TMUX(1)                  BSD General Commands Manual                 TMUX(1)

NAME         top

     tmux — terminal multiplexer

SYNOPSIS         top

     tmux [-2CluvV] [-c shell-command] [-f file] [-L socket-name]
          [-S socket-path] [command [flags]]

DESCRIPTION         top

     tmux is a terminal multiplexer: it enables a number of terminals to be
     created, accessed, and controlled from a single screen.  tmux may be
     detached from a screen and continue running in the background, then
     later reattached.

     When tmux is started it creates a new session with a single window and
     displays it on screen.  A status line at the bottom of the screen shows
     information on the current session and is used to enter interactive

     A session is a single collection of pseudo terminals under the manage‐
     ment of tmux.  Each session has one or more windows linked to it.  A
     window occupies the entire screen and may be split into rectangular
     panes, each of which is a separate pseudo terminal (the pty(4) manual
     page documents the technical details of pseudo terminals).  Any number
     of tmux instances may connect to the same session, and any number of
     windows may be present in the same session.  Once all sessions are
     killed, tmux exits.

     Each session is persistent and will survive accidental disconnection
     (such as ssh(1) connection timeout) or intentional detaching (with the
     ‘C-b d’ key strokes).  tmux may be reattached using:

           $ tmux attach

     In tmux, a session is displayed on screen by a client and all sessions
     are managed by a single server.  The server and each client are sepa‐
     rate processes which communicate through a socket in /tmp.

     The options are as follows:

     -2            Force tmux to assume the terminal supports 256 colours.

     -C            Start in control mode (see the CONTROL MODE section).
                   Given twice (-CC) disables echo.

     -c shell-command
                   Execute shell-command using the default shell.  If neces‐
                   sary, the tmux server will be started to retrieve the
                   default-shell option.  This option is for compatibility
                   with sh(1) when tmux is used as a login shell.

     -f file       Specify an alternative configuration file.  By default,
                   tmux loads the system configuration file from
                   @SYSCONFDIR@/tmux.conf, if present, then looks for a user
                   configuration file at ~/.tmux.conf.

                   The configuration file is a set of tmux commands which
                   are executed in sequence when the server is first
                   started.  tmux loads configuration files once when the
                   server process has started.  The source-file command may
                   be used to load a file later.

                   tmux shows any error messages from commands in configura‐
                   tion files in the first session created, and continues to
                   process the rest of the configuration file.

     -L socket-name
                   tmux stores the server socket in a directory under
                   TMUX_TMPDIR or /tmp if it is unset.  The default socket
                   is named default.  This option allows a different socket
                   name to be specified, allowing several independent tmux
                   servers to be run.  Unlike -S a full path is not neces‐
                   sary: the sockets are all created in the same directory.

                   If the socket is accidentally removed, the SIGUSR1 signal
                   may be sent to the tmux server process to recreate it
                   (note that this will fail if any parent directories are

     -l            Behave as a login shell.  This flag currently has no
                   effect and is for compatibility with other shells when
                   using tmux as a login shell.

     -S socket-path
                   Specify a full alternative path to the server socket.  If
                   -S is specified, the default socket directory is not used
                   and any -L flag is ignored.

     -u            Write UTF-8 output to the terminal even if the first
                   environment variable of LC_ALL, LC_CTYPE, or LANG that is
                   set does not contain "UTF-8" or "UTF8".

     -v            Request verbose logging.  Log messages will be saved into
                   tmux-client-PID.log and tmux-server-PID.log files in the
                   current directory, where PID is the PID of the server or
                   client process.  If -v is specified twice, an additional
                   tmux-out-PID.log file is generated with a copy of every‐
                   thing tmux writes to the terminal.

                   The SIGUSR2 signal may be sent to the tmux server process
                   to toggle logging between on (as if -v was given) and

     -V            Report the tmux version.

     command [flags]
                   This specifies one of a set of commands used to control
                   tmux, as described in the following sections.  If no com‐
                   mands are specified, the new-session command is assumed.


     tmux may be controlled from an attached client by using a key combina‐
     tion of a prefix key, ‘C-b’ (Ctrl-b) by default, followed by a command

     The default command key bindings are:

           C-b         Send the prefix key (C-b) through to the application.
           C-o         Rotate the panes in the current window forwards.
           C-z         Suspend the tmux client.
           !           Break the current pane out of the window.
           "           Split the current pane into two, top and bottom.
           #           List all paste buffers.
           $           Rename the current session.
           %           Split the current pane into two, left and right.
           &           Kill the current window.
           '           Prompt for a window index to select.
           (           Switch the attached client to the previous session.
           )           Switch the attached client to the next session.
           ,           Rename the current window.
           -           Delete the most recently copied buffer of text.
           .           Prompt for an index to move the current window.
           0 to 9      Select windows 0 to 9.
           :           Enter the tmux command prompt.
           ;           Move to the previously active pane.
           =           Choose which buffer to paste interactively from a
           ?           List all key bindings.
           D           Choose a client to detach.
           L           Switch the attached client back to the last session.
           [           Enter copy mode to copy text or view the history.
           ]           Paste the most recently copied buffer of text.
           c           Create a new window.
           d           Detach the current client.
           f           Prompt to search for text in open windows.
           i           Display some information about the current window.
           l           Move to the previously selected window.
           m           Mark the current pane (see select-pane -m).
           M           Clear the marked pane.
           n           Change to the next window.
           o           Select the next pane in the current window.
           p           Change to the previous window.
           q           Briefly display pane indexes.
           r           Force redraw of the attached client.
           s           Select a new session for the attached client interac‐
           t           Show the time.
           w           Choose the current window interactively.
           x           Kill the current pane.
           z           Toggle zoom state of the current pane.
           {           Swap the current pane with the previous pane.
           }           Swap the current pane with the next pane.
           ~           Show previous messages from tmux, if any.
           Page Up     Enter copy mode and scroll one page up.
           Up, Down
           Left, Right
                       Change to the pane above, below, to the left, or to
                       the right of the current pane.
           M-1 to M-5  Arrange panes in one of the five preset layouts:
                       even-horizontal, even-vertical, main-horizontal,
                       main-vertical, or tiled.
           Space       Arrange the current window in the next preset layout.
           M-n         Move to the next window with a bell or activity
           M-o         Rotate the panes in the current window backwards.
           M-p         Move to the previous window with a bell or activity
           C-Up, C-Down
           C-Left, C-Right
                       Resize the current pane in steps of one cell.
           M-Up, M-Down
           M-Left, M-Right
                       Resize the current pane in steps of five cells.

     Key bindings may be changed with the bind-key and unbind-key commands.


     tmux supports a large number of commands which can be used to control
     its behaviour.  Each command is named and can accept zero or more flags
     and arguments.  They may be bound to a key with the bind-key command or
     run from the shell prompt, a shell script, a configuration file or the
     command prompt.  For example, the same set-option command run from the
     shell prompt, from ~/.tmux.conf and bound to a key may look like:

           $ tmux set-option -g status-style bg=cyan

           set-option -g status-style bg=cyan

           bind-key C set-option -g status-style bg=cyan

     Here, the command name is ‘set-option’, ‘-g’ is a flag and
     ‘status-style’ and ‘bg=cyan’ are arguments.

     tmux distinguishes between command parsing and execution.  In order to
     execute a command, tmux needs it to be split up into its name and argu‐
     ments.  This is command parsing.  If a command is run from the shell,
     the shell parses it; from inside tmux or from a configuration file,
     tmux does.  Examples of when tmux parses commands are:

           -   in a configuration file;

           -   typed at the command prompt (see command-prompt);

           -   given to bind-key;

           -   passed as arguments to if-shell or confirm-before.

     To execute commands, each client has a ‘command queue’.  A global com‐
     mand queue not attached to any client is used on startup for configura‐
     tion files like ~/.tmux.conf.  Parsed commands added to the queue are
     executed in order.  Some commands, like if-shell and confirm-before,
     parse their argument to create a new command which is inserted immedi‐
     ately after themselves.  This means that arguments can be parsed twice
     or more - once when the parent command (such as if-shell) is parsed and
     again when it parses and executes its command.  Commands like if-shell,
     run-shell and display-panes stop execution of subsequent commands on
     the queue until something happens - if-shell and run-shell until a
     shell command finishes and display-panes until a key is pressed.  For
     example, the following commands:

           new-session; new-window
           if-shell "true" "split-window"

     Will execute new-session, new-window, if-shell, the shell command
     true(1), split-window and kill-session in that order.

     The COMMANDS section lists the tmux commands and their arguments.

PARSING SYNTAX         top

     This section describes the syntax of commands parsed by tmux, for exam‐
     ple in a configuration file or at the command prompt.  Note that when
     commands are entered into the shell, they are parsed by the shell - see
     for example ksh(1) or csh(1).

     Each command is terminated by a newline or a semicolon (;).  Commands
     separated by semicolons together form a ‘command sequence’ - if a com‐
     mand in the sequence encounters an error, no subsequent commands are

     Comments are marked by the unquoted # character - any remaining text
     after a comment is ignored until the end of the line.

     If the last character of a line is \, the line is joined with the fol‐
     lowing line (the \ and the newline are completely removed).  This is
     called line continuation and applies both inside and outside quoted
     strings and in comments, but not inside braces.

     Command arguments may be specified as strings surrounded by single (')
     quotes, double quotes (") or braces ({}).  This is required when the
     argument contains any special character.  Single and double quoted
     strings cannot span multiple lines except with line continuation.
     Braces can span multiple lines.

     Outside of quotes and inside double quotes, these replacements are per‐

           -   Environment variables preceded by $ are replaced with their
               value from the global environment (see the GLOBAL AND SESSION
               ENVIRONMENT section).

           -   A leading ~ or ~user is expanded to the home directory of the
               current or specified user.

           -   \uXXXX or \uXXXXXXXX is replaced by the Unicode codepoint
               corresponding to the given four or eight digit hexadecimal

           -   When preceded (escaped) by a \, the following characters are
               replaced: \e by the escape character; \r by a carriage
               return; \n by a newline; and \t by a tab.

           -   \ooo is replaced by a character of the octal value ooo.
               Three octal digits are required, for example \001.  The
               largest valid character is \377.

           -   Any other characters preceded by \ are replaced by themselves
               (that is, the \ is removed) and are not treated as having any
               special meaning - so for example \; will not mark a command
               sequence and \$ will not expand an environment variable.

     Braces are similar to single quotes in that the text inside is taken
     literally without any replacements but this also includes line continu‐
     ation.  Braces can span multiple lines in which case a literal newline
     is included in the string.  They are designed to avoid the need for
     additional escaping when passing a group of tmux or shell commands as
     an argument (for example to if-shell or pipe-pane).  These two examples
     produce an identical command - note that no escaping is needed when
     using {}:

           if-shell true {
               display -p 'brace-dollar-foo: }$foo'

           if-shell true "\n    display -p 'brace-dollar-foo: }\$foo'\n"

     Braces may be enclosed inside braces, for example:

           bind x if-shell "true" {
               if-shell "true" {
                    display "true!"

     Environment variables may be set by using the syntax ‘name=value’, for
     example ‘HOME=/home/user’.  Variables set during parsing are added to
     the global environment.

     Commands may be parsed conditionally by surrounding them with ‘%if’,
     ‘%elif’, ‘%else’ and ‘%endif’.  The argument to ‘%if’ and ‘%elif’ is
     expanded as a format (see FORMATS) and if it evaluates to false (zero
     or empty), subsequent text is ignored until the closing ‘%elif’,
     ‘%else’ or ‘%endif’.  For example:

           %if "#{==:#{host},myhost}"
           set -g status-style bg=red
           %elif "#{==:#{host},myotherhost}"
           set -g status-style bg=green
           set -g status-style bg=blue

     Will change the status line to red if running on ‘myhost’, green if
     running on ‘myotherhost’, or blue if running on another host.  Condi‐
     tionals may be given on one line, for example:

           %if #{==:#{host},myhost} set -g status-style bg=red %endif

COMMANDS         top

     This section describes the commands supported by tmux.  Most commands
     accept the optional -t (and sometimes -s) argument with one of
     target-client, target-session, target-window, or target-pane.  These
     specify the client, session, window or pane which a command should

     target-client should be the name of the client, typically the pty(4)
     file to which the client is connected, for example either of /dev/ttyp1
     or ttyp1 for the client attached to /dev/ttyp1.  If no client is speci‐
     fied, tmux attempts to work out the client currently in use; if that
     fails, an error is reported.  Clients may be listed with the
     list-clients command.

     target-session is tried as, in order:

           1.   A session ID prefixed with a $.

           2.   An exact name of a session (as listed by the list-sessions

           3.   The start of a session name, for example ‘mysess’ would
                match a session named ‘mysession’.

           4.   An fnmatch(3) pattern which is matched against the session

     If the session name is prefixed with an ‘=’, only an exact match is
     accepted (so ‘=mysess’ will only match exactly ‘mysess’, not

     If a single session is found, it is used as the target session; multi‐
     ple matches produce an error.  If a session is omitted, the current
     session is used if available; if no current session is available, the
     most recently used is chosen.

     target-window (or src-window or dst-window) specifies a window in the
     form session:window.  session follows the same rules as for
     target-session, and window is looked for in order as:

           1.   A special token, listed below.

           2.   A window index, for example ‘mysession:1’ is window 1 in
                session ‘mysession’.

           3.   A window ID, such as @1.

           4.   An exact window name, such as ‘mysession:mywindow’.

           5.   The start of a window name, such as ‘mysession:mywin’.

           6.   As an fnmatch(3) pattern matched against the window name.

     Like sessions, a ‘=’ prefix will do an exact match only.  An empty win‐
     dow name specifies the next unused index if appropriate (for example
     the new-window and link-window commands) otherwise the current window
     in session is chosen.

