xfs_repair repairs corrupt or damaged XFS filesystems (see xfs(5)).
The filesystem is specified using the device argument which should be
the device name of the disk partition or volume containing the
filesystem. If given the name of a block device, xfs_repair will
attempt to find the raw device associated with the specified block
device and will use the raw device instead.
Regardless, the filesystem to be repaired must be unmounted,
otherwise, the resulting filesystem may be inconsistent or corrupt.
-f Specifies that the filesystem image to be processed is stored
in a regular file at device (see the mkfs.xfs -d file option).
This might happen if an image copy of a filesystem has been
copied or written into an ordinary file. This option implies
that any external log or realtime section is also in an
-L Force Log Zeroing. Forces xfs_repair to zero the log even if
it is dirty (contains metadata changes). When using this
option the filesystem will likely appear to be corrupt, and
can cause the loss of user files and/or data. See the DIRTYLOGS section for more information.
Specifies the device special file where the filesystem's
external log resides. Only for those filesystems which use an
external log. See the mkfs.xfs -l option, and refer to xfs(5)
for a detailed description of the XFS log.
Specifies the device special file where the filesystem's
realtime section resides. Only for those filesystems which use
a realtime section. See the mkfs.xfs -r option, and refer to
xfs(5) for a detailed description of the XFS realtime section.
-n No modify mode. Specifies that xfs_repair should not modify
the filesystem but should only scan the filesystem and
indicate what repairs would have been made.
-P Disable prefetching of inode and directory blocks. Use this
option if you find xfs_repair gets stuck and stops proceeding.
Interrupting a stuck xfs_repair is safe.
Specifies the approximate maximum amount of memory, in
megabytes, to use for xfs_repair. xfs_repair has its own
internal block cache which will scale out up to the lesser of
the process's virtual address limit or about 75% of the
system's physical RAM. This option overrides these limits.
NOTE: These memory limits are only approximate and may use
more than the specified limit.
Change filesystem parameters. Refer to xfs_admin(8) for
information on changing filesystem parameters.
Override what the program might conclude about the filesystem
if left to its own devices.
The suboptions supported are:
overrides the default buffer cache hash size. The
total number of buffer cache entries are limited to
8 times this amount. The default size is set to use
up the remainder of 75% of the system's physical RAM
This creates additional processing threads to
parallel process AGs that span multiple concat
units. This can significantly reduce repair times on
concat based filesystems.
Check the filesystem even if geometry information
could not be validated. Geometry information can
not be validated if only a single allocation group
exists and thus we do not have a backup superblock
available, or if there are two allocation groups and
the two superblocks do not agree on the filesystem
geometry. Only use this option if you validated the
geometry yourself and know what you are doing. If
In doubt run in no modify mode first.
Modify reporting interval, specified in seconds. During long
runs xfs_repair outputs its progress every 15 minutes.
Reporting is only activated when ag_stride is enabled.
-v Verbose output. May be specified multiple times to increase
-d Repair dangerously. Allow xfs_repair to repair an XFS
filesystem mounted read only. This is typically done on a root
filesystem from single user mode, immediately followed by a
-V Prints the version number and exits.
Inconsistencies corrected include the following:
1. Inode and inode blockmap (addressing) checks: bad magic number
in inode, bad magic numbers in inode blockmap blocks, extents
out of order, incorrect number of records in inode blockmap
blocks, blocks claimed that are not in a legal data area of
the filesystem, blocks that are claimed by more than one
2. Inode allocation map checks: bad magic number in inode map
blocks, inode state as indicated by map (free or in-use)
inconsistent with state indicated by the inode, inodes
referenced by the filesystem that do not appear in the inode
allocation map, inode allocation map referencing blocks that
do not appear to contain inodes.
3. Size checks: number of blocks claimed by inode inconsistent
with inode size, directory size not block aligned, inode size
not consistent with inode format.
4. Directory checks: bad magic numbers in directory blocks,
incorrect number of entries in a directory block, bad
freespace information in a directory leaf block, entry
pointing to an unallocated (free) or out of range inode,
overlapping entries, missing or incorrect dot and dotdot
entries, entries out of hashvalue order, incorrect internal
directory pointers, directory type not consistent with inode
format and size.
5. Pathname checks: files or directories not referenced by a
pathname starting from the filesystem root, illegal pathname
6. Link count checks: link counts that do not agree with the
number of directory references to the inode.
