NAME | SYNOPSIS | DESCRIPTION | OPTIONS | RUNTIME MANAGEMENT COMMANDS | EXAMPLES | SEE ALSO | COLOPHON

ovs-ofctl(8)                 Open vSwitch Manual                ovs-ofctl(8)

NAME         top

       ovs-ofctl - administer OpenFlow switches

SYNOPSIS         top

       ovs-ofctl [options] command [switch] [args...]

DESCRIPTION         top

       The ovs-ofctl program is a command line tool for monitoring and
       administering OpenFlow switches.  It can also show the current state
       of an OpenFlow switch, including features, configuration, and table
       entries.  It should work with any OpenFlow switch, not just Open
       vSwitch.

   OpenFlow Switch Management Commands
       These commands allow ovs-ofctl to monitor and administer an OpenFlow
       switch.  It is able to show the current state of a switch, including
       features, configuration, and table entries.

       Most of these commands take an argument that specifies the method for
       connecting to an OpenFlow switch.  The following connection methods
       are supported:

              ssl:host[:port]
              tcp:host[:port]
                     The specified port on the given host, which can be
                     expressed either as a DNS name (if built with unbound
                     library) or an IP address in IPv4 or IPv6 address
                     format.  Wrap IPv6 addresses in square brackets, e.g.
                     tcp:[::1]:6653.  On Linux, use %device to designate a
                     scope for IPv6 link-level addresses, e.g.
                     tcp:[fe80::1234%eth0]:6653.  For ssl, the
                     --private-key, --certificate, and --ca-cert options are
                     mandatory.

                     If port is not specified, it defaults to 6653.

              unix:file
                     On POSIX, a Unix domain server socket named file.

                     On Windows, connect to a local named pipe that is
                     represented by a file created in the path file to mimic
                     the behavior of a Unix domain socket.

              file   This is short for unix:file, as long as file does not
                     contain a colon.

              bridge This is short for
                     unix:/usr/local/var/run/openvswitch/bridge.mgmt, as
                     long as bridge does not contain a colon.

              [type@]dp
                     Attempts to look up the bridge associated with dp and
                     open as above.  If type is given, it specifies the
                     datapath provider of dp, otherwise the default provider
                     system is assumed.

       show switch
              Prints to the console information on switch, including
              information on its flow tables and ports.

       dump-tables switch
              Prints to the console statistics for each of the flow tables
              used by switch.

       dump-table-features switch
              Prints to the console features for each of the flow tables
              used by switch.

       dump-table-desc switch
              Prints to the console configuration for each of the flow
              tables used by switch for OpenFlow 1.4+.

       mod-table switch table setting
              This command configures flow table settings in switch for
              OpenFlow table table, which may be expressed as a number or
              (unless --no-names is specified) a name.

              The available settings depend on the OpenFlow version in use.
              In OpenFlow 1.1 and 1.2 (which must be enabled with the -O
              option) only, mod-table configures behavior when no flow is
              found when a packet is looked up in a flow table.  The
              following setting values are available:

              drop   Drop the packet.

              continue
                     Continue to the next table in the pipeline.  (This is
                     how an OpenFlow 1.0 switch always handles packets that
                     do not match any flow, in tables other than the last
                     one.)

              controller
                     Send to controller.  (This is how an OpenFlow 1.0
                     switch always handles packets that do not match any
                     flow in the last table.)

              In OpenFlow 1.3 and later (which must be enabled with the -O
              option) and Open vSwitch 2.11 and later only, mod-table can
              change the name of a table:

              name:new-name
                     Changes the name of the table to new-name.  Use an
                     empty new-name to clear the name.  (This will be
                     ineffective if the name is set via the name column in
                     the Flow_Table table in the Open_vSwitch database as
                     described in ovs-vswitchd.conf.db(5).)

              In OpenFlow 1.4 and later (which must be enabled with the -O
              option) only, mod-table configures the behavior when a
              controller attempts to add a flow to a flow table that is
              full.  The following setting values are available:

              evict  Delete some existing flow from the flow table,
                     according to the algorithm described for the Flow_Table
                     table in ovs-vswitchd.conf.db(5).

              noevict
                     Refuse to add the new flow.  (Eviction might still be
                     enabled through the overflow_policy column in the
                     Flow_Table table documented in
                     ovs-vswitchd.conf.db(5).)

              vacancy:low,high
                     Enables sending vacancy events to controllers using
                     TABLE_STATUS messages, based on percentage thresholds
                     low and high.

              novacancy
                     Disables vacancy events.

       dump-ports switch [netdev]
              Prints to the console statistics for network devices
              associated with switch.  If netdev is specified, only the
              statistics associated with that device will be printed.
              netdev can be an OpenFlow assigned port number or device name,
              e.g. eth0.

       dump-ports-desc switch [port]
              Prints to the console detailed information about network
              devices associated with switch.  To dump only a specific port,
              specify its number as port.  Otherwise, if port is omitted, or
              if it is specified as ANY, then all ports are printed.  This
              is a subset of the information provided by the show command.