     The following special tokens are available to indicate particular win‐
     dows.  Each has a single-character alternative form.

     Token              Meaning
     {start}       ^    The lowest-numbered window
     {end}         $    The highest-numbered window
     {last}        !    The last (previously current) window
     {next}        +    The next window by number
     {previous}    -    The previous window by number

     target-pane (or src-pane or dst-pane) may be a pane ID or takes a simi‐
     lar form to target-window but with the optional addition of a period
     followed by a pane index or pane ID, for example:
     ‘mysession:mywindow.1’.  If the pane index is omitted, the currently
     active pane in the specified window is used.  The following special
     tokens are available for the pane index:

     Token                  Meaning
     {last}            !    The last (previously active) pane
     {next}            +    The next pane by number
     {previous}        -    The previous pane by number
     {top}                  The top pane
     {bottom}               The bottom pane
     {left}                 The leftmost pane
     {right}                The rightmost pane
     {top-left}             The top-left pane
     {top-right}            The top-right pane
     {bottom-left}          The bottom-left pane
     {bottom-right}         The bottom-right pane
     {up-of}                The pane above the active pane
     {down-of}              The pane below the active pane
     {left-of}              The pane to the left of the active pane
     {right-of}             The pane to the right of the active pane

     The tokens ‘+’ and ‘-’ may be followed by an offset, for example:

           select-window -t:+2

     In addition, target-session, target-window or target-pane may consist
     entirely of the token ‘{mouse}’ (alternative form ‘=’) to specify the
     session, window or pane where the most recent mouse event occurred (see
     the MOUSE SUPPORT section) or ‘{marked}’ (alternative form ‘~’) to
     specify the marked pane (see select-pane -m).

     Sessions, window and panes are each numbered with a unique ID; session
     IDs are prefixed with a ‘$’, windows with a ‘@’, and panes with a ‘%’.
     These are unique and are unchanged for the life of the session, window
     or pane in the tmux server.  The pane ID is passed to the child process
     of the pane in the TMUX_PANE environment variable.  IDs may be dis‐
     played using the ‘session_id’, ‘window_id’, or ‘pane_id’ formats (see
     the FORMATS section) and the display-message, list-sessions,
     list-windows or list-panes commands.

     shell-command arguments are sh(1) commands.  This may be a single argu‐
     ment passed to the shell, for example:

           new-window 'vi /etc/passwd'

     Will run:

           /bin/sh -c 'vi /etc/passwd'

     Additionally, the new-window, new-session, split-window, respawn-window
     and respawn-pane commands allow shell-command to be given as multiple
     arguments and executed directly (without ‘sh -c’).  This can avoid
     issues with shell quoting.  For example:

           $ tmux new-window vi /etc/passwd

     Will run vi(1) directly without invoking the shell.

     command [arguments] refers to a tmux command, either passed with the
     command and arguments separately, for example:

           bind-key F1 set-option status off

     Or passed as a single string argument in .tmux.conf, for example:

           bind-key F1 { set-option status off }

     Example tmux commands include:

           refresh-client -t/dev/ttyp2

           rename-session -tfirst newname

           set-option -wt:0 monitor-activity on

           new-window ; split-window -d

           bind-key R source-file ~/.tmux.conf \; \
                   display-message "source-file done"

     Or from sh(1):

           $ tmux kill-window -t :1

           $ tmux new-window \; split-window -d

           $ tmux new-session -d 'vi /etc/passwd' \; split-window -d \; attach


     The tmux server manages clients, sessions, windows and panes.  Clients
     are attached to sessions to interact with them, either when they are
     created with the new-session command, or later with the attach-session
     command.  Each session has one or more windows linked into it.  Windows
     may be linked to multiple sessions and are made up of one or more
     panes, each of which contains a pseudo terminal.  Commands for creat‐
     ing, linking and otherwise manipulating windows are covered in the
     WINDOWS AND PANES section.

     The following commands are available to manage clients and sessions:

     attach-session [-dErx] [-c working-directory] [-t target-session]
                   (alias: attach)
             If run from outside tmux, create a new client in the current
             terminal and attach it to target-session.  If used from inside,
             switch the current client.  If -d is specified, any other
             clients attached to the session are detached.  If -x is given,
             send SIGHUP to the parent process of the client as well as
             detaching the client, typically causing it to exit.  -r signi‐
             fies the client is read-only (only keys bound to the
             detach-client or switch-client commands have any effect)

             If no server is started, attach-session will attempt to start
             it; this will fail unless sessions are created in the configu‐
             ration file.

             The target-session rules for attach-session are slightly
             adjusted: if tmux needs to select the most recently used ses‐
             sion, it will prefer the most recently used unattached session.

             -c will set the session working directory (used for new win‐
             dows) to working-directory.

             If -E is used, the update-environment option will not be

     detach-client [-aP] [-E shell-command] [-s target-session] [-t
                   (alias: detach)
             Detach the current client if bound to a key, the client speci‐
             fied with -t, or all clients currently attached to the session
             specified by -s.  The -a option kills all but the client given
             with -t.  If -P is given, send SIGHUP to the parent process of
             the client, typically causing it to exit.  With -E, run
             shell-command to replace the client.

     has-session [-t target-session]
                   (alias: has)
             Report an error and exit with 1 if the specified session does
             not exist.  If it does exist, exit with 0.

             Kill the tmux server and clients and destroy all sessions.

     kill-session [-aC] [-t target-session]
             Destroy the given session, closing any windows linked to it and
             no other sessions, and detaching all clients attached to it.
             If -a is given, all sessions but the specified one is killed.
             The -C flag clears alerts (bell, activity, or silence) in all
             windows linked to the session.

     list-clients [-F format] [-t target-session]
                   (alias: lsc)
             List all clients attached to the server.  For the meaning of
             the -F flag, see the FORMATS section.  If target-session is
             specified, list only clients connected to that session.

     list-commands [-F format]
                   (alias: lscm)
             List the syntax of all commands supported by tmux.

     list-sessions [-F format]
                   (alias: ls)
             List all sessions managed by the server.  For the meaning of
             the -F flag, see the FORMATS section.

     lock-client [-t target-client]
                   (alias: lockc)
             Lock target-client, see the lock-server command.

     lock-session [-t target-session]
                   (alias: locks)
             Lock all clients attached to target-session.

     new-session [-AdDEPX] [-c start-directory] [-F format] [-n window-name]
             [-s session-name] [-t group-name] [-x width] [-y height]
                   (alias: new)
             Create a new session with name session-name.

             The new session is attached to the current terminal unless -d
             is given.  window-name and shell-command are the name of and
             shell command to execute in the initial window.  With -d, the
             initial size comes from the global default-size option; -x and
             -y can be used to specify a different size.  ‘-’ uses the size
             of the current client if any.  If -x or -y is given, the
             default-size option is set for the session.

             If run from a terminal, any termios(4) special characters are
             saved and used for new windows in the new session.

             The -A flag makes new-session behave like attach-session if
             session-name already exists; in this case, -D behaves like -d
             to attach-session, and -X behaves like -x to attach-session.

             If -t is given, it specifies a session group.  Sessions in the
             same group share the same set of windows - new windows are
             linked to all sessions in the group and any windows closed
             removed from all sessions.  The current and previous window and
             any session options remain independent and any session in a
             group may be killed without affecting the others.  The
             group-name argument may be:

             1.      the name of an existing group, in which case the new
                     session is added to that group;

             2.      the name of an existing session - the new session is
                     added to the same group as that session, creating a new
                     group if necessary;

             3.      the name for a new group containing only the new ses‐

             -n and shell-command are invalid if -t is used.

             The -P option prints information about the new session after it
             has been created.  By default, it uses the format
             ‘#{session_name}:’ but a different format may be specified with

             If -E is used, the update-environment option will not be

     refresh-client [-cDlLRSU] [-C XxY] [-F flags] [-t target-client]
                   (alias: refresh)
             Refresh the current client if bound to a key, or a single
             client if one is given with -t.  If -S is specified, only
             update the client's status line.

             The -U, -D, -L -R, and -c flags allow the visible portion of a
             window which is larger than the client to be changed.  -U moves
             the visible part up by adjustment rows and -D down, -L left by
             adjustment columns and -R right.  -c returns to tracking the
             cursor automatically.  If adjustment is omitted, 1 is used.
             Note that the visible position is a property of the client not
             of the window, changing the current window in the attached ses‐
             sion will reset it.

             -C sets the width and height of a control client and -F sets a
             comma-separated list of flags.  Currently the only flag avail‐
             able is ‘no-output’ to disable receiving pane output.

             -l requests the clipboard from the client using the xterm(1)
             escape sequence and stores it in a new paste buffer.

             -L, -R, -U and -D move the visible portion of the window left,
             right, up or down by adjustment, if the window is larger than
             the client.  -c resets so that the position follows the cursor.
             See the window-size option.

     rename-session [-t target-session] new-name
                   (alias: rename)
             Rename the session to new-name.

     show-messages [-JT] [-t target-client]
                   (alias: showmsgs)
             Show client messages or server information.  Any messages dis‐
             played on the status line are saved in a per-client message
             log, up to a maximum of the limit set by the message-limit
             server option.  With -t, display the log for target-client.  -J
             and -T show debugging information about jobs and terminals.

     source-file [-nqv] path ...
                   (alias: source)
             Execute commands from one or more files specified by path
             (which may be glob(7) patterns).  If -q is given, no error will
             be returned if path does not exist.  With -n, the file is
             parsed but no commands are executed.  -v shows the parsed com‐
             mands and line numbers if possible.

                   (alias: start)
             Start the tmux server, if not already running, without creating
             any sessions.

     suspend-client [-t target-client]
                   (alias: suspendc)
             Suspend a client by sending SIGTSTP (tty stop).

     switch-client [-ElnprZ] [-c target-client] [-t target-session] [-T
                   (alias: switchc)
             Switch the current session for client target-client to
             target-session.  As a special case, -t may refer to a pane (a
             target that contains ‘:’, ‘.’ or ‘%’), to change session, win‐
             dow and pane.  In that case, -Z keeps the window zoomed if it
             was zoomed.  If -l, -n or -p is used, the client is moved to
             the last, next or previous session respectively.  -r toggles
             whether a client is read-only (see the attach-session command).

             If -E is used, update-environment option will not be applied.

             -T sets the client's key table; the next key from the client
             will be interpreted from key-table.  This may be used to con‐
             figure multiple prefix keys, or to bind commands to sequences
             of keys.  For example, to make typing ‘abc’ run the list-keys

                   bind-key -Ttable2 c list-keys
                   bind-key -Ttable1 b switch-client -Ttable2
                   bind-key -Troot   a switch-client -Ttable1


     Each window displayed by tmux may be split into one or more panes; each
     pane takes up a certain area of the display and is a separate terminal.
     A window may be split into panes using the split-window command.  Win‐
     dows may be split horizontally (with the -h flag) or vertically.  Panes
     may be resized with the resize-pane command (bound to ‘C-Up’, ‘C-Down’
     ‘C-Left’ and ‘C-Right’ by default), the current pane may be changed
     with the select-pane command and the rotate-window and swap-pane com‐
     mands may be used to swap panes without changing their position.  Panes
     are numbered beginning from zero in the order they are created.

     By default, a tmux pane permits direct access to the terminal contained
     in the pane.  A pane may also be put into one of several modes:

           -   Copy mode, which permits a section of a window or its history
               to be copied to a paste buffer for later insertion into
               another window.  This mode is entered with the copy-mode com‐
               mand, bound to ‘[’ by default.

           -   View mode, which is like copy mode but is entered when a com‐
               mand that produces output, such as list-keys, is executed
               from a key binding.

           -   Choose mode, which allows an item to be chosen from a list.
               This may be a client, a session or window or pane, or a buf‐
               fer.  This mode is entered with the choose-buffer,
               choose-client and choose-tree commands.

     In copy mode an indicator is displayed in the top-right corner of the
     pane with the current position and the number of lines in the history.

