xfsrestore restores filesystems from dumps produced by xfsdump(8).
Two modes of operation are available: simple and cumulative.
The default is simple mode. xfsrestore populates the specified
destination directory, dest, with the files contained in the dump
The -r option specifies the cumulative mode. Successive invocations
of xfsrestore are used to apply a chronologically ordered sequence of
delta dumps to a base (level 0) dump. The contents of the filesystem
at the time each dump was produced is reproduced. This can involve
adding, deleting, renaming, linking, and unlinking files and
A delta dump is defined as either an incremental dump (xfsdump-l
option with level > 0) or a resumed dump (xfsdump-R option). The
deltas must be applied in the order they were produced. Each delta
applied must have been produced with the previously applied delta as
xfsrestore keeps state information in the xfsrestorehousekeepingdir,
to inform subsequent invocations when used in cumulative mode, or in
the event a restore is interrupted. To ensure that the state
information can be processed, a compatible version of xfsrestore must
be used for each subsequent invocation. Additionally, each invocation
must run on a system of the same endianness and page size.
The options to xfsrestore are:
Each invocation of xfsrestore creates a directory called
xfsrestorehousekeepingdir. This directory is normally created
directly under the dest directory. The -a option allows the
operator to specify an alternate directory, housekeeping, in
which xfsrestore creates the xfsrestorehousekeepingdir
directory. When performing a cumulative (-r option) restore or
resuming (-R option) a restore, each successive invocation must
specify the same alternate directory.
Specifies the blocksize, in bytes, to be used for the restore.
For other drives such as DAT or 8 mm , the same blocksize used
for the xfsdump operation must be specified to restore the tape.
The default block size is 1Mb.
Use the specified program to alert the operator when a media
change is required. The alert program is typically a script to
send a mail or flash a window to draw the operator's attention.
-e Prevents xfsrestore from overwriting existing files in the dest
-f source [ -f source ... ]
Specifies a source of the dump to be restored. This can be the
pathname of a device (such as a tape drive), a regular file or a
remote tape drive (see rmt(8)). This option must be omitted if
the standard input option (a lone - preceding the dest
specification) is specified.
-i Selects interactive operation. Once the on-media directory
hierarchy has been read, an interactive dialogue is begun. The
operator uses a small set of commands to peruse the directory
hierarchy, selecting files and subtrees for extraction. The
available commands are given below. Initially nothing is
selected, except for those subtrees specified with -s command
ls [arg] List the entries in the current directory or the
specified directory, or the specified non-
directory file entry. Both the entry's original
inode number and name are displayed. Entries
that are directories are appended with a `/'.
Entries that have been selected for extraction
are prepended with a `*'.
cd [arg] Change the current working directory to the
specified argument, or to the filesystem root
directory if no argument is specified.
pwd Print the pathname of the current directory,
relative to the filesystem root.
add [arg] The current directory or specified file or
directory within the current directory is
selected for extraction. If a directory is
specified, then it and all its descendents are
selected. Entries that are selected for
extraction are prepended with a `*' when they are
listed by ls.
delete [arg] The current directory or specified file or
directory within the current directory is
deselected for extraction. If a directory is
specified, then it and all its descendents are
deselected. The most expedient way to extract
most of the files from a directory is to select
the directory and then deselect those files that
are not needed.
extract Ends the interactive dialogue, and causes all
selected subtrees to be restored.
quit xfsrestore ends the interactive dialogue and
immediately exits, even if there are files or
subtrees selected for extraction.
help List a summary of the available commands.
-m Use the minimal tape protocol. This option cannot be used
without specifying a blocksize to be used (see -b option above).
Allows xfsrestore to restore only files newer than file. The
modification time of file (i.e., as displayed with the ls -l
command) is compared to the inode modification time of each file
on the source media (i.e., as displayed with the ls -lc
command). A file is restored from media only if its inode
modification time is greater than or equal to the modification
time of file.
-o Restore file and directory owner/group even if not root. When
run with an effective user id of root, xfsrestore restores owner
and group of each file and directory. When run with any other
effective user id it does not, unless this option is specified.
Causes progress reports to be printed at intervals of interval
seconds. The interval value is approximate, xfsrestore will
delay progress reports to avoid undue processing overhead.
-q Source tape drive is a QIC tape. QIC tapes only use a 512 byte
blocksize, for which xfsrestore must make special allowances.
-r Selects the cumulative mode of operation. The -a and destination
options must be the same for each invocation.
Specifies a subtree to restore. Any number of -s options are
allowed. The restore is constrained to the union of all
subtrees specified. Each subtree is specified as a pathname
relative to the restore dest. If a directory is specified, the
directory and all files beneath that directory are restored.