              If the connection to switch negotiates OpenFlow 1.0, 1.2, or
              1.2, this command uses an OpenFlow extension only implemented
              in Open vSwitch (version 1.7 and later).

              Only OpenFlow 1.5 and later support dumping a specific port.
              Earlier versions of OpenFlow always dump all ports.

       mod-port switch port action
              Modify characteristics of port port in switch.  port may be an
              OpenFlow port number or name (unless --no-names is specified)
              or the keyword LOCAL (the preferred way to refer to the
              OpenFlow local port).  The action may be any one of the
              following:
              up
              down   Enable or disable the interface.  This is equivalent to
                     ip link set up or ip link set down on a Unix system.

              stp
              no-stp Enable or disable 802.1D spanning tree protocol (STP)
                     on the interface.  OpenFlow implementations that don't
                     support STP will refuse to enable it.

              receive
              no-receive
              receive-stp
              no-receive-stp
                     Enable or disable OpenFlow processing of packets
                     received on this interface.  When packet processing is
                     disabled, packets will be dropped instead of being
                     processed through the OpenFlow table.  The receive or
                     no-receive setting applies to all packets except 802.1D
                     spanning tree packets, which are separately controlled
                     by receive-stp or no-receive-stp.

              forward
              no-forward
                     Allow or disallow forwarding of traffic to this
                     interface.  By default, forwarding is enabled.

              flood
              no-flood
                     Controls whether an OpenFlow flood action will send
                     traffic out this interface.  By default, flooding is
                     enabled.  Disabling flooding is primarily useful to
                     prevent loops when a spanning tree protocol is not in
                     use.

              packet-in
              no-packet-in
                     Controls whether packets received on this interface
                     that do not match a flow table entry generate a
                     ``packet in'' message to the OpenFlow controller.  By
                     default, ``packet in'' messages are enabled.

              The show command displays (among other information) the
              configuration that mod-port changes.

       get-frags switch
              Prints switch's fragment handling mode.  See set-frags, below,
              for a description of each fragment handling mode.

              The show command also prints the fragment handling mode among
              its other output.

       set-frags switch frag_mode
              Configures switch's treatment of IPv4 and IPv6 fragments.  The
              choices for frag_mode are:

              normal Fragments pass through the flow table like non-
                     fragmented packets.  The TCP ports, UDP ports, and ICMP
                     type and code fields are always set to 0, even for
                     fragments where that information would otherwise be
                     available (fragments with offset 0).  This is the
                     default fragment handling mode for an OpenFlow switch.

              drop   Fragments are dropped without passing through the flow
                     table.

              reassemble
                     The switch reassembles fragments into full IP packets
                     before passing them through the flow table.  Open
                     vSwitch does not implement this fragment handling mode.

              nx-match
                     Fragments pass through the flow table like non-
                     fragmented packets.  The TCP ports, UDP ports, and ICMP
                     type and code fields are available for matching for
                     fragments with offset 0, and set to 0 in fragments with
                     nonzero offset.  This mode is a Nicira extension.

              See the description of ip_frag, in ovs-fields(7), for a way to
              match on whether a packet is a fragment and on its fragment
              offset.

       dump-flows switch [flows]
              Prints to the console all flow entries in switch's tables that
              match flows.  If flows is omitted, all flows in the switch are
              retrieved.  See Flow Syntax, below, for the syntax of flows.
              The output format is described in Table Entry Output.

              By default, ovs-ofctl prints flow entries in the same order
              that the switch sends them, which is unlikely to be intuitive
              or consistent.  Use --sort and --rsort to control display
              order.  The --names/--no-names and --stats/--no-stats options
              also affect output formatting.  See the descriptions of these
              options, under OPTIONS below, for more information

       dump-aggregate switch [flows]
              Prints to the console aggregate statistics for flows in
              switch's tables that match flows.  If flows is omitted, the
              statistics are aggregated across all flows in the switch's
              flow tables.  See Flow Syntax, below, for the syntax of flows.
              The output format is described in Table Entry Output.

       queue-stats switch [port [queue]]
              Prints to the console statistics for the specified queue on
              port within switch.  port can be an OpenFlow port number or
              name, the keyword LOCAL (the preferred way to refer to the
              OpenFlow local port), or the keyword ALL.  Either of port or
              queue or both may be omitted (or equivalently the keyword
              ALL).  If both are omitted, statistics are printed for all
              queues on all ports.  If only queue is omitted, then
              statistics are printed for all queues on port; if only port is
              omitted, then statistics are printed for queue on every port
              where it exists.

       queue-get-config switch [port [queue]]
              Prints to the console the configuration of queue on port in
              switch.  If port is omitted or ANY, reports queues for all
              port.  If queue is omitted or ANY, reports all queues.  For
              OpenFlow 1.3 and earlier, the output always includes all
              queues, ignoring queue if specified.