     Commands are sent to copy mode using the -X flag to the send-keys com‐
     mand.  When a key is pressed, copy mode automatically uses one of two
     key tables, depending on the mode-keys option: copy-mode for emacs, or
     copy-mode-vi for vi.  Key tables may be viewed with the list-keys com‐

     The following commands are supported in copy mode:

           Command                                      vi              emacs
           append-selection-and-cancel                  A
           back-to-indentation                          ^               M-m
           begin-selection                              Space           C-Space
           bottom-line                                  L
           cancel                                       q               Escape
           clear-selection                              Escape          C-g
           copy-end-of-line [<prefix>]                  D               C-k
           copy-line [<prefix>]
           copy-pipe <command> [<prefix>]
           copy-pipe-no-clear <command> [<prefix>]
           copy-pipe-and-cancel <command> [<prefix>]
           copy-selection [<prefix>]
           copy-selection-no-clear [<prefix>]
           copy-selection-and-cancel [<prefix>]         Enter           M-w
           cursor-down                                  j               Down
           cursor-left                                  h               Left
           cursor-right                                 l               Right
           cursor-up                                    k               Up
           end-of-line                                  $               C-e
           goto-line <line>                             :               g
           halfpage-down                                C-d             M-Down
           halfpage-up                                  C-u             M-Up
           history-bottom                               G               M->
           history-top                                  g               M-<
           jump-again                                   ;               ;
           jump-backward <to>                           F               F
           jump-forward <to>                            f               f
           jump-reverse                                 ,               ,
           jump-to-backward <to>                        T
           jump-to-forward <to>                         t
           middle-line                                  M               M-r
           next-matching-bracket                        %               M-C-f
           next-paragraph                               }               M-}
           next-space                                   W
           next-space-end                               E
           next-word                                    w
           next-word-end                                e               M-f
           other-end                                    o
           page-down                                    C-f             PageDown
           page-up                                      C-b             PageUp
           previous-matching-bracket                                    M-C-b
           previous-paragraph                           {               M-{
           previous-space                               B
           previous-word                                b               M-b
           rectangle-toggle                             v               R
           scroll-down                                  C-e             C-Down
           scroll-up                                    C-y             C-Up
           search-again                                 n               n
           search-backward <for>                        ?
           search-forward <for>                         /
           search-backward-incremental <for>                            C-r
           search-forward-incremental <for>                             C-s
           search-reverse                               N               N
           select-line                                  V
           start-of-line                                0               C-a
           top-line                                     H               M-R

     Copy commands may take an optional buffer prefix argument which is used
     to generate the buffer name (the default is ‘buffer’ so buffers are
     named ‘buffer0’, ‘buffer1’ and so on).  Pipe commands take a command
     argument which is the command to which the copied text is piped.  The
     ‘-and-cancel’ variants of some commands exit copy mode after they have
     completed (for copy commands) or when the cursor reaches the bottom
     (for scrolling commands).  ‘-no-clear’ variants do not clear the selec‐

     The next and previous word keys use space and the ‘-’, ‘_’ and ‘@’
     characters as word delimiters by default, but this can be adjusted by
     setting the word-separators session option.  Next word moves to the
     start of the next word, next word end to the end of the next word and
     previous word to the start of the previous word.  The three next and
     previous space keys work similarly but use a space alone as the word

     The jump commands enable quick movement within a line.  For instance,
     typing ‘f’ followed by ‘/’ will move the cursor to the next ‘/’ charac‐
     ter on the current line.  A ‘;’ will then jump to the next occurrence.

     Commands in copy mode may be prefaced by an optional repeat count.
     With vi key bindings, a prefix is entered using the number keys; with
     emacs, the Alt (meta) key and a number begins prefix entry.

     The synopsis for the copy-mode command is:

     copy-mode [-Meu] [-t target-pane]
             Enter copy mode.  The -u option scrolls one page up.  -M begins
             a mouse drag (only valid if bound to a mouse key binding, see
             MOUSE SUPPORT).  -e specifies that scrolling to the bottom of
             the history (to the visible screen) should exit copy mode.
             While in copy mode, pressing a key other than those used for
             scrolling will disable this behaviour.  This is intended to
             allow fast scrolling through a pane's history, for example

                   bind PageUp copy-mode -eu

     A number of preset arrangements of panes are available, these are
     called layouts.  These may be selected with the select-layout command
     or cycled with next-layout (bound to ‘Space’ by default); once a layout
     is chosen, panes within it may be moved and resized as normal.

     The following layouts are supported:

             Panes are spread out evenly from left to right across the win‐

             Panes are spread evenly from top to bottom.

             A large (main) pane is shown at the top of the window and the
             remaining panes are spread from left to right in the leftover
             space at the bottom.  Use the main-pane-height window option to
             specify the height of the top pane.

             Similar to main-horizontal but the large pane is placed on the
             left and the others spread from top to bottom along the right.
             See the main-pane-width window option.

     tiled   Panes are spread out as evenly as possible over the window in
             both rows and columns.

     In addition, select-layout may be used to apply a previously used lay‐
     out - the list-windows command displays the layout of each window in a
     form suitable for use with select-layout.  For example:

           $ tmux list-windows
           0: ksh [159x48]
               layout: bb62,159x48,0,0{79x48,0,0,79x48,80,0}
           $ tmux select-layout bb62,159x48,0,0{79x48,0,0,79x48,80,0}

     tmux automatically adjusts the size of the layout for the current win‐
     dow size.  Note that a layout cannot be applied to a window with more
     panes than that from which the layout was originally defined.

     Commands related to windows and panes are as follows:

     break-pane [-dP] [-F format] [-n window-name] [-s src-pane] [-t
                   (alias: breakp)
             Break src-pane off from its containing window to make it the
             only pane in dst-window.  If -d is given, the new window does
             not become the current window.  The -P option prints informa‐
             tion about the new window after it has been created.  By
             default, it uses the format ‘#{session_name}:#{window_index}’
             but a different format may be specified with -F.

     capture-pane [-aepPqCJN] [-b buffer-name] [-E end-line] [-S start-line]
             [-t target-pane]
                   (alias: capturep)
             Capture the contents of a pane.  If -p is given, the output
             goes to stdout, otherwise to the buffer specified with -b or a
             new buffer if omitted.  If -a is given, the alternate screen is
             used, and the history is not accessible.  If no alternate
             screen exists, an error will be returned unless -q is given.
             If -e is given, the output includes escape sequences for text
             and background attributes.  -C also escapes non-printable char‐
             acters as octal \xxx.  -N preserves trailing spaces at each
             line's end and -J preserves trailing spaces and joins any
             wrapped lines.  -P captures only any output that the pane has
             received that is the beginning of an as-yet incomplete escape

             -S and -E specify the starting and ending line numbers, zero is
             the first line of the visible pane and negative numbers are
             lines in the history.  ‘-’ to -S is the start of the history
             and to -E the end of the visible pane.  The default is to cap‐
             ture only the visible contents of the pane.

     choose-client [-NrZ] [-F format] [-f filter] [-O sort-order] [-t
             target-pane] [template]
             Put a pane into client mode, allowing a client to be selected
             interactively from a list.  -Z zooms the pane.  The following
             keys may be used in client mode:

                   Key    Function
                   Enter  Choose selected client
                   Up     Select previous client
                   Down   Select next client
                   C-s    Search by name
                   n      Repeat last search
                   t      Toggle if client is tagged
                   T      Tag no clients
                   C-t    Tag all clients
                   d      Detach selected client
                   D      Detach tagged clients
                   x      Detach and HUP selected client
                   X      Detach and HUP tagged clients
                   z      Suspend selected client
                   Z      Suspend tagged clients
                   f      Enter a format to filter items
                   O      Change sort field
                   r      Reverse sort order
                   v      Toggle preview
                   q      Exit mode

             After a client is chosen, ‘%%’ is replaced by the client name
             in template and the result executed as a command.  If template
             is not given, "detach-client -t '%%'" is used.

             -O specifies the initial sort field: one of ‘name’, ‘size’,
             ‘creation’, or ‘activity’.  -r reverses the sort order.  -f
             specifies an initial filter: the filter is a format - if it
             evaluates to zero, the item in the list is not shown, otherwise
             it is shown.  If a filter would lead to an empty list, it is
             ignored.  -F specifies the format for each item in the list.
             -N starts without the preview.  This command works only if at
             least one client is attached.

     choose-tree [-GNrswZ] [-F format] [-f filter] [-O sort-order] [-t
             target-pane] [template]
             Put a pane into tree mode, where a session, window or pane may
             be chosen interactively from a list.  -s starts with sessions
             collapsed and -w with windows collapsed.  -Z zooms the pane.
             The following keys may be used in tree mode:

                   Key    Function
                   Enter  Choose selected item
                   Up     Select previous item
                   Down   Select next item
                   x      Kill selected item
                   X      Kill tagged items
                   <      Scroll list of previews left
                   >      Scroll list of previews right
                   C-s    Search by name
                   n      Repeat last search
                   t      Toggle if item is tagged
                   T      Tag no items
                   C-t    Tag all items
                   :      Run a command for each tagged item
                   f      Enter a format to filter items
                   O      Change sort field
                   r      Reverse sort order
                   v      Toggle preview
                   q      Exit mode

             After a session, window or pane is chosen, ‘%%’ is replaced by
             the target in template and the result executed as a command.
             If template is not given, "switch-client -t '%%'" is used.

             -O specifies the initial sort field: one of ‘index’, ‘name’, or
             ‘time’.  -r reverses the sort order.  -f specifies an initial
             filter: the filter is a format - if it evaluates to zero, the
             item in the list is not shown, otherwise it is shown.  If a
             filter would lead to an empty list, it is ignored.  -F speci‐
             fies the format for each item in the tree.  -N starts without
             the preview.  -G includes all sessions in any session groups in
             the tree rather than only the first.  This command works only
             if at least one client is attached.

     display-panes [-b] [-d duration] [-t target-client] [template]
                   (alias: displayp)
             Display a visible indicator of each pane shown by
             target-client.  See the display-panes-colour and
             display-panes-active-colour session options.  The indicator is
             closed when a key is pressed or duration milliseconds have
             passed.  If -d is not given, display-panes-time is used.  A
             duration of zero means the indicator stays until a key is
             pressed.  While the indicator is on screen, a pane may be cho‐
             sen with the ‘0’ to ‘9’ keys, which will cause template to be
             executed as a command with ‘%%’ substituted by the pane ID.
             The default template is "select-pane -t '%%'".  With -b, other
             commands are not blocked from running until the indicator is

     find-window [-rCNTZ] [-t target-pane] match-string
                   (alias: findw)
             Search for a fnmatch(3) pattern or, with -r, regular expression
             match-string in window names, titles, and visible content (but
             not history).  The flags control matching behavior: -C matches
             only visible window contents, -N matches only the window name
             and -T matches only the window title.  The default is -CNT.  -Z
             zooms the pane.

             This command works only if at least one client is attached.

     join-pane [-bdfhv] [-l size] [-s src-pane] [-t dst-pane]
                   (alias: joinp)
             Like split-window, but instead of splitting dst-pane and creat‐
             ing a new pane, split it and move src-pane into the space.
             This can be used to reverse break-pane.  The -b option causes
             src-pane to be joined to left of or above dst-pane.

             If -s is omitted and a marked pane is present (see select-pane
             -m), the marked pane is used rather than the current pane.

     kill-pane [-a] [-t target-pane]
                   (alias: killp)
             Destroy the given pane.  If no panes remain in the containing
             window, it is also destroyed.  The -a option kills all but the
             pane given with -t.

     kill-window [-a] [-t target-window]
                   (alias: killw)
             Kill the current window or the window at target-window, remov‐
             ing it from any sessions to which it is linked.  The -a option
             kills all but the window given with -t.

     last-pane [-deZ] [-t target-window]
                   (alias: lastp)
             Select the last (previously selected) pane.  -Z keeps the win‐
             dow zoomed if it was zoomed.  -e enables or -d disables input
             to the pane.

     last-window [-t target-session]
                   (alias: last)
             Select the last (previously selected) window.  If no
             target-session is specified, select the last window of the cur‐
             rent session.

     link-window [-adk] [-s src-window] [-t dst-window]
                   (alias: linkw)
             Link the window at src-window to the specified dst-window.  If
             dst-window is specified and no such window exists, the
             src-window is linked there.  With -a, the window is moved to
             the next index up (following windows are moved if necessary).
             If -k is given and dst-window exists, it is killed, otherwise
             an error is generated.  If -d is given, the newly linked window
             is not selected.

     list-panes [-as] [-F format] [-t target]
                   (alias: lsp)
             If -a is given, target is ignored and all panes on the server
             are listed.  If -s is given, target is a session (or the cur‐
             rent session).  If neither is given, target is a window (or the
             current window).  For the meaning of the -F flag, see the
             FORMATS section.

     list-windows [-a] [-F format] [-t target-session]
                   (alias: lsw)
             If -a is given, list all windows on the server.  Otherwise,
             list windows in the current session or in target-session.  For
             the meaning of the -F flag, see the FORMATS section.

     move-pane [-bdhv] [-l size] [-s src-pane] [-t dst-pane]
                   (alias: movep)
             Like join-pane, but src-pane and dst-pane may belong to the
             same window.

     move-window [-ardk] [-s src-window] [-t dst-window]
                   (alias: movew)
             This is similar to link-window, except the window at src-window
             is moved to dst-window.  With -r, all windows in the session
             are renumbered in sequential order, respecting the base-index

     new-window [-adkP] [-c start-directory] [-e environment] [-F format]
             [-n window-name] [-t target-window] [shell-command]
                   (alias: neww)
             Create a new window.  With -a, the new window is inserted at
             the next index up from the specified target-window, moving win‐
             dows up if necessary, otherwise target-window is the new window

             If -d is given, the session does not make the new window the
             current window.  target-window represents the window to be cre‐
             ated; if the target already exists an error is shown, unless
             the -k flag is used, in which case it is destroyed.
             shell-command is the command to execute.  If shell-command is
             not specified, the value of the default-command option is used.
             -c specifies the working directory in which the new window is

             When the shell command completes, the window closes.  See the
             remain-on-exit option to change this behaviour.

             -e takes the form ‘VARIABLE=value’ and sets an environment
             variable for the newly created window; it may be specified mul‐
             tiple times.

             The TERM environment variable must be set to ‘screen’ or ‘tmux’
             for all programs running inside tmux.  New windows will auto‐
             matically have ‘TERM=screen’ added to their environment, but
             care must be taken not to reset this in shell start-up files or
             by the -e option.

