             the rules specified in the FORMATS section.  With -b, the com‐
             mand is run in the background.  After it finishes, any output
             to stdout is displayed in copy mode (in the pane specified by
             -t or the current pane if omitted).  If the command doesn't
             return success, the exit status is also displayed.

     wait-for [-L | -S | -U] channel
                   (alias: wait)
             When used without options, prevents the client from exiting
             until woken using wait-for -S with the same channel.  When -L
             is used, the channel is locked and any clients that try to lock
             the same channel are made to wait until the channel is unlocked
             with wait-for -U.


     tmux understands some unofficial extensions to terminfo(5):

     Cs, Cr  Set the cursor colour.  The first takes a single string argu‐
             ment and is used to set the colour; the second takes no argu‐
             ments and restores the default cursor colour.  If set, a
             sequence such as this may be used to change the cursor colour
             from inside tmux:

                   $ printf '\033]12;red\033\\'

     Smulx   Set a styled underline.  The single parameter is one of: 0 for
             no underline, 1 for normal underline, 2 for double underline, 3
             for curly underline, 4 for dotted underline and 5 for dashed

     Ss, Se  Set or reset the cursor style.  If set, a sequence such as this
             may be used to change the cursor to an underline:

                   $ printf '\033[4 q'

             If Se is not set, Ss with argument 0 will be used to reset the
             cursor style instead.

     Tc      Indicate that the terminal supports the ‘direct colour’ RGB
             escape sequence (for example, \e[38;2;255;255;255m).

             If supported, this is used for the initialize colour escape
             sequence (which may be enabled by adding the ‘initc’ and ‘ccc’
             capabilities to the tmux terminfo(5) entry).

     Ms      Store the current buffer in the host terminal's selection
             (clipboard).  See the set-clipboard option above and the
             xterm(1) man page.

CONTROL MODE         top

     tmux offers a textual interface called control mode.  This allows
     applications to communicate with tmux using a simple text-only proto‐

     In control mode, a client sends tmux commands or command sequences ter‐
     minated by newlines on standard input.  Each command will produce one
     block of output on standard output.  An output block consists of a
     %begin line followed by the output (which may be empty).  The output
     block ends with a %end or %error.  %begin and matching %end or %error
     have two arguments: an integer time (as seconds from epoch) and command
     number.  For example:

           %begin 1363006971 2
           0: ksh* (1 panes) [80x24] [layout b25f,80x24,0,0,2] @2 (active)
           %end 1363006971 2

     The refresh-client -C command may be used to set the size of a client
     in control mode.

     In control mode, tmux outputs notifications.  A notification will never
     occur inside an output block.

     The following notifications are defined:

     %client-session-changed client session-id name
             The client is now attached to the session with ID session-id,
             which is named name.

     %exit [reason]
             The tmux client is exiting immediately, either because it is
             not attached to any session or an error occurred.  If present,
             reason describes why the client exited.

     %layout-change window-id window-layout window-visible-layout
             The layout of a window with ID window-id changed.  The new lay‐
             out is window-layout.  The window's visible layout is
             window-visible-layout and the window flags are window-flags.

     %output pane-id value
             A window pane produced output.  value escapes non-printable
             characters and backslash as octal \xxx.

     %pane-mode-changed pane-id
             The pane with ID pane-id has changed mode.

     %session-changed session-id name
             The client is now attached to the session with ID session-id,
             which is named name.

     %session-renamed name
             The current session was renamed to name.

     %session-window-changed session-id window-id
             The session with ID session-id changed its active window to the
             window with ID window-id.

             A session was created or destroyed.

     %unlinked-window-add window-id
             The window with ID window-id was created but is not linked to
             the current session.

     %window-add window-id
             The window with ID window-id was linked to the current session.

     %window-close window-id
             The window with ID window-id closed.

     %window-pane-changed window-id pane-id
             The active pane in the window with ID window-id changed to the
             pane with ID pane-id.

     %window-renamed window-id name
             The window with ID window-id was renamed to name.