-t Displays the contents of the dump, but does not create or modify
any files or directories. It may be desirable to set the
verbosity level to silent when using this option.
-v verbosity-v subsys=verbosity[,subsys=verbosity,...]
Specifies the level of detail used for messages displayed during
the course of the restore. The verbosity argument can be passed
as either a string or an integer. If passed as a string the
following values may be used: silent, verbose, trace, debug, or
nitty. If passed as an integer, values from 0-5 may be used.
The values 0-4 correspond to the strings already listed. The
value 5 can be used to produce even more verbose debug output.
The first form of this option activates message logging across
all restore subsystems. The second form allows the message
logging level to be controlled on a per-subsystem basis. The two
forms can be combined (see the example below). The argument
subsys can take one of the following values: general, proc,
drive, media, inventory, and tree.
For example, to restore the root filesystem with tracing
activated for all subsystems:
# xfsrestore -v trace -f /dev/tape /
To enable debug-level tracing for drive and media operations:
# xfsrestore -v drive=debug,media=debug -f /dev/tape /
To enable tracing for all subsystems, and debug level tracing
for drive operations only:
# xfsrestore -v trace,drive=debug -f /dev/tape /-A Do not restore extended file attributes. When restoring a
filesystem managed within a DMF environment this option should
not be used. DMF stores file migration status within extended
attributes associated with each file. If these attributes are
not preserved when the filesystem is restored, files that had
been in migrated state will not be recallable by DMF. Note that
dumping of extended file attributes is also optional.
-B Change the ownership and permissions of the destination
directory to match those of the root directory of the dump.
-D Restore DMAPI (Data Management Application Programming
Interface) event settings. If the restored filesystem will be
managed within the same DMF environment as the original dump it
is essential that the -D option be used. Otherwise it is not
usually desirable to restore these settings.
-E Prevents xfsrestore from overwriting newer versions of files.
The inode modification time of the on-media file is compared to
the inode modification time of corresponding file in the dest
directory. The file is restored only if the on-media version is
newer than the version in the dest directory. The inode
modification time of a file can be displayed with the ls -lc
-F Inhibit interactive operator prompts. This option inhibits
xfsrestore from prompting the operator for verification of the
selected dump as the restore target and from prompting for any
-I Causes the xfsdump inventory to be displayed (no restore is
performed). Each time xfsdump is used, an online inventory in
/var/lib/xfsdump/inventory is updated. This is used to
determine the base for incremental dumps. It is also useful for
manually identifying a dump session to be restored (see the -L
and -S options). Suboptions to filter the inventory display are
-J Inhibits inventory update when on-media session inventory
encountered during restore. xfsrestore opportunistically
updates the online inventory when it encounters an on-media
session inventory, but only if run with an effective user id of
root and only if this option is not given.
-K Force xfsrestore to use dump format 2 generation numbers.
Normally the need for this is determined automatically, but this
option is required on the first xfsrestore invocation in the
rare case that a cumulative restore begins with a format 3 (or
newer) dump and will be followed by a format 2 dump.
Specifies the label of the dump session to be restored. The
source media is searched for this label. It is any arbitrary
string up to 255 characters long. The label of the desired dump
session can be copied from the inventory display produced by the
Insert the options contained in options_file into the beginning
of the command line. The options are specified just as they
would appear if typed into the command line. In addition,
newline characters (\n) can be used as whitespace. The options
are placed before all options actually given on the command
line, just after the command name. Only one -O option can be
used. Recursive use is ignored. The destination directory
cannot be specified in options_file.
-Q Force completion of an interrupted restore session. This option
is required to work around one specific pathological scenario.
When restoring a dump session which was interrupted due to an
EOM condition and no online session inventory is available,
xfsrestore cannot know when the restore of that dump session is
complete. The operator is forced to interrupt the restore
session. In that case, if the operator tries to subsequently
apply a resumed dump (using the -r option), xfsrestore refuses
to do so. The operator must tell xfsrestore to consider the
base restore complete by using this option when applying the
-R Resume a previously interrupted restore. xfsrestore can be
interrupted at any time by pressing the terminal interrupt
character (see stty(1)). Use this option to resume the restore.
The -a and destination options must be the same.
Specifies the session UUID of the dump session to be restored.
The source media is searched for this UUID. The UUID of the
desired dump session can be copied from the inventory display
produced by the -I option.
-T Inhibits interactive dialogue timeouts. xfsrestore prompts the
operator for media changes. This dialogue normally times out if
no response is supplied. This option prevents the timeout.