             The -P option prints information about the new window after it
             has been created.  By default, it uses the format
             ‘#{session_name}:#{window_index}’ but a different format may be
             specified with -F.

     next-layout [-t target-window]
                   (alias: nextl)
             Move a window to the next layout and rearrange the panes to

     next-window [-a] [-t target-session]
                   (alias: next)
             Move to the next window in the session.  If -a is used, move to
             the next window with an alert.

     pipe-pane [-IOo] [-t target-pane] [shell-command]
                   (alias: pipep)
             Pipe output sent by the program in target-pane to a shell com‐
             mand or vice versa.  A pane may only be connected to one com‐
             mand at a time, any existing pipe is closed before
             shell-command is executed.  The shell-command string may con‐
             tain the special character sequences supported by the
             status-left option.  If no shell-command is given, the current
             pipe (if any) is closed.

             -I and -O specify which of the shell-command output streams are
             connected to the pane: with -I stdout is connected (so anything
             shell-command prints is written to the pane as if it were
             typed); with -O stdin is connected (so any output in the pane
             is piped to shell-command).  Both may be used together and if
             neither are specified, -O is used.

             The -o option only opens a new pipe if no previous pipe exists,
             allowing a pipe to be toggled with a single key, for example:

                   bind-key C-p pipe-pane -o 'cat >>~/output.#I-#P'

     previous-layout [-t target-window]
                   (alias: prevl)
             Move to the previous layout in the session.

     previous-window [-a] [-t target-session]
                   (alias: prev)
             Move to the previous window in the session.  With -a, move to
             the previous window with an alert.

     rename-window [-t target-window] new-name
                   (alias: renamew)
             Rename the current window, or the window at target-window if
             specified, to new-name.

     resize-pane [-DLMRUZ] [-t target-pane] [-x width] [-y height]
                   (alias: resizep)
             Resize a pane, up, down, left or right by adjustment with -U,
             -D, -L or -R, or to an absolute size with -x or -y.  The
             adjustment is given in lines or columns (the default is 1); -x
             and -y may be a given as a number of lines or columns or fol‐
             lowed by ‘%’ for a percentage of the window size (for example
             ‘-x 10%’).  With -Z, the active pane is toggled between zoomed
             (occupying the whole of the window) and unzoomed (its normal
             position in the layout).

             -M begins mouse resizing (only valid if bound to a mouse key
             binding, see MOUSE SUPPORT).

     resize-window [-aADLRU] [-t target-window] [-x width] [-y height]
                   (alias: resizew)
             Resize a window, up, down, left or right by adjustment with -U,
             -D, -L or -R, or to an absolute size with -x or -y.  The
             adjustment is given in lines or cells (the default is 1).  -A
             sets the size of the largest session containing the window; -a
             the size of the smallest.  This command will automatically set
             window-size to manual in the window options.

     respawn-pane [-k] [-c start-directory] [-e environment] [-t
             target-pane] [shell-command]
                   (alias: respawnp)
             Reactivate a pane in which the command has exited (see the
             remain-on-exit window option).  If shell-command is not given,
             the command used when the pane was created is executed.  The
             pane must be already inactive, unless -k is given, in which
             case any existing command is killed.  -c specifies a new work‐
             ing directory for the pane.  The -e option has the same meaning
             as for the new-window command.

     respawn-window [-k] [-c start-directory] [-e environment] [-t
             target-window] [shell-command]
                   (alias: respawnw)
             Reactivate a window in which the command has exited (see the
             remain-on-exit window option).  If shell-command is not given,
             the command used when the window was created is executed.  The
             window must be already inactive, unless -k is given, in which
             case any existing command is killed.  -c specifies a new work‐
             ing directory for the window.  The -e option has the same mean‐
             ing as for the new-window command.

     rotate-window [-DUZ] [-t target-window]
                   (alias: rotatew)
             Rotate the positions of the panes within a window, either
             upward (numerically lower) with -U or downward (numerically
             higher).  -Z keeps the window zoomed if it was zoomed.

     select-layout [-Enop] [-t target-pane] [layout-name]
                   (alias: selectl)
             Choose a specific layout for a window.  If layout-name is not
             given, the last preset layout used (if any) is reapplied.  -n
             and -p are equivalent to the next-layout and previous-layout
             commands.  -o applies the last set layout if possible (undoes
             the most recent layout change).  -E spreads the current pane
             and any panes next to it out evenly.

     select-pane [-DdeLlMmRUZ] [-T title] [-t target-pane]
                   (alias: selectp)
             Make pane target-pane the active pane in window target-window.
             If one of -D, -L, -R, or -U is used, respectively the pane
             below, to the left, to the right, or above the target pane is
             used.  -Z keeps the window zoomed if it was zoomed.  -l is the
             same as using the last-pane command.  -e enables or -d disables
             input to the pane.  -T sets the pane title.

             -m and -M are used to set and clear the marked pane.  There is
             one marked pane at a time, setting a new marked pane clears the
             last.  The marked pane is the default target for -s to
             join-pane, swap-pane and swap-window.

     select-window [-lnpT] [-t target-window]
                   (alias: selectw)
             Select the window at target-window.  -l, -n and -p are equiva‐
             lent to the last-window, next-window and previous-window com‐
             mands.  If -T is given and the selected window is already the
             current window, the command behaves like last-window.

     split-window [-bdfhIvP] [-c start-directory] [-e environment] [-l size]
             [-t target-pane] [shell-command] [-F format]
                   (alias: splitw)
             Create a new pane by splitting target-pane: -h does a horizon‐
             tal split and -v a vertical split; if neither is specified, -v
             is assumed.  The -l option specifies the size of the new pane
             in lines (for vertical split) or in columns (for horizontal
             split); size may be followed by ‘%’ to specify a percentage of
             the available space.  The -b option causes the new pane to be
             created to the left of or above target-pane.  The -f option
             creates a new pane spanning the full window height (with -h) or
             full window width (with -v), instead of splitting the active

             An empty shell-command ('') will create a pane with no command
             running in it.  Output can be sent to such a pane with the
             display-message command.  The -I flag (if shell-command is not
             specified or empty) will create an empty pane and forward any
             output from stdin to it.  For example:

                   $ make 2>&1|tmux splitw -dI &

             All other options have the same meaning as for the new-window

     swap-pane [-dDUZ] [-s src-pane] [-t dst-pane]
                   (alias: swapp)
             Swap two panes.  If -U is used and no source pane is specified
             with -s, dst-pane is swapped with the previous pane (before it
             numerically); -D swaps with the next pane (after it numeri‐
             cally).  -d instructs tmux not to change the active pane and -Z
             keeps the window zoomed if it was zoomed.

             If -s is omitted and a marked pane is present (see select-pane
             -m), the marked pane is used rather than the current pane.

     swap-window [-d] [-s src-window] [-t dst-window]
                   (alias: swapw)
             This is similar to link-window, except the source and destina‐
             tion windows are swapped.  It is an error if no window exists
             at src-window.

             Like swap-pane, if -s is omitted and a marked pane is present
             (see select-pane -m), the window containing the marked pane is
             used rather than the current window.

     unlink-window [-k] [-t target-window]
                   (alias: unlinkw)
             Unlink target-window.  Unless -k is given, a window may be
             unlinked only if it is linked to multiple sessions - windows
             may not be linked to no sessions; if -k is specified and the
             window is linked to only one session, it is unlinked and

KEY BINDINGS         top

     tmux allows a command to be bound to most keys, with or without a pre‐
     fix key.  When specifying keys, most represent themselves (for example
     ‘A’ to ‘Z’).  Ctrl keys may be prefixed with ‘C-’ or ‘^’, and Alt
     (meta) with ‘M-’.  In addition, the following special key names are
     accepted: Up, Down, Left, Right, BSpace, BTab, DC (Delete), End, Enter,
     Escape, F1 to F12, Home, IC (Insert), NPage/PageDown/PgDn,
     PPage/PageUp/PgUp, Space, and Tab.  Note that to bind the ‘"’ or ‘'’
     keys, quotation marks are necessary, for example:

           bind-key '"' split-window
           bind-key "'" new-window

     A command bound to the Any key will execute for all keys which do not
     have a more specific binding.

     Commands related to key bindings are as follows:

     bind-key [-nr] [-T key-table] key command [arguments]
                   (alias: bind)
             Bind key key to command.  Keys are bound in a key table.  By
             default (without -T), the key is bound in the prefix key table.
             This table is used for keys pressed after the prefix key (for
             example, by default ‘c’ is bound to new-window in the prefix
             table, so ‘C-b c’ creates a new window).  The root table is
             used for keys pressed without the prefix key: binding ‘c’ to
             new-window in the root table (not recommended) means a plain
             ‘c’ will create a new window.  -n is an alias for -T root.
             Keys may also be bound in custom key tables and the
             switch-client -T command used to switch to them from a key
             binding.  The -r flag indicates this key may repeat, see the
             repeat-time option.

             To view the default bindings and possible commands, see the
             list-keys command.

     list-keys [-T key-table]
                   (alias: lsk)
             List all key bindings.  Without -T all key tables are printed.
             With -T only key-table.

     send-keys [-FHlMRX] [-N repeat-count] [-t target-pane] key ...
                   (alias: send)
             Send a key or keys to a window.  Each argument key is the name
             of the key (such as ‘C-a’ or ‘NPage’) to send; if the string is
             not recognised as a key, it is sent as a series of characters.
             All arguments are sent sequentially from first to last.

             The -l flag disables key name lookup and processes the keys as
             literal UTF-8 characters.  The -H flag expects each key to be a
             hexadecimal number for an ASCII character.

             The -R flag causes the terminal state to be reset.

             -M passes through a mouse event (only valid if bound to a mouse
             key binding, see MOUSE SUPPORT).

             -X is used to send a command into copy mode - see the WINDOWS
             AND PANES section.  -N specifies a repeat count and -F expands
             formats in arguments where appropriate.

     send-prefix [-2] [-t target-pane]
             Send the prefix key, or with -2 the secondary prefix key, to a
             window as if it was pressed.

     unbind-key [-an] [-T key-table] key
                   (alias: unbind)
             Unbind the command bound to key.  -n and -T are the same as for
             bind-key.  If -a is present, all key bindings are removed.

OPTIONS         top

     The appearance and behaviour of tmux may be modified by changing the
     value of various options.  There are four types of option: server
     options, session options window options and pane options.

     The tmux server has a set of global server options which do not apply
     to any particular window or session or pane.  These are altered with
     the set-option -s command, or displayed with the show-options -s com‐

     In addition, each individual session may have a set of session options,
     and there is a separate set of global session options.  Sessions which
     do not have a particular option configured inherit the value from the
     global session options.  Session options are set or unset with the
     set-option command and may be listed with the show-options command.
     The available server and session options are listed under the
     set-option command.

     Similarly, a set of window options is attached to each window and a set
     of pane options to each pane.  Pane options inherit from window
     options.  This means any pane option may be set as a window option to
     apply the option to all panes in the window without the option set, for
     example these commands will set the background colour to red for all
     panes except pane 0:

           set -w window-style bg=red
           set -pt:.0 window-style bg=blue

     There is also a set of global window options from which any unset win‐
     dow or pane options are inherited.  Window and pane options are altered
     with set-option -w and -p commands and displayed with show-option -w
     and -p.

     tmux also supports user options which are prefixed with a ‘@’.  User
     options may have any name, so long as they are prefixed with ‘@’, and
     be set to any string.  For example:

           $ tmux setw -q @foo "abc123"
           $ tmux showw -v @foo

     Commands which set options are as follows:

     set-option [-aFgopqsuw] [-t target-pane] option value
                   (alias: set)
             Set a pane option with -p, a window option with -w, a server
             option with -s, otherwise a session option.  If the option is
             not a user option, -w or -s may be unnecessary - tmux will
             infer the type from the option name, assuming -w for pane
             options.  If -g is given, the global session or window option
             is set.

             -F expands formats in the option value.  The -u flag unsets an
             option, so a session inherits the option from the global
             options (or with -g, restores a global option to the default).

             The -o flag prevents setting an option that is already set and
             the -q flag suppresses errors about unknown or ambiguous

             With -a, and if the option expects a string or a style, value
             is appended to the existing setting.  For example:

                   set -g status-left "foo"
                   set -ag status-left "bar"

             Will result in ‘foobar’.  And:

                   set -g status-style "bg=red"
                   set -ag status-style "fg=blue"

             Will result in a red background and blue foreground.  Without
             -a, the result would be the default background and a blue fore‐

     show-options [-AgHpqsvw] [-t target-pane] [option]
                   (alias: show)
             Show the pane options (or a single option if option is pro‐
             vided) with -p, the window options with -w, the server options
             with -s, otherwise the session options.  If the option is not a
             user option, -w or -s may be unnecessary - tmux will infer the
             type from the option name, assuming -w for pane options.
             Global session or window options are listed if -g is used.  -v
             shows only the option value, not the name.  If -q is set, no
             error will be returned if option is unset.  -H includes hooks
             (omitted by default).  -A includes options inherited from a
             parent set of options, such options are marked with an aster‐
             isk.  value depends on the option and may be a number, a
             string, or a flag (on, off, or omitted to toggle).