7. Freemap checks: blocks claimed free by the freemap but also
claimed by an inode, blocks unclaimed by any inode but not
appearing in the freemap.
8. Super Block checks: total free block and/or free i-node count
incorrect, filesystem geometry inconsistent, secondary and
primary superblocks contradictory.
Orphaned files and directories (allocated, in-use but unreferenced)
are reconnected by placing them in the lost+found directory. The
name assigned is the inode number.
Disk Errorsxfs_repair aborts on most disk I/O errors. Therefore, if you are
trying to repair a filesystem that was damaged due to a disk drive
failure, steps should be taken to ensure that all blocks in the
filesystem are readable and writable before attempting to use
xfs_repair to repair the filesystem. A possible method is using dd(8)
to copy the data onto a good disk.
The directory lost+found does not have to already exist in the
filesystem being repaired. If the directory does not exist, it is
automatically created if required. If it already exists, it will be
checked for consistency and if valid will be used for additional
orphaned files. Invalid lost+found directories are removed and
recreated. Existing files in a valid lost+found are not removed or
XFS has both primary and secondary superblocks. xfs_repair uses
information in the primary superblock to automatically find and
validate the primary superblock against the secondary superblocks
before proceeding. Should the primary be too corrupted to be useful
in locating the secondary superblocks, the program scans the
filesystem until it finds and validates some secondary superblocks.
At that point, it generates a primary superblock.
If quotas are in use, it is possible that xfs_repair will clear some
or all of the filesystem quota information. If so, the program
issues a warning just before it terminates. If all quota information
is lost, quotas are disabled and the program issues a warning to that
Note that xfs_repair does not check the validity of quota limits. It
is recommended that you check the quota limit information manually
after xfs_repair. Also, space usage information is automatically
regenerated the next time the filesystem is mounted with quotas
turned on, so the next quota mount of the filesystem may take some
xfs_repair issues informative messages as it proceeds indicating what
it has found that is abnormal or any corrective action that it has
taken. Most of the messages are completely understandable only to
those who are knowledgeable about the structure of the filesystem.
Some of the more common messages are explained here. Note that the
language of the messages is slightly different if xfs_repair is run
in no-modify mode because the program is not changing anything on
disk. No-modify mode indicates what it would do to repair the
filesystem if run without the no-modify flag.
disconnected inode ino, moving to lost+found
An inode numbered ino was not connected to the filesystem
directory tree and was reconnected to the lost+found
directory. The inode is assigned the name of its inode number
(ino). If a lost+found directory does not exist, it is
disconnected dir inode ino, moving to lost+found
As above only the inode is a directory inode. If a directory
inode is attached to lost+found, all of its children (if any)
stay attached to the directory and therefore get automatically
reconnected when the directory is reconnected.
imap claims in-use inode inois free, correcting imap
The inode allocation map thinks that inode ino is free whereas
examination of the inode indicates that the inode may be in
use (although it may be disconnected). The program updates
the inode allocation map.
imap claims free inode inois in use, correcting imap
The inode allocation map thinks that inode ino is in use
whereas examination of the inode indicates that the inode is
not in use and therefore is free. The program updates the
inode allocation map.
resetting inode inonlinks from xto y
The program detected a mismatch between the number of valid
directory entries referencing inode ino and the number of
references recorded in the inode and corrected the the number
in the inode.
fork-typefork in ino inoclaims used block bno
Inode ino claims a block bno that is used (claimed) by either
another inode or the filesystem itself for metadata storage.
The fork-type is either data or attr indicating whether the
problem lies in the portion of the inode that tracks regular
data or the portion of the inode that stores XFS attributes.
If the inode is a real-time (rt) inode, the message says so.
Any inode that claims blocks used by the filesystem is
deleted. If two or more inodes claim the same block, they are
fork-typefork in ino inoclaims dup extent ...
Inode ino claims a block in an extent known to be claimed more
than once. The offset in the inode, start and length of the
extent is given. The message is slightly different if the
inode is a real-time (rt) inode and the extent is therefore a
real-time (rt) extent.
inode ino- bad extent ...