Specifies a subtree to exclude. This is the converse of the -s
option. Any number of -X options are allowed. Each subtree is
specified as a pathname relative to the restore dest. If a
directory is specified, the directory and all files beneath that
directory are excluded.
Specify I/O buffer ring length. xfsrestore uses a ring of input
buffers to achieve maximum throughput when restoring from tape
drives. The default ring length is 3. However, this is not
currently enabled on Linux yet, making this option benign.
- A lone - causes the standard input to be read as the source of
the dump to be restored. Standard input can be a pipe from
another utility (such as xfsdump(8)) or a redirected file. This
option cannot be used with the -f option. The - must follow all
other options, and precede the dest specification.
The dumped filesystem is restored into the dest directory. There is
no default; the dest must be specified.
A base (level 0) dump and an ordered set of delta dumps can be
sequentially restored, each on top of the previous, to reproduce the
contents of the original filesystem at the time the last delta was
produced. The operator invokes xfsrestore once for each dump. The
-r option must be specified. The dest directory must be the same for
all invocations. Each invocation leaves a directory named
xfsrestorehousekeeping in the dest directory (however, see the -a
option above). This directory contains the state information that
must be communicated between invocations. The operator must remove
this directory after the last delta has been applied.
xfsrestore also generates a directory named orphanage in the dest
directory. xfsrestore removes this directory after completing a
simple restore. However, if orphanage is not empty, it is not
removed. This can happen if files present on the dump media are not
referenced by any of the restored directories. The orphanage has an
entry for each such file. The entry name is the file's original
inode number, a ".", and the file's generation count modulo 4096
(only the lower 12 bits of the generation count are used).
xfsrestore does not remove the orphanage after cumulative restores.
Like the xfsrestorehousekeeping directory, the operator must remove
it after applying all delta dumps.
A dump consists of one or more media files contained on one or more
media objects. A media file contains all or a portion of the
filesystem dump. Large filesystems are broken up into multiple media
files to minimize the impact of media dropouts, and to accommodate
media object boundaries (end-of-media).
A media object is any storage medium: a tape cartridge, a remote tape
device (see rmt(8)), a regular file, or the standard input (currently
other removable media drives are not supported). Tape cartridges can
contain multiple media files, which are typically separated by (in
tape parlance) file marks. If a dump spans multiple media objects,
the restore must begin with the media object containing the first
media file dumped. The operator is prompted when the next media
object is needed.
Media objects can contain more than one dump. The operator can
select the desired dump by specifying the dump label (-L option), or
by specifying the dump UUID (-S option). If neither is specified,
xfsrestore scans the entire media object, prompting the operator as
each dump session is encountered.
The inventory display (-I option) is useful for identifying the media
objects required. It is also useful for identifying a dump session.
The session UUID can be copied from the inventory display to the -S
option argument to unambiguously identify a dump session to be
Dumps placed in regular files or the standard output do not span
multiple media objects, nor do they contain multiple dumps.
Each dump session updates an inventory database in
/var/lib/xfsdump/inventory. This database can be displayed by
invoking xfsrestore with the -I option. The display uses tabbed
indentation to present the inventory hierarchically. The first level
is filesystem. The second level is session. The third level is
media stream (currently only one stream is supported). The fourth
level lists the media files sequentially composing the stream.
The following suboptions are available to filter the display.
(where n is 1, 2, or 3) limits the hierarchical depth of the
display. When n is 1, only the filesystem information from the
inventory is displayed. When n is 2, only filesystem and session
information are displayed. When n is 3, only filesystem, session
and stream information are displayed.
(where n is the dump level) limits the display to dumps of that
particular dump level.
The display may be restricted to media files contained in a specific
(where value is a media ID) specifies the media object by its
(where value is a media label) specifies the media object by its
Similarly, the display can be restricted to a specific filesystem.
(that is, [hostname:]pathname), identifies the filesystem by
mountpoint. Specifying the hostname is optional, but may be
useful in a clustered environment where more than one host can
be responsible for dumping a filesystem.
identifies the filesystem by filesystem ID.
(that is, [hostname:]device_pathname) identifies the filesystem
by device. As with the mnt filter, specifying the hostname is
More than one of these suboptions, separated by commas, may be
specified at the same time to limit the display of the inventory to
those dumps of interest. However, at most four suboptions can be
specified at once: one to constrain the display hierarchy depth, one
to constrain the dump level, one to constrain the media object, and
one to constrain the filesystem.