     Available server options are:

     backspace key
             Set the key sent by tmux for backspace.

     buffer-limit number
             Set the number of buffers; as new buffers are added to the top
             of the stack, old ones are removed from the bottom if necessary
             to maintain this maximum length.

     command-alias[] name=value
             This is an array of custom aliases for commands.  If an unknown
             command matches name, it is replaced with value.  For example,

                   set -s command-alias[100] zoom='resize-pane -Z'


                   zoom -t:.1

             Is equivalent to:

                   resize-pane -Z -t:.1

             Note that aliases are expanded when a command is parsed rather
             than when it is executed, so binding an alias with bind-key
             will bind the expanded form.

     default-terminal terminal
             Set the default terminal for new windows created in this ses‐
             sion - the default value of the TERM environment variable.  For
             tmux to work correctly, this must be set to ‘screen’, ‘tmux’ or
             a derivative of them.

     escape-time time
             Set the time in milliseconds for which tmux waits after an
             escape is input to determine if it is part of a function or
             meta key sequences.  The default is 500 milliseconds.

     exit-empty [on | off]
             If enabled (the default), the server will exit when there are
             no active sessions.

     exit-unattached [on | off]
             If enabled, the server will exit when there are no attached

     focus-events [on | off]
             When enabled, focus events are requested from the terminal if
             supported and passed through to applications running in tmux.
             Attached clients should be detached and attached again after
             changing this option.

     history-file path
             If not empty, a file to which tmux will write command prompt
             history on exit and load it from on start.

     message-limit number
             Set the number of error or information messages to save in the
             message log for each client.  The default is 100.

     set-clipboard [on | external | off]
             Attempt to set the terminal clipboard content using the
             xterm(1) escape sequence, if there is an Ms entry in the
             terminfo(5) description (see the TERMINFO EXTENSIONS section).

             If set to on, tmux will both accept the escape sequence to cre‐
             ate a buffer and attempt to set the terminal clipboard.  If set
             to external, tmux will attempt to set the terminal clipboard
             but ignore attempts by applications to set tmux buffers.  If
             off, tmux will neither accept the clipboard escape sequence nor
             attempt to set the clipboard.

             Note that this feature needs to be enabled in xterm(1) by set‐
             ting the resource:

                   disallowedWindowOps: 20,21,SetXprop

             Or changing this property from the xterm(1) interactive menu
             when required.

     terminal-overrides[] string
             Allow terminal descriptions read using terminfo(5) to be over‐
             ridden.  Each entry is a colon-separated string made up of a
             terminal type pattern (matched using fnmatch(3)) and a set of
             name=value entries.

             For example, to set the ‘clear’ terminfo(5) entry to
             ‘\e[H\e[2J’ for all terminal types matching ‘rxvt*’:


             The terminal entry value is passed through strunvis(3) before

     user-keys[] key
             Set list of user-defined key escape sequences.  Each item is
             associated with a key named ‘User0’, ‘User1’, and so on.

             For example:

                   set -s user-keys[0] "\e[5;30012~"
                   bind User0 resize-pane -L 3

     Available session options are:

     activity-action [any | none | current | other]
             Set action on window activity when monitor-activity is on.  any
             means activity in any window linked to a session causes a bell
             or message (depending on visual-activity) in the current window
             of that session, none means all activity is ignored (equivalent
             to monitor-activity being off), current means only activity in
             windows other than the current window are ignored and other
             means activity in the current window is ignored but not those
             in other windows.

     assume-paste-time milliseconds
             If keys are entered faster than one in milliseconds, they are
             assumed to have been pasted rather than typed and tmux key
             bindings are not processed.  The default is one millisecond and
             zero disables.

     base-index index
             Set the base index from which an unused index should be
             searched when a new window is created.  The default is zero.

     bell-action [any | none | current | other]
             Set action on a bell in a window when monitor-bell is on.  The
             values are the same as those for activity-action.

     default-command shell-command
             Set the command used for new windows (if not specified when the
             window is created) to shell-command, which may be any sh(1)
             command.  The default is an empty string, which instructs tmux
             to create a login shell using the value of the default-shell

     default-shell path
             Specify the default shell.  This is used as the login shell for
             new windows when the default-command option is set to empty,
             and must be the full path of the executable.  When started tmux
             tries to set a default value from the first suitable of the
             SHELL environment variable, the shell returned by getpwuid(3),
             or /bin/sh.  This option should be configured when tmux is used
             as a login shell.

     default-size XxY
             Set the default size of new windows when the window-size option
             is set to manual or when a session is created with new-session
             -d.  The value is the width and height separated by an ‘x’
             character.  The default is 80x24.

     destroy-unattached [on | off]
             If enabled and the session is no longer attached to any
             clients, it is destroyed.

     detach-on-destroy [on | off]
             If on (the default), the client is detached when the session it
             is attached to is destroyed.  If off, the client is switched to
             the most recently active of the remaining sessions.

     display-panes-active-colour colour
             Set the colour used by the display-panes command to show the
             indicator for the active pane.

     display-panes-colour colour
             Set the colour used by the display-panes command to show the
             indicators for inactive panes.

     display-panes-time time
             Set the time in milliseconds for which the indicators shown by
             the display-panes command appear.

     display-time time
             Set the amount of time for which status line messages and other
             on-screen indicators are displayed.  If set to 0, messages and
             indicators are displayed until a key is pressed.  time is in

     history-limit lines
             Set the maximum number of lines held in window history.  This
             setting applies only to new windows - existing window histories
             are not resized and retain the limit at the point they were

     key-table key-table
             Set the default key table to key-table instead of root.

     lock-after-time number
             Lock the session (like the lock-session command) after number
             seconds of inactivity.  The default is not to lock (set to 0).

     lock-command shell-command
             Command to run when locking each client.  The default is to run
             lock(1) with -np.

     message-command-style style
             Set status line message command style.  For how to specify
             style, see the STYLES section.

     message-style style
             Set status line message style.  For how to specify style, see
             the STYLES section.

     mouse [on | off]
             If on, tmux captures the mouse and allows mouse events to be
             bound as key bindings.  See the MOUSE SUPPORT section for

     prefix key
             Set the key accepted as a prefix key.  In addition to the stan‐
             dard keys described under KEY BINDINGS, prefix can be set to
             the special key ‘None’ to set no prefix.

     prefix2 key
             Set a secondary key accepted as a prefix key.  Like prefix,
             prefix2 can be set to ‘None’.

     renumber-windows [on | off]
             If on, when a window is closed in a session, automatically
             renumber the other windows in numerical order.  This respects
             the base-index option if it has been set.  If off, do not
             renumber the windows.

     repeat-time time
             Allow multiple commands to be entered without pressing the pre‐
             fix-key again in the specified time milliseconds (the default
             is 500).  Whether a key repeats may be set when it is bound
             using the -r flag to bind-key.  Repeat is enabled for the
             default keys bound to the resize-pane command.

     set-titles [on | off]
             Attempt to set the client terminal title using the tsl and fsl
             terminfo(5) entries if they exist.  tmux automatically sets
             these to the \e]0;...\007 sequence if the terminal appears to
             be xterm(1).  This option is off by default.

     set-titles-string string
             String used to set the client terminal title if set-titles is
             on.  Formats are expanded, see the FORMATS section.

     silence-action [any | none | current | other]
             Set action on window silence when monitor-silence is on.  The
             values are the same as those for activity-action.

     status [off | on | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5]
             Show or hide the status line or specify its size.  Using on
             gives a status line one row in height; 2, 3, 4 or 5 more rows.

     status-format[] format
             Specify the format to be used for each line of the status line.
             The default builds the top status line from the various indi‐
             vidual status options below.

     status-interval interval
             Update the status line every interval seconds.  By default,
             updates will occur every 15 seconds.  A setting of zero dis‐
             ables redrawing at interval.

     status-justify [left | centre | right]
             Set the position of the window list component of the status
             line: left, centre or right justified.

     status-keys [vi | emacs]
             Use vi or emacs-style key bindings in the status line, for
             example at the command prompt.  The default is emacs, unless
             the VISUAL or EDITOR environment variables are set and contain
             the string ‘vi’.

     status-left string
             Display string (by default the session name) to the left of the
             status line.  string will be passed through strftime(3).  Also
             see the FORMATS and STYLES sections.

             For details on how the names and titles can be set see the
             NAMES AND TITLES section.

             Examples are:

                   #(sysctl vm.loadavg)
                   #[fg=yellow,bold]#(apm -l)%%#[default] [#S]

             The default is ‘[#S] ’.

     status-left-length length
             Set the maximum length of the left component of the status
             line.  The default is 10.

     status-left-style style
             Set the style of the left part of the status line.  For how to
             specify style, see the STYLES section.

     status-position [top | bottom]
             Set the position of the status line.

     status-right string
             Display string to the right of the status line.  By default,
             the current pane title in double quotes, the date and the time
             are shown.  As with status-left, string will be passed to
             strftime(3) and character pairs are replaced.

     status-right-length length
             Set the maximum length of the right component of the status
             line.  The default is 40.

     status-right-style style
             Set the style of the right part of the status line.  For how to
             specify style, see the STYLES section.

     status-style style
             Set status line style.  For how to specify style, see the
             STYLES section.

     update-environment[] variable
             Set list of environment variables to be copied into the session
             environment when a new session is created or an existing ses‐
             sion is attached.  Any variables that do not exist in the
             source environment are set to be removed from the session envi‐
             ronment (as if -r was given to the set-environment command).

     visual-activity [on | off | both]
             If on, display a message instead of sending a bell when activ‐
             ity occurs in a window for which the monitor-activity window
             option is enabled.  If set to both, a bell and a message are

     visual-bell [on | off | both]
             If on, a message is shown on a bell in a window for which the
             monitor-bell window option is enabled instead of it being
             passed through to the terminal (which normally makes a sound).
             If set to both, a bell and a message are produced.  Also see
             the bell-action option.

     visual-silence [on | off | both]
             If monitor-silence is enabled, prints a message after the
             interval has expired on a given window instead of sending a
             bell.  If set to both, a bell and a message are produced.

     word-separators string
             Sets the session's conception of what characters are considered
             word separators, for the purposes of the next and previous word
             commands in copy mode.  The default is ‘ -_@’.

     Available window options are:

     aggressive-resize [on | off]
             Aggressively resize the chosen window.  This means that tmux
             will resize the window to the size of the smallest or largest
             session (see the window-size option) for which it is the cur‐
             rent window, rather than the session to which it is attached.
             The window may resize when the current window is changed on
             another session; this option is good for full-screen programs
             which support SIGWINCH and poor for interactive programs such
             as shells.

     automatic-rename [on | off]
             Control automatic window renaming.  When this setting is
             enabled, tmux will rename the window automatically using the
             format specified by automatic-rename-format.  This flag is
             automatically disabled for an individual window when a name is
             specified at creation with new-window or new-session, or later
             with rename-window, or with a terminal escape sequence.  It may
             be switched off globally with:

                   set-option -wg automatic-rename off

     automatic-rename-format format
             The format (see FORMATS) used when the automatic-rename option
             is enabled.

     clock-mode-colour colour
             Set clock colour.

     clock-mode-style [12 | 24]
             Set clock hour format.

     main-pane-height height
     main-pane-width width
             Set the width or height of the main (left or top) pane in the
             main-horizontal or main-vertical layouts.

     mode-keys [vi | emacs]
             Use vi or emacs-style key bindings in copy mode.  The default
             is emacs, unless VISUAL or EDITOR contains ‘vi’.

     mode-style style
             Set window modes style.  For how to specify style, see the
             STYLES section.

     monitor-activity [on | off]
             Monitor for activity in the window.  Windows with activity are
             highlighted in the status line.

     monitor-bell [on | off]
             Monitor for a bell in the window.  Windows with a bell are
             highlighted in the status line.

     monitor-silence [interval]
             Monitor for silence (no activity) in the window within interval
             seconds.  Windows that have been silent for the interval are
             highlighted in the status line.  An interval of zero disables
             the monitoring.

     other-pane-height height
             Set the height of the other panes (not the main pane) in the
             main-horizontal layout.  If this option is set to 0 (the
             default), it will have no effect.  If both the main-pane-height
             and other-pane-height options are set, the main pane will grow
             taller to make the other panes the specified height, but will
             never shrink to do so.

     other-pane-width width
             Like other-pane-height, but set the width of other panes in the
             main-vertical layout.

     pane-active-border-style style
             Set the pane border style for the currently active pane.  For
             how to specify style, see the STYLES section.  Attributes are

     pane-base-index index
             Like base-index, but set the starting index for pane numbers.

     pane-border-format format
             Set the text shown in pane border status lines.

     pane-border-status [off | top | bottom]
             Turn pane border status lines off or set their position.

     pane-border-style style
             Set the pane border style for panes aside from the active pane.
             For how to specify style, see the STYLES section.  Attributes
             are ignored.

     synchronize-panes [on | off]
             Duplicate input to any pane to all other panes in the same win‐
             dow (only for panes that are not in any special mode).

     window-status-activity-style style
             Set status line style for windows with an activity alert.  For
             how to specify style, see the STYLES section.

     window-status-bell-style style
             Set status line style for windows with a bell alert.  For how
             to specify style, see the STYLES section.

     window-status-current-format string
             Like window-status-format, but is the format used when the win‐
             dow is the current window.

     window-status-current-style style
             Set status line style for the currently active window.  For how
             to specify style, see the STYLES section.

     window-status-format string
             Set the format in which the window is displayed in the status
             line window list.  See the FORMATS and STYLES sections.

     window-status-last-style style
             Set status line style for the last active window.  For how to
             specify style, see the STYLES section.

     window-status-separator string
             Sets the separator drawn between windows in the status line.
             The default is a single space character.

     window-status-style style
             Set status line style for a single window.  For how to specify
             style, see the STYLES section.

     window-size largest | smallest | manual | latest
             Configure how tmux determines the window size.  If set to
             largest, the size of the largest attached session is used; if
             smallest, the size of the smallest.  If manual, the size of a
             new window is set from the default-size option and windows are
             resized automatically.  With latest, tmux uses the size of the
             client that had the most recent activity.  See also the
             resize-window command and the aggressive-resize option.

     wrap-search [on | off]
             If this option is set, searches will wrap around the end of the
             pane contents.  The default is on.

     xterm-keys [on | off]
             If this option is set, tmux will generate xterm(1) -style func‐
             tion key sequences; these have a number included to indicate
             modifiers such as Shift, Alt or Ctrl.