ENVIRONMENT         top

     When tmux is started, it inspects the following environment variables:

     EDITOR    If the command specified in this variable contains the string
               ‘vi’ and VISUAL is unset, use vi-style key bindings.  Over‐
               ridden by the mode-keys and status-keys options.

     HOME      The user's login directory.  If unset, the passwd(5) database
               is consulted.

     LC_CTYPE  The character encoding locale(1).  It is used for two sepa‐
               rate purposes.  For output to the terminal, UTF-8 is used if
               the -u option is given or if LC_CTYPE contains "UTF-8" or
               "UTF8".  Otherwise, only ASCII characters are written and
               non-ASCII characters are replaced with underscores (‘_’).
               For input, tmux always runs with a UTF-8 locale.  If
               en_US.UTF-8 is provided by the operating system it is used
               and LC_CTYPE is ignored for input.  Otherwise, LC_CTYPE tells
               tmux what the UTF-8 locale is called on the current system.
               If the locale specified by LC_CTYPE is not available or is
               not a UTF-8 locale, tmux exits with an error message.

     LC_TIME   The date and time format locale(1).  It is used for locale-
               dependent strftime(3) format specifiers.

     PWD       The current working directory to be set in the global envi‐
               ronment.  This may be useful if it contains symbolic links.
               If the value of the variable does not match the current work‐
               ing directory, the variable is ignored and the result of
               getcwd(3) is used instead.

     SHELL     The absolute path to the default shell for new windows.  See
               the default-shell option for details.

               The parent directory of the directory containing the server
               sockets.  See the -L option for details.

     VISUAL    If the command specified in this variable contains the string
               ‘vi’, use vi-style key bindings.  Overridden by the mode-keys
               and status-keys options.

FILES         top

     ~/.tmux.conf               Default tmux configuration file.
     @SYSCONFDIR@/tmux.conf     System-wide configuration file.

EXAMPLES         top

     To create a new tmux session running vi(1):

           $ tmux new-session vi

     Most commands have a shorter form, known as an alias.  For new-session,
     this is new:

           $ tmux new vi

     Alternatively, the shortest unambiguous form of a command is accepted.
     If there are several options, they are listed:

           $ tmux n
           ambiguous command: n, could be: new-session, new-window, next-window

     Within an active session, a new window may be created by typing ‘C-b c’
     (Ctrl followed by the ‘b’ key followed by the ‘c’ key).

     Windows may be navigated with: ‘C-b 0’ (to select window 0), ‘C-b 1’
     (to select window 1), and so on; ‘C-b n’ to select the next window; and
     ‘C-b p’ to select the previous window.

     A session may be detached using ‘C-b d’ (or by an external event such
     as ssh(1) disconnection) and reattached with:

           $ tmux attach-session

     Typing ‘C-b ?’ lists the current key bindings in the current window; up
     and down may be used to navigate the list or ‘q’ to exit from it.

     Commands to be run when the tmux server is started may be placed in the
     ~/.tmux.conf configuration file.  Common examples include:

     Changing the default prefix key:

           set-option -g prefix C-a
           unbind-key C-b
           bind-key C-a send-prefix

     Turning the status line off, or changing its colour:

           set-option -g status off
           set-option -g status-style bg=blue

     Setting other options, such as the default command, or locking after 30
     minutes of inactivity:

           set-option -g default-command "exec /bin/ksh"
           set-option -g lock-after-time 1800

     Creating new key bindings:

           bind-key b set-option status
           bind-key / command-prompt "split-window 'exec man %%'"
           bind-key S command-prompt "new-window -n %1 'ssh %1'"

SEE ALSO         top


AUTHORS         top

     Nicholas Marriott <>

COLOPHON         top

     This page is part of the tmux (terminal multiplexer) project.  Informa‐
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     have a bug report for this manual page, send it to  This page was obtained from the project's
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     2019-05-09.  (At that time, the date of the most recent commit that was
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     problems in this HTML version of the page, or you believe there is a
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BSD                             May 11, 2019                             BSD

Pages that refer to this page: logind.conf(5)pty(7)