For example, -I depth=1,mobjlabel="tape 1",mnt=host1:/test_mnt would
display only the filesystem information (depth=1) for those
filesystems that were mounted on host1:/test_mnt at the time of the
dump, and only those filesystems dumped to the media object labeled
Dump records may be removed (pruned) from the inventory using the
An additional media file is placed at the end of each dump stream.
This media file contains the inventory information for the current
dump session. If the online inventory files in
/var/lib/xfsdump/inventory are missing information for the current
dump session, then the inventory information in the media file is
automatically added to the files in /var/lib/xfsdump/inventory. If
you wish to incorporate the inventory information from the media file
without restoring any data, you may do so using the -t option:
# xfsrestore -t -f /dev/tape
This is useful to rebuild the inventory database if it is ever lost
or corrupted. The only caveat is that xfsrestore needs to read
through the entire dump in order to reach the inventory media file.
This could become time consuming for dump sessions with large media
Media Errorsxfsdump is tolerant of media errors, but cannot do error correction.
If a media error occurs in the body of a media file, the filesystem
file represented at that point is lost. The bad portion of the media
is skipped, and the restoration resumes at the next filesystem file
after the bad portion of the media.
If a media error occurs in the beginning of the media file, the
entire media file is lost. For this reason, large dumps are broken
into a number of reasonably sized media files. The restore resumes
with the next media file.
When xfsdump dumps a filesystem with user quotas, it creates a file
in the root of the dump called xfsdump_quotas. xfsrestore can
restore this file like any other file included in the dump. This
file can be processed by the restore command of xfs_quota(8) to
reactivate the quotas. However, the xfsdump_quotas file contains
information which may first require modification; specifically the
filesystem name and the user ids. If you are restoring the quotas
for the same users on the same filesystem from which the dump was
taken, then no modification will be necessary. However, if you are
restoring the dump to a different filesystem, you will need to:
- ensure the new filesystem is mounted with the quota option
- modify the xfsdump_quotas file to contain the new filesystem name
- ensure the uids in the xfsdump_quotas file are correct
Once the quota information has been verified, the restore command of
xfs_quota(8) can be used to apply the quota limits to the filesystem.
Group and project quotas are handled in a similar fashion and will be
restored in files called xfsdump_quotas_group and
To restore the root filesystem from a locally mounted tape:
# xfsrestore -f /dev/tape /
To restore from a remote tape, specifying the dump session id:
# xfsrestore -L session_1 -f otherhost:/dev/tape /new
To restore the contents a of a dump to another subdirectory:
# xfsrestore -f /dev/tape /newdir
To copy the contents of a filesystem to another directory (see
# xfsdump -J - / | xfsrestore -J - /new
The exit code is 0 on normal completion, and non-zero if an error
occurred or the restore was terminated by the operator.
For all verbosity levels greater than 0 (silent) the final line of
the output shows the exit status of the restore. It is of the form:
xfsdump: Restore Status: code
Where code takes one of the following values: SUCCESS (normal
completion), INTERRUPT (interrupted), QUIT (media no longer usable),
INCOMPLETE (restore incomplete), FAULT (software error), and ERROR
(resource error). Every attempt will be made to keep both the syntax
and the semantics of this log message unchanged in future versions of
xfsrestore. However, it may be necessary to refine or expand the set
of exit codes, or their interpretation at some point in the future.
Pathnames of restored non-directory files (relative to the dest
directory) must be 1023 characters (MAXPATHLEN) or less. Longer
pathnames are discarded and a warning message displayed.
There is no verify option to xfsrestore. This would allow the
operator to compare a filesystem dump to an existing filesystem,
without actually doing a restore.
The interactive commands (-i option) do not understand regular
When the minimal rmt option is specified, xfsrestore applies it to
all remote tape sources. The same blocksize (specified by the -b
option) is used for all these remote drives.
xfsrestore uses the alert program only when a media change is
Cumulative mode (-r option) requires that the operator invoke
xfsrestore for the base and for each delta to be applied in sequence
to the base. It would be better to allow the operator to identify
the last delta in the sequence of interest, and let xfsrestore work
backwards from that delta to identify and apply the preceding deltas
and base dump, all in one invocation.
This page is part of the xfsdump (XFS dump and restore) project.
Information about the project can be found at ⟨http://xfs.org/⟩. If
you have a bug report for this manual page, see
⟨http://oss.sgi.com/bugzilla/buglist.cgi?product=XFS⟩. This page was
obtained from the project's upstream Git repository
⟨git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/fs/xfs/xfsprogs-dev.git⟩ on 2017-03-13.
If you discover any rendering problems in this HTML version of the
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