     Available pane options are:

     allow-rename [on | off]
             Allow programs in the pane to change the window name using a
             terminal escape sequence (\ek...\e\\).

     alternate-screen [on | off]
             This option configures whether programs running inside the pane
             may use the terminal alternate screen feature, which allows the
             smcup and rmcup terminfo(5) capabilities.  The alternate screen
             feature preserves the contents of the window when an interac‐
             tive application starts and restores it on exit, so that any
             output visible before the application starts reappears
             unchanged after it exits.

     remain-on-exit [on | off]
             A pane with this flag set is not destroyed when the program
             running in it exits.  The pane may be reactivated with the
             respawn-pane command.

     window-active-style style
             Set the pane style when it is the active pane.  For how to
             specify style, see the STYLES section.

     window-style style
             Set the pane style.  For how to specify style, see the STYLES

HOOKS         top

     tmux allows commands to run on various triggers, called hooks.  Most
     tmux commands have an after hook and there are a number of hooks not
     associated with commands.

     Hooks are stored as array options, members of the array are executed in
     order when the hook is triggered.  Hooks may be configured with the
     set-hook or set-option commands and displayed with show-hooks or
     show-options -H.  The following two commands are equivalent:

            set-hook -g pane-mode-changed[42] 'set -g status-left-style bg=red'
            set-option -g pane-mode-changed[42] 'set -g status-left-style bg=red'

     Setting a hook without specifying an array index clears the hook and
     sets the first member of the array.

     A command's after hook is run after it completes, except when the com‐
     mand is run as part of a hook itself.  They are named with an ‘after-’
     prefix.  For example, the following command adds a hook to select the
     even-vertical layout after every split-window:

           set-hook -g after-split-window "selectl even-vertical"

     All the notifications listed in the CONTROL MODE section are hooks
     (without any arguments), except %exit.  The following additional hooks
     are available:

     alert-activity          Run when a window has activity.  See

     alert-bell              Run when a window has received a bell.  See

     alert-silence           Run when a window has been silent.  See

     client-attached         Run when a client is attached.

     client-detached         Run when a client is detached

     client-resized          Run when a client is resized.

     client-session-changed  Run when a client's attached session is

     pane-died               Run when the program running in a pane exits,
                             but remain-on-exit is on so the pane has not

     pane-exited             Run when the program running in a pane exits.

     pane-focus-in           Run when the focus enters a pane, if the
                             focus-events option is on.

     pane-focus-out          Run when the focus exits a pane, if the
                             focus-events option is on.

     pane-set-clipboard      Run when the terminal clipboard is set using
                             the xterm(1) escape sequence.

     session-created         Run when a new session created.

     session-closed          Run when a session closed.

     session-renamed         Run when a session is renamed.

     window-linked           Run when a window is linked into a session.

     window-renamed          Run when a window is renamed.

     window-unlinked         Run when a window is unlinked from a session.

     Hooks are managed with these commands:

     set-hook [-agRu] [-t target-session] hook-name command
             Without -R, sets (or with -u unsets) hook hook-name to command.
             If -g is given, hook-name is added to the global list of hooks,
             otherwise it is added to the session hooks (for target-session
             with -t).  -a appends to a hook.  Like options, session hooks
             inherit from the global ones.

             With -R, run hook-name immediately.

     show-hooks [-g] [-t target-session]
             Shows the global list of hooks with -g, otherwise the session

MOUSE SUPPORT         top

     If the mouse option is on (the default is off), tmux allows mouse
     events to be bound as keys.  The name of each key is made up of a mouse
     event (such as ‘MouseUp1’) and a location suffix, one of the following:

           Pane             the contents of a pane
           Border           a pane border
           Status           the status line window list
           StatusLeft       the left part of the status line
           StatusRight      the right part of the status line
           StatusDefault    any other part of the status line

     The following mouse events are available:

           WheelUp       WheelDown
           MouseDown1    MouseUp1      MouseDrag1   MouseDragEnd1
           MouseDown2    MouseUp2      MouseDrag2   MouseDragEnd2
           MouseDown3    MouseUp3      MouseDrag3   MouseDragEnd3
           DoubleClick1  DoubleClick2  DoubleClick3
           TripleClick1  TripleClick2  TripleClick3

     Each should be suffixed with a location, for example

     The special token ‘{mouse}’ or ‘=’ may be used as target-window or
     target-pane in commands bound to mouse key bindings.  It resolves to
     the window or pane over which the mouse event took place (for example,
     the window in the status line over which button 1 was released for a
     ‘MouseUp1Status’ binding, or the pane over which the wheel was scrolled
     for a ‘WheelDownPane’ binding).

     The send-keys -M flag may be used to forward a mouse event to a pane.

     The default key bindings allow the mouse to be used to select and
     resize panes, to copy text and to change window using the status line.
     These take effect if the mouse option is turned on.

FORMATS         top

     Certain commands accept the -F flag with a format argument.  This is a
     string which controls the output format of the command.  Format vari‐
     ables are enclosed in ‘#{’ and ‘}’, for example ‘#{session_name}’.  The
     possible variables are listed in the table below, or the name of a tmux
     option may be used for an option's value.  Some variables have a
     shorter alias such as ‘#S’; ‘##’ is replaced by a single ‘#’, ‘#,’ by a
     ‘,’ and ‘#}’ by a ‘}’.

     Conditionals are available by prefixing with ‘?’ and separating two
     alternatives with a comma; if the specified variable exists and is not
     zero, the first alternative is chosen, otherwise the second is used.
     For example ‘#{?session_attached,attached,not attached}’ will include
     the string ‘attached’ if the session is attached and the string ‘not
     attached’ if it is unattached, or ‘#{?automatic-rename,yes,no}’ will
     include ‘yes’ if automatic-rename is enabled, or ‘no’ if not.  Condi‐
     tionals can be nested arbitrarily.  Inside a conditional, ‘,’ and ‘}’
     must be escaped as ‘#,’ and ‘#}’, unless they are part of a ‘#{...}’
     replacement.  For example:

           #{?pane_in_mode,#[fg=white#,bg=red],#[fg=red#,bg=white]}#W .

     String comparisons may be expressed by prefixing two comma-separated
     alternatives by ‘==’, ‘!=’, ‘<’, ‘>’, ‘<=’ or ‘>=’ and a colon.  For
     example ‘#{==:#{host},myhost}’ will be replaced by ‘1’ if running on
     ‘myhost’, otherwise by ‘0’.  ‘||’ and ‘&&’ evaluate to true if either
     or both of two comma-separated alternatives are true, for example

     An ‘m’ specifies an fnmatch(3) or regular expression comparison.  The
     first argument is the pattern and the second the string to compare.  An
     optional third argument specifies flags: ‘r’ means the pattern is a
     regular expression instead of the default fnmatch(3) pattern, and ‘i’
     means to ignore case.  For example: ‘#{m:*foo*,#{host}}’ or
     ‘#{m/ri:^A,MYVAR}’.  A ‘C’ performs a search for an fnmatch(3) pattern
     or regular expression in the pane content and evaluates to zero if not
     found, or a line number if found.  Like ‘m’, an ‘r’ flag means search
     for a regular expression and ‘i’ ignores case.  For example:

     A limit may be placed on the length of the resultant string by prefix‐
     ing it by an ‘=’, a number and a colon.  Positive numbers count from
     the start of the string and negative from the end, so
     ‘#{=5:pane_title}’ will include at most the first five characters of
     the pane title, or ‘#{=-5:pane_title}’ the last five characters.  A
     suffix or prefix may be given as a second argument - if provided then
     it is appended or prepended to the string if the length has been
     trimmed, for example ‘#{=/5/...:pane_title}’ will append ‘...’ if the
     pane title is more than five characters.

     Prefixing a time variable with ‘t:’ will convert it to a string, so if
     ‘#{window_activity}’ gives ‘1445765102’, ‘#{t:window_activity}’ gives
     ‘Sun Oct 25 09:25:02 2015’.  The ‘b:’ and ‘d:’ prefixes are basename(3)
     and dirname(3) of the variable respectively.  ‘q:’ will escape sh(1)
     special characters.  ‘E:’ will expand the format twice, for example
     ‘#{E:status-left}’ is the result of expanding the content of the
     status-left option rather than the option itself.  ‘T:’ is like ‘E:’
     but also expands strftime(3) specifiers.  ‘S:’, ‘W:’ or ‘P:’ will loop
     over each session, window or pane and insert the format once for each.
     For windows and panes, two comma-separated formats may be given: the
     second is used for the current window or active pane.  For example, to
     get a list of windows formatted like the status line:

           #{W:#{E:window-status-format} ,#{E:window-status-current-format} }

     A prefix of the form ‘s/foo/bar/:’ will substitute ‘foo’ with ‘bar’
     throughout.  The first argument may be an extended regular expression
     and a final argument may be ‘i’ to ignore case, for example
     ‘s/a(.)/\1x/i:’ would change ‘abABab’ into ‘bxBxbx’.

     In addition, the last line of a shell command's output may be inserted
     using ‘#()’.  For example, ‘#(uptime)’ will insert the system's uptime.
     When constructing formats, tmux does not wait for ‘#()’ commands to
     finish; instead, the previous result from running the same command is
     used, or a placeholder if the command has not been run before.  If the
     command hasn't exited, the most recent line of output will be used, but
     the status line will not be updated more than once a second.  Commands
     are executed with the tmux global environment set (see the GLOBAL AND

     An ‘l’ specifies that a string should be interpreted literally and not
     expanded.  For example ‘#{l:#{?pane_in_mode,yes,no}}’ will be replaced
     by ‘#{?pane_in_mode,yes,no}’.

     The following variables are available, where appropriate:

     Variable name          Alias    Replaced with
     alternate_on                    1 if pane is in alternate screen
     alternate_saved_x               Saved cursor X in alternate screen
     alternate_saved_y               Saved cursor Y in alternate screen
     buffer_created                  Time buffer created
     buffer_name                     Name of buffer
     buffer_sample                   Sample of start of buffer
     buffer_size                     Size of the specified buffer in bytes
     client_activity                 Time client last had activity
     client_control_mode             1 if client is in control mode
     client_created                  Time client created
     client_discarded                Bytes discarded when client behind
     client_height                   Height of client
     client_key_table                Current key table
     client_last_session             Name of the client's last session
     client_name                     Name of client
     client_pid                      PID of client process
     client_prefix                   1 if prefix key has been pressed
     client_readonly                 1 if client is readonly
     client_session                  Name of the client's session
     client_termname                 Terminal name of client
     client_termtype                 Terminal type of client
     client_tty                      Pseudo terminal of client
     client_utf8                     1 if client supports utf8
     client_width                    Width of client
     client_written                  Bytes written to client
     command                         Name of command in use, if any
     command_list_alias              Command alias if listing commands
     command_list_name               Command name if listing commands
     command_list_usage              Command usage if listing commands
     copy_cursor_line                Line the cursor is on in copy mode
     copy_cursor_word                Word under cursor in copy mode
     copy_cursor_x                   Cursor X position in copy mode
     copy_cursor_y                   Cursor Y position in copy mode
     cursor_character                Character at cursor in pane
     cursor_flag                     Pane cursor flag
     cursor_x                        Cursor X position in pane
     cursor_y                        Cursor Y position in pane
     history_bytes                   Number of bytes in window history
     history_limit                   Maximum window history lines
     history_size                    Size of history in lines
     hook                            Name of running hook, if any
     hook_pane                       ID of pane where hook was run, if any
     hook_session                    ID of session where hook was run, if
     hook_session_name               Name of session where hook was run, if
     hook_window                     ID of window where hook was run, if any
     hook_window_name                Name of window where hook was run, if
     host                   #H       Hostname of local host
     host_short             #h       Hostname of local host (no domain name)
     insert_flag                     Pane insert flag
     keypad_cursor_flag              Pane keypad cursor flag
     keypad_flag                     Pane keypad flag
     line                            Line number in the list
     mouse_all_flag                  Pane mouse all flag
     mouse_any_flag                  Pane mouse any flag
     mouse_button_flag               Pane mouse button flag
     mouse_line                      Line under mouse, if any
     mouse_sgr_flag                  Pane mouse SGR flag
     mouse_standard_flag             Pane mouse standard flag
     mouse_utf8_flag                 Pane mouse UTF-8 flag
     mouse_word                      Word under mouse, if any
     mouse_x                         Mouse X position, if any
     mouse_y                         Mouse Y position, if any
     origin_flag                     Pane origin flag
     pane_active                     1 if active pane
     pane_at_bottom                  1 if pane is at the bottom of window
     pane_at_left                    1 if pane is at the left of window
     pane_at_right                   1 if pane is at the right of window
     pane_at_top                     1 if pane is at the top of window
     pane_bottom                     Bottom of pane
     pane_current_command            Current command if available
     pane_current_path               Current path if available
     pane_dead                       1 if pane is dead
     pane_dead_status                Exit status of process in dead pane
     pane_format                     1 if format is for a pane
     pane_height                     Height of pane
     pane_id                #D       Unique pane ID
     pane_in_mode                    1 if pane is in a mode
     pane_index             #P       Index of pane
     pane_input_off                  1 if input to pane is disabled
     pane_left                       Left of pane
     pane_marked                     1 if this is the marked pane
     pane_marked_set                 1 if a marked pane is set
     pane_mode                       Name of pane mode, if any
     pane_path              #T       Path of pane (can be set by
     pane_pid                        PID of first process in pane
     pane_pipe                       1 if pane is being piped
     pane_right                      Right of pane
     pane_search_string              Last search string in copy mode
     pane_start_command              Command pane started with
     pane_synchronized               1 if pane is synchronized
     pane_tabs                       Pane tab positions
     pane_title             #T       Title of pane (can be set by
     pane_top                        Top of pane
     pane_tty                        Pseudo terminal of pane
     pane_width                      Width of pane
     pid                             Server PID
     rectangle_toggle                1 if rectangle selection is activated
     scroll_position                 Scroll position in copy mode
     scroll_region_lower             Bottom of scroll region in pane
     scroll_region_upper             Top of scroll region in pane
     selection_end_x                 X position of the end of the selection
     selection_end_y                 Y position of the end of the selection
     selection_present               1 if selection started in copy mode
     selection_start_x               X position of the start of the
     selection_start_y               Y position of the start of the
     session_activity                Time of session last activity
     session_alerts                  List of window indexes with alerts
     session_attached                Number of clients session is attached
     session_created                 Time session created
     session_format                  1 if format is for a session
     session_group                   Name of session group
     session_group_list              List of sessions in group
     session_group_size              Size of session group
     session_grouped                 1 if session in a group
     session_id                      Unique session ID
     session_last_attached           Time session last attached
     session_many_attached           1 if multiple clients attached
     session_name           #S       Name of session
     session_stack                   Window indexes in most recent order
     session_windows                 Number of windows in session
     socket_path                     Server socket path
     start_time                      Server start time
     version                         Server version
     window_active                   1 if window active
     window_activity                 Time of window last activity
     window_activity_flag            1 if window has activity
     window_bell_flag                1 if window has bell
     window_bigger                   1 if window is larger than client
     window_end_flag                 1 if window has the highest index
     window_flags           #F       Window flags
     window_format                   1 if format is for a window
     window_height                   Height of window
     window_id                       Unique window ID
     window_index           #I       Index of window
     window_last_flag                1 if window is the last used
     window_layout                   Window layout description, ignoring
                                     zoomed window panes
     window_linked                   1 if window is linked across sessions
     window_marked_flag              1 if window contains the marked pane
     window_name            #W       Name of window
     window_offset_x                 X offset into window if larger than
     window_offset_y                 Y offset into window if larger than
     window_panes                    Number of panes in window
     window_silence_flag             1 if window has silence alert
     window_stack_index              Index in session most recent stack
     window_start_flag               1 if window has the lowest index
     window_visible_layout           Window layout description, respecting
                                     zoomed window panes
     window_width                    Width of window
     window_zoomed_flag              1 if window is zoomed
     wrap_flag                       Pane wrap flag

STYLES         top

     tmux offers various options to specify the colour and attributes of
     aspects of the interface, for example status-style for the status line.
     In addition, embedded styles may be specified in format options, such
     as status-left-format, by enclosing them in ‘#[’ and ‘]’.

     A style may be the single term ‘default’ to specify the default style
     (which may come from an option, for example status-style in the status
     line) or a space or comma separated list of the following:

             Set the foreground colour.  The colour is one of: black, red,
             green, yellow, blue, magenta, cyan, white; if supported the
             bright variants brightred, brightgreen, brightyellow; colour0
             to colour255 from the 256-colour set; default for the default
             colour; terminal for the terminal default colour; or a hexadec‐
             imal RGB string such as ‘#ffffff’.

             Set the background colour.

     none    Set no attributes (turn off any active attributes).

     bright (or bold), dim, underscore, blink, reverse, hidden, italics,
             overline, strikethrough, double-underscore, curly-underscore,
             dotted-underscore, dashed-underscore
             Set an attribute.  Any of the attributes may be prefixed with
             ‘no’ to unset.

     align=left (or noalign), align=centre, align=right
             Align text to the left, centre or right of the available space
             if appropriate.

             Fill the available space with a background colour if appropri‐

     list=on, list=focus, list=left-marker, list=right-marker, nolist
             Mark the position of the various window list components in the
             status-format option: list=on marks the start of the list;
             list=focus is the part of the list that should be kept in focus
             if the entire list won't fit in the available space (typically
             the current window); list=left-marker and list=right-marker
             mark the text to be used to mark that text has been trimmed
             from the left or right of the list if there is not enough

     push-default, pop-default
             Store the current colours and attributes as the default or
             reset to the previous default.  A push-default affects any sub‐
             sequent use of the default term until a pop-default.  Only one
             default may be pushed (each push-default replaces the previous
             saved default).

     range=left, range=right, range=window|X, norange
             Mark a range in the status-format option.  range=left and
             range=right are the text used for the ‘StatusLeft’ and
             ‘StatusRight’ mouse keys.  range=window|X is the range for a
             window passed to the ‘Status’ mouse key, where ‘X’ is a window

     Examples are:

           fg=yellow bold underscore blink

NAMES AND TITLES         top

     tmux distinguishes between names and titles.  Windows and sessions have
     names, which may be used to specify them in targets and are displayed
     in the status line and various lists: the name is the tmux identifier
     for a window or session.  Only panes have titles.  A pane's title is
     typically set by the program running inside the pane using an escape
     sequence (like it would set the xterm(1) window title in X(7)).  Win‐
     dows themselves do not have titles - a window's title is the title of
     its active pane.  tmux itself may set the title of the terminal in
     which the client is running, see the set-titles option.

     A session's name is set with the new-session and rename-session com‐
     mands.  A window's name is set with one of:

     1.      A command argument (such as -n for new-window or new-session).

     2.      An escape sequence (if the allow-rename option is turned on):

                   $ printf '\033kWINDOW_NAME\033\\'

     3.      Automatic renaming, which sets the name to the active command
             in the window's active pane.  See the automatic-rename option.

     When a pane is first created, its title is the hostname.  A pane's
     title can be set via the title setting escape sequence, for example:

           $ printf '\033]2;My Title\033\\'

     It can also be modified with the select-pane -T command.


     When the server is started, tmux copies the environment into the global
     environment; in addition, each session has a session environment.  When
     a window is created, the session and global environments are merged.
     If a variable exists in both, the value from the session environment is
     used.  The result is the initial environment passed to the new process.

     The update-environment session option may be used to update the session
     environment from the client when a new session is created or an old
     reattached.  tmux also initialises the TMUX variable with some internal
     information to allow commands to be executed from inside, and the TERM
     variable with the correct terminal setting of ‘screen’.

     Commands to alter and view the environment are:

     set-environment [-gru] [-t target-session] name [value]
                   (alias: setenv)
             Set or unset an environment variable.  If -g is used, the
             change is made in the global environment; otherwise, it is
             applied to the session environment for target-session.  The -u
             flag unsets a variable.  -r indicates the variable is to be
             removed from the environment before starting a new process.

     show-environment [-gs] [-t target-session] [variable]
                   (alias: showenv)
             Display the environment for target-session or the global envi‐
             ronment with -g.  If variable is omitted, all variables are
             shown.  Variables removed from the environment are prefixed
             with ‘-’.  If -s is used, the output is formatted as a set of
             Bourne shell commands.

STATUS LINE         top

     tmux includes an optional status line which is displayed in the bottom
     line of each terminal.

     By default, the status line is enabled and one line in height (it may
     be disabled or made multiple lines with the status session option) and
     contains, from left-to-right: the name of the current session in square
     brackets; the window list; the title of the active pane in double
     quotes; and the time and date.

     Each line of the status line is configured with the status-format
     option.  The default is made of three parts: configurable left and
     right sections (which may contain dynamic content such as the time or
     output from a shell command, see the status-left, status-left-length,
     status-right, and status-right-length options below), and a central
     window list.  By default, the window list shows the index, name and (if
     any) flag of the windows present in the current session in ascending
     numerical order.  It may be customised with the window-status-format
     and window-status-current-format options.  The flag is one of the fol‐
     lowing symbols appended to the window name:

           Symbol    Meaning
           *         Denotes the current window.
           -         Marks the last window (previously selected).
           #         Window activity is monitored and activity has been
           !         Window bells are monitored and a bell has occurred in
                                the window.
           ~         The window has been silent for the monitor-silence
           M         The window contains the marked pane.
           Z         The window's active pane is zoomed.

     The # symbol relates to the monitor-activity window option.  The window
     name is printed in inverted colours if an alert (bell, activity or
     silence) is present.

     The colour and attributes of the status line may be configured, the
     entire status line using the status-style session option and individual
     windows using the window-status-style window option.

     The status line is automatically refreshed at interval if it has
     changed, the interval may be controlled with the status-interval ses‐
     sion option.

     Commands related to the status line are as follows:

     command-prompt [-1Ni] [-I inputs] [-p prompts] [-t target-client]
             Open the command prompt in a client.  This may be used from
             inside tmux to execute commands interactively.

             If template is specified, it is used as the command.  If
             present, -I is a comma-separated list of the initial text for
             each prompt.  If -p is given, prompts is a comma-separated list
             of prompts which are displayed in order; otherwise a single
             prompt is displayed, constructed from template if it is
             present, or ‘:’ if not.

             Before the command is executed, the first occurrence of the
             string ‘%%’ and all occurrences of ‘%1’ are replaced by the
             response to the first prompt, all ‘%2’ are replaced with the
             response to the second prompt, and so on for further prompts.
             Up to nine prompt responses may be replaced (‘%1’ to ‘%9’).
             ‘%%%’ is like ‘%%’ but any quotation marks are escaped.

             -1 makes the prompt only accept one key press, in this case the
             resulting input is a single character.  -N makes the prompt
             only accept numeric key presses.  -i executes the command every
             time the prompt input changes instead of when the user exits
             the command prompt.

             The following keys have a special meaning in the command
             prompt, depending on the value of the status-keys option:

                   Function                             vi        emacs
                   Cancel command prompt                Escape    Escape
                   Delete from cursor to start of word            C-w
                   Delete entire command                d         C-u
                   Delete from cursor to end            D         C-k
                   Execute command                      Enter     Enter
                   Get next command from history                  Down
                   Get previous command from history              Up
                   Insert top paste buffer              p         C-y
                   Look for completions                 Tab       Tab
                   Move cursor left                     h         Left
                   Move cursor right                    l         Right
                   Move cursor to end                   $         C-e
                   Move cursor to next word             w         M-f
                   Move cursor to previous word         b         M-b
                   Move cursor to start                 0         C-a
                   Transpose characters                           C-t

     confirm-before [-p prompt] [-t target-client] command
                   (alias: confirm)
             Ask for confirmation before executing command.  If -p is given,
             prompt is the prompt to display; otherwise a prompt is con‐
             structed from command.  It may contain the special character
             sequences supported by the status-left option.

             This command works only from inside tmux.

     display-menu [-c target-client] [-t target-pane] [-T title] [-x
             position] [-y position] name key command ...
                   (alias: menu)
             Display a menu on target-client.  target-pane gives the target
             for any commands run from the menu.

             A menu is passed as a series of arguments: first the menu item
             name, second the key shortcut (or empty for none) and third the
             command to run when the menu item is chosen.  The name and com‐
             mand are formats, see the FORMATS and STYLES sections.  If the
             name begins with a hyphen (-), then the item is disabled (shown
             dim) and may not be chosen.  The name may be empty for a sepa‐
             rator line, in which case both the key and command should be

             -T is a format for the menu title (see FORMATS).

             -x and -y give the position of the menu.  Both may be a row or
             column number, or one of the following special values:

                   Value    Flag    Meaning
                   R        -x      The right side of the terminal
                   P        Both    The bottom left of the pane
                   M        Both    The mouse position
                   W        -x      The window position on the status line
                   S        -y      The line above or below the status line

             Each menu consists of items followed by a key shortcut shown in
             brackets.  If the menu is too large to fit on the terminal, it
             is not displayed.  Pressing the key shortcut chooses the corre‐
             sponding item.  If the mouse is enabled and the menu is opened
             from a mouse key binding, releasing the mouse button with an
             item selected will choose that item.  The following keys are
             also available:

                   Key    Function
                   Enter  Choose selected item
                   Up     Select previous item
                   Down   Select next item
                   q      Exit menu

     display-message [-aIpv] [-c target-client] [-t target-pane] [message]
                   (alias: display)
             Display a message.  If -p is given, the output is printed to
             stdout, otherwise it is displayed in the target-client status
             line.  The format of message is described in the FORMATS sec‐
             tion; information is taken from target-pane if -t is given,
             otherwise the active pane.