An extent record in the blockmap of inode ino claims blocks
that are out of the legal range of the filesystem. The
message supplies the start, end, and file offset of the
extent. The message is slightly different if the extent is a
real-time (rt) extent.
bad fork-typefork in inode ino
There was something structurally wrong or inconsistent with
the data structures that map offsets to filesystem blocks.
cleared inode ino
There was something wrong with the inode that was
uncorrectable so the program freed the inode. This usually
happens because the inode claims blocks that are used by
something else or the inode itself is badly corrupted.
Typically, this message is preceded by one or more messages
indicating why the inode needed to be cleared.
bad attribute fork in inode ino, clearing attr fork
There was something wrong with the portion of the inode that
stores XFS attributes (the attribute fork) so the program
reset the attribute fork. As a result of this, all attributes
on that inode are lost.
correcting nextents for inode ino, was x- counted y
The program found that the number of extents used to store the
data in the inode is wrong and corrected the number. The
message refers to nextents if the count is wrong on the number
of extents used to store attribute information.
entry namein dir dir_inonot consistent with .. value (xxxx) in dirino ino, junking entry namein directory inode dir_ino
The entry name in directory inode dir_ino references a
directory inode ino. However, the .. entry in directory ino
does not point back to directory dir_ino, so the program
deletes the entry name in directory inode dir_ino. If the
directory inode ino winds up becoming a disconnected inode as
a result of this, it is moved to lost+found later.
entry namein dir dir_inoreferences already connected dir ino ino,junking entry namein directory inode dir_ino
The entry name in directory inode dir_ino points to a
directory inode ino that is known to be a child of another
directory. Therefore, the entry is invalid and is deleted.
This message refers to an entry in a small directory. If this
were a large directory, the last phrase would read "will clear
entry references free inode inoin directory dir_ino, will clearentry
An entry in directory inode dir_ino references an inode ino
that is known to be free. The entry is therefore invalid and
is deleted. This message refers to a large directory. If the
directory were small, the message would read "junking entry
xfs_repair -n (no modify mode) will return a status of 1 if
filesystem corruption was detected and 0 if no filesystem corruption
was detected. xfs_repair run without the -n option will always
return a status code of 0 if it completes without problems. If a
runtime error is encountered during operation, it will return a
status of 1. In this case, xfs_repair should be restarted. If
xfs_repair is unable to proceed due to a dirty log, it will return a
status of 2. See below.
Due to the design of the XFS log, a dirty log can only be replayed by
the kernel, on a machine having the same CPU architecture as the
machine which was writing to the log. xfs_repair cannot replay a
dirty log and will exit with a status code of 2 when it detects a
In this situation, the log can be replayed by mounting and
immediately unmounting the filesystem on the same class of machine
that crashed. Please make sure that the machine's hardware is
reliable before replaying to avoid compounding the problems.
If mounting fails, the log can be erased by running xfs_repair with
the -L option. All metadata updates in progress at the time of the
crash will be lost, which may cause significant filesystem damage.
This should only be used as a last resort.
The filesystem to be checked and repaired must have been unmounted
cleanly using normal system administration procedures (the umount(8)
command or system shutdown), not as a result of a crash or system
reset. If the filesystem has not been unmounted cleanly, mount it
and unmount it cleanly before running xfs_repair.
xfs_repair does not do a thorough job on XFS extended attributes.
The structure of the attribute fork will be consistent, but only the
contents of attribute forks that will fit into an inode are checked.
This limitation will be fixed in the future.
The no-modify mode (-n option) is not completely accurate. It does
not catch inconsistencies in the freespace and inode maps,
particularly lost blocks or subtly corrupted maps (trees).
The no-modify mode can generate repeated warnings about the same
problems because it cannot fix the problems as they are encountered.
If a filesystem fails to be repaired, a metadump image can be
generated with xfs_metadump(8) and be sent to an XFS maintainer to be
analysed and xfs_repair fixed and/or improved.
This page is part of the xfsprogs (utilities for XFS filesystems)
project. Information about the project can be found at
⟨http://xfs.org/⟩. If you have a bug report for this manual page, see
⟨http://oss.sgi.com/bugzilla/buglist.cgi?product=XFS⟩. This page was
obtained from the project's upstream Git repository
⟨git://oss.sgi.com/xfs/cmds/xfsprogs⟩ on 2017-03-13. If you discover
any rendering problems in this HTML version of the page, or you
believe there is a better or more up-to-date source for the page, or
you have corrections or improvements to the information in this
COLOPHON (which is not part of the original manual page), send a mail