"Runlevels" are an obsolete way to start and stop groups of services
used in SysV init. systemd provides a compatibility layer that maps
runlevels to targets, and associated binaries like runlevel.
Nevertheless, only one runlevel can be "active" at a given time,
while systemd can activate multiple targets concurrently, so the
mapping to runlevels is confusing and only approximate. Runlevels
should not be used in new code, and are mostly useful as a shorthand
way to refer the matching systemd targets in kernel boot parameters.
Table 1. Mapping between runlevels and systemd targets
│Runlevel │ Target │
│0 │ poweroff.target │
│1 │ rescue.target │
│2, 3, 4 │ multi-user.target │
│5 │ graphical.target │
│6 │ reboot.target │
runlevel prints the previous and current SysV runlevel if they are
The two runlevel characters are separated by a single space
character. If a runlevel cannot be determined, N is printed instead.
If neither can be determined, the word "unknown" is printed.
Unless overridden in the environment, this will check the utmp
database for recent runlevel changes.
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project. Information about the project can be found at
⟨http://www.freedesktop.org/wiki/Software/systemd⟩. If you have a bug
report for this manual page, see
page was obtained from the project's upstream Git repository
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systemd 233 RUNLEVEL(8)