             -v prints verbose logging as the format is parsed and -a lists
             the format variables and their values.

             -I forwards any input read from stdin to the empty pane given
             by target-pane.

BUFFERS         top

     tmux maintains a set of named paste buffers.  Each buffer may be either
     explicitly or automatically named.  Explicitly named buffers are named
     when created with the set-buffer or load-buffer commands, or by renam‐
     ing an automatically named buffer with set-buffer -n.  Automatically
     named buffers are given a name such as ‘buffer0001’, ‘buffer0002’ and
     so on.  When the buffer-limit option is reached, the oldest automati‐
     cally named buffer is deleted.  Explicitly named buffers are not sub‐
     ject to buffer-limit and may be deleted with delete-buffer command.

     Buffers may be added using copy-mode or the set-buffer and load-buffer
     commands, and pasted into a window using the paste-buffer command.  If
     a buffer command is used and no buffer is specified, the most recently
     added automatically named buffer is assumed.

     A configurable history buffer is also maintained for each window.  By
     default, up to 2000 lines are kept; this can be altered with the
     history-limit option (see the set-option command above).

     The buffer commands are as follows:

     choose-buffer [-NZr] [-F format] [-f filter] [-O sort-order] [-t
             target-pane] [template]
             Put a pane into buffer mode, where a buffer may be chosen
             interactively from a list.  -Z zooms the pane.  The following
             keys may be used in buffer mode:

                   Key    Function
                   Enter  Paste selected buffer
                   Up     Select previous buffer
                   Down   Select next buffer
                   C-s    Search by name or content
                   n      Repeat last search
                   t      Toggle if buffer is tagged
                   T      Tag no buffers
                   C-t    Tag all buffers
                   p      Paste selected buffer
                   P      Paste tagged buffers
                   d      Delete selected buffer
                   D      Delete tagged buffers
                   f      Enter a format to filter items
                   O      Change sort field
                   r      Reverse sort order
                   v      Toggle preview
                   q      Exit mode

             After a buffer is chosen, ‘%%’ is replaced by the buffer name
             in template and the result executed as a command.  If template
             is not given, "paste-buffer -b '%%'" is used.

             -O specifies the initial sort field: one of ‘time’, ‘name’ or
             ‘size’.  -r reverses the sort order.  -f specifies an initial
             filter: the filter is a format - if it evaluates to zero, the
             item in the list is not shown, otherwise it is shown.  If a
             filter would lead to an empty list, it is ignored.  -F speci‐
             fies the format for each item in the list.  -N starts without
             the preview.  This command works only if at least one client is

     clear-history [-t target-pane]
                   (alias: clearhist)
             Remove and free the history for the specified pane.

     delete-buffer [-b buffer-name]
                   (alias: deleteb)
             Delete the buffer named buffer-name, or the most recently added
             automatically named buffer if not specified.

     list-buffers [-F format]
                   (alias: lsb)
             List the global buffers.  For the meaning of the -F flag, see
             the FORMATS section.

     load-buffer [-b buffer-name] path
                   (alias: loadb)
             Load the contents of the specified paste buffer from path.

     paste-buffer [-dpr] [-b buffer-name] [-s separator] [-t target-pane]
                   (alias: pasteb)
             Insert the contents of a paste buffer into the specified pane.
             If not specified, paste into the current one.  With -d, also
             delete the paste buffer.  When output, any linefeed (LF) char‐
             acters in the paste buffer are replaced with a separator, by
             default carriage return (CR).  A custom separator may be speci‐
             fied using the -s flag.  The -r flag means to do no replacement
             (equivalent to a separator of LF).  If -p is specified, paste
             bracket control codes are inserted around the buffer if the
             application has requested bracketed paste mode.

     save-buffer [-a] [-b buffer-name] path
                   (alias: saveb)
             Save the contents of the specified paste buffer to path.  The
             -a option appends to rather than overwriting the file.

     set-buffer [-a] [-b buffer-name] [-n new-buffer-name] data
                   (alias: setb)
             Set the contents of the specified buffer to data.  The -a
             option appends to rather than overwriting the buffer.  The -n
             option renames the buffer to new-buffer-name.

     show-buffer [-b buffer-name]
                   (alias: showb)
             Display the contents of the specified buffer.


     Miscellaneous commands are as follows:

     clock-mode [-t target-pane]
             Display a large clock.

     if-shell [-bF] [-t target-pane] shell-command command [command]
                   (alias: if)
             Execute the first command if shell-command returns success or
             the second command otherwise.  Before being executed,
             shell-command is expanded using the rules specified in the
             FORMATS section, including those relevant to target-pane.  With
             -b, shell-command is run in the background.

             If -F is given, shell-command is not executed but considered
             success if neither empty nor zero (after formats are expanded).

                   (alias: lock)
             Lock each client individually by running the command specified
             by the lock-command option.

     run-shell [-b] [-t target-pane] shell-command
                   (alias: run)
             Execute shell-command in the background without creating a win‐
             dow.  Before being executed, shell-command is expanded using
             the rules specified in the FORMATS section.  With -b, the com‐
             mand is run in the background.  After it finishes, any output
             to stdout is displayed in copy mode (in the pane specified by
             -t or the current pane if omitted).  If the command doesn't
             return success, the exit status is also displayed.

     wait-for [-L | -S | -U] channel
                   (alias: wait)
             When used without options, prevents the client from exiting
             until woken using wait-for -S with the same channel.  When -L
             is used, the channel is locked and any clients that try to lock
             the same channel are made to wait until the channel is unlocked
             with wait-for -U.


     tmux understands some unofficial extensions to terminfo(5):

     Cs, Cr  Set the cursor colour.  The first takes a single string argu‐
             ment and is used to set the colour; the second takes no argu‐
             ments and restores the default cursor colour.  If set, a
             sequence such as this may be used to change the cursor colour
             from inside tmux:

                   $ printf '\033]12;red\033\\'

     Smol    Enable the overline attribute.  The capability is usually SGR
             53 and can be added to terminal-overrides as:


     Smulx   Set a styled underscore.  The single parameter is one of: 0 for
             no underscore, 1 for normal underscore, 2 for double under‐
             score, 3 for curly underscore, 4 for dotted underscore and 5
             for dashed underscore.  The capability can typically be added
             to terminal-overrides as:


     Setulc  Set the underscore colour.  The argument is (red * 65536) +
             (green * 256) + blue where each is between 0 and 255.  The
             capability can typically be added to terminal-overrides as:


     Ss, Se  Set or reset the cursor style.  If set, a sequence such as this
             may be used to change the cursor to an underline:

                   $ printf '\033[4 q'

             If Se is not set, Ss with argument 0 will be used to reset the
             cursor style instead.

     Tc      Indicate that the terminal supports the ‘direct colour’ RGB
             escape sequence (for example, \e[38;2;255;255;255m).

             If supported, this is used for the initialize colour escape
             sequence (which may be enabled by adding the ‘initc’ and ‘ccc’
             capabilities to the tmux terminfo(5) entry).

     Ms      Store the current buffer in the host terminal's selection
             (clipboard).  See the set-clipboard option above and the
             xterm(1) man page.

CONTROL MODE         top

     tmux offers a textual interface called control mode.  This allows
     applications to communicate with tmux using a simple text-only proto‐

     In control mode, a client sends tmux commands or command sequences ter‐
     minated by newlines on standard input.  Each command will produce one
     block of output on standard output.  An output block consists of a
     %begin line followed by the output (which may be empty).  The output
     block ends with a %end or %error.  %begin and matching %end or %error
     have two arguments: an integer time (as seconds from epoch) and command
     number.  For example:

           %begin 1363006971 2
           0: ksh* (1 panes) [80x24] [layout b25f,80x24,0,0,2] @2 (active)
           %end 1363006971 2

     The refresh-client -C command may be used to set the size of a client
     in control mode.

     In control mode, tmux outputs notifications.  A notification will never
     occur inside an output block.

     The following notifications are defined:

     %client-session-changed client session-id name
             The client is now attached to the session with ID session-id,
             which is named name.

     %exit [reason]
             The tmux client is exiting immediately, either because it is
             not attached to any session or an error occurred.  If present,
             reason describes why the client exited.

     %layout-change window-id window-layout window-visible-layout
             The layout of a window with ID window-id changed.  The new lay‐
             out is window-layout.  The window's visible layout is
             window-visible-layout and the window flags are window-flags.

     %output pane-id value
             A window pane produced output.  value escapes non-printable
             characters and backslash as octal \xxx.

     %pane-mode-changed pane-id
             The pane with ID pane-id has changed mode.

     %session-changed session-id name
             The client is now attached to the session with ID session-id,
             which is named name.

     %session-renamed name
             The current session was renamed to name.

     %session-window-changed session-id window-id
             The session with ID session-id changed its active window to the
             window with ID window-id.

             A session was created or destroyed.

     %unlinked-window-add window-id
             The window with ID window-id was created but is not linked to
             the current session.

     %window-add window-id
             The window with ID window-id was linked to the current session.

     %window-close window-id
             The window with ID window-id closed.

     %window-pane-changed window-id pane-id
             The active pane in the window with ID window-id changed to the
             pane with ID pane-id.

     %window-renamed window-id name
             The window with ID window-id was renamed to name.

ENVIRONMENT         top

     When tmux is started, it inspects the following environment variables:

     EDITOR    If the command specified in this variable contains the string
               ‘vi’ and VISUAL is unset, use vi-style key bindings.  Over‐
               ridden by the mode-keys and status-keys options.

     HOME      The user's login directory.  If unset, the passwd(5) database
               is consulted.

     LC_CTYPE  The character encoding locale(1).  It is used for two sepa‐
               rate purposes.  For output to the terminal, UTF-8 is used if
               the -u option is given or if LC_CTYPE contains "UTF-8" or
               "UTF8".  Otherwise, only ASCII characters are written and
               non-ASCII characters are replaced with underscores (‘_’).
               For input, tmux always runs with a UTF-8 locale.  If
               en_US.UTF-8 is provided by the operating system it is used
               and LC_CTYPE is ignored for input.  Otherwise, LC_CTYPE tells
               tmux what the UTF-8 locale is called on the current system.
               If the locale specified by LC_CTYPE is not available or is
               not a UTF-8 locale, tmux exits with an error message.

     LC_TIME   The date and time format locale(1).  It is used for locale-
               dependent strftime(3) format specifiers.

     PWD       The current working directory to be set in the global envi‐
               ronment.  This may be useful if it contains symbolic links.
               If the value of the variable does not match the current work‐
               ing directory, the variable is ignored and the result of
               getcwd(3) is used instead.

     SHELL     The absolute path to the default shell for new windows.  See
               the default-shell option for details.

               The parent directory of the directory containing the server
               sockets.  See the -L option for details.

     VISUAL    If the command specified in this variable contains the string
               ‘vi’, use vi-style key bindings.  Overridden by the mode-keys
               and status-keys options.

FILES         top

     ~/.tmux.conf               Default tmux configuration file.
     @SYSCONFDIR@/tmux.conf     System-wide configuration file.

EXAMPLES         top

     To create a new tmux session running vi(1):

           $ tmux new-session vi

     Most commands have a shorter form, known as an alias.  For new-session,
     this is new:

           $ tmux new vi

     Alternatively, the shortest unambiguous form of a command is accepted.
     If there are several options, they are listed:

           $ tmux n
           ambiguous command: n, could be: new-session, new-window, next-window

     Within an active session, a new window may be created by typing ‘C-b c’
     (Ctrl followed by the ‘b’ key followed by the ‘c’ key).

     Windows may be navigated with: ‘C-b 0’ (to select window 0), ‘C-b 1’
     (to select window 1), and so on; ‘C-b n’ to select the next window; and
     ‘C-b p’ to select the previous window.

     A session may be detached using ‘C-b d’ (or by an external event such
     as ssh(1) disconnection) and reattached with:

           $ tmux attach-session

     Typing ‘C-b ?’ lists the current key bindings in the current window; up
     and down may be used to navigate the list or ‘q’ to exit from it.

     Commands to be run when the tmux server is started may be placed in the
     ~/.tmux.conf configuration file.  Common examples include:

     Changing the default prefix key:

           set-option -g prefix C-a
           unbind-key C-b
           bind-key C-a send-prefix

     Turning the status line off, or changing its colour:

           set-option -g status off
           set-option -g status-style bg=blue

     Setting other options, such as the default command, or locking after 30
     minutes of inactivity:

           set-option -g default-command "exec /bin/ksh"
           set-option -g lock-after-time 1800

     Creating new key bindings:

           bind-key b set-option status
           bind-key / command-prompt "split-window 'exec man %%'"
           bind-key S command-prompt "new-window -n %1 'ssh %1'"

SEE ALSO         top


AUTHORS         top

     Nicholas Marriott <>

COLOPHON         top

     This page is part of the tmux (terminal multiplexer) project.  Informa‐
     tion about the project can be found at  If you
     have a bug report for this manual page, send it to  This page was obtained from the project's
     upstream Git repository ⟨⟩ on
     2019-11-19.  (At that time, the date of the most recent commit that was
     found in the repository was 2019-11-18.)  If you discover any rendering
     problems in this HTML version of the page, or you believe there is a
     better or more up-to-date source for the page, or you have corrections
     or improvements to the information in this COLOPHON (which is not part
     of the original manual page), send a mail to

BSD                           November 19, 2019                          BSD

Pages that refer to this page: logind.conf(5)pty(7)