              This command has limited usefulness, because ports often have
              no configured queues and because the OpenFlow protocol
              provides only very limited information about the configuration
              of a queue.

       dump-ipfix-bridge switch
              Prints to the console the statistics of bridge IPFIX for
              switch.  If bridge IPFIX is configured on the switch, IPFIX
              statistics can be retrieved.  Otherwise, error message will be
              printed.

              This command uses an Open vSwitch extension that is only in
              Open vSwitch 2.6 and later.

       dump-ipfix-flow switch
              Prints to the console the statistics of flow-based IPFIX for
              switch.  If flow-based IPFIX is configured on the switch,
              statistics of all the collector set ids on the switch will be
              printed.  Otherwise, print error message.

              Refer to ovs-vswitchd.conf.db(5) for more details on
              configuring flow based IPFIX and collector set ids.

              This command uses an Open vSwitch extension that is only in
              Open vSwitch 2.6 and later.

       ct-flush-zone switch zone
              Flushes the connection tracking entries in zone on switch.

              This command uses an Open vSwitch extension that is only in
              Open vSwitch 2.6 and later.

   OpenFlow Switch Flow Table Commands
       These commands manage the flow table in an OpenFlow switch.  In each
       case, flow specifies a flow entry in the format described in Flow
       Syntax, below, file is a text file that contains zero or more flows
       in the same syntax, one per line, and the optional --bundle option
       operates the command as a single atomic transation, see option
       --bundle, below.

       [--bundle] add-flow switch flow
       [--bundle] add-flow switch - < file
       [--bundle] add-flows switch file
              Add each flow entry to switch's tables.  Each flow
              specification (e.g., each line in file) may start with add,
              modify, delete, modify_strict, or delete_strict keyword to
              specify whether a flow is to be added, modified, or deleted,
              and whether the modify or delete is strict or not.  For
              backwards compatibility a flow specification without one of
              these keywords is treated as a flow add.  All flow mods are
              executed in the order specified.

       [--bundle] [--strict] mod-flows switch flow
       [--bundle] [--strict] mod-flows switch - < file
              Modify the actions in entries from switch's tables that match
              the specified flows.  With --strict, wildcards are not treated
              as active for matching purposes.

       [--bundle] del-flows switch
       [--bundle] [--strict] del-flows switch [flow]
       [--bundle] [--strict] del-flows switch - < file
              Deletes entries from switch's flow table.  With only a switch
              argument, deletes all flows.  Otherwise, deletes flow entries
              that match the specified flows.  With --strict, wildcards are
              not treated as active for matching purposes.

       [--bundle] [--readd] replace-flows switch file
              Reads flow entries from file (or stdin if file is -) and
              queries the flow table from switch.  Then it fixes up any
              differences, adding flows from flow that are missing on
              switch, deleting flows from switch that are not in file, and
              updating flows in switch whose actions, cookie, or timeouts
              differ in file.

              With --readd, ovs-ofctl adds all the flows from file, even
              those that exist with the same actions, cookie, and timeout in
              switch.  In OpenFlow 1.0 and 1.1, re-adding a flow always
              resets the flow's packet and byte counters to 0, and in
              OpenFlow 1.2 and later, it does so only if the reset_counts
              flag is set.

       diff-flows source1 source2
              Reads flow entries from source1 and source2 and prints the
              differences.  A flow that is in source1 but not in source2 is
              printed preceded by a -, and a flow that is in source2 but not
              in source1 is printed preceded by a +.  If a flow exists in
              both source1 and source2 with different actions, cookie, or
              timeouts, then both versions are printed preceded by - and +,
              respectively.

              source1 and source2 may each name a file or a switch.  If a
              name begins with / or ., then it is considered to be a file
              name.  A name that contains : is considered to be a switch.
              Otherwise, it is a file if a file by that name exists, a
              switch if not.

              For this command, an exit status of 0 means that no
              differences were found, 1 means that an error occurred, and 2
              means that some differences were found.

       packet-out switch packet-out
              Connects to switch and instructs it to execute the packet-out
              OpenFlow message, specified as defined in Packet-Out Syntax
              section.

   Group Table Commands
       These commands manage the group table in an OpenFlow switch.  In each
       case, group specifies a group entry in the format described in Group
       Syntax, below, and file is a text file that contains zero or more
       groups in the same syntax, one per line, and the optional --bundle
       option operates the command as a single atomic transation, see option
       --bundle, below.

       The group commands work only with switches that support OpenFlow 1.1
       or later or the Open vSwitch group extensions to OpenFlow 1.0 (added
       in Open vSwitch 2.9.90).  For OpenFlow 1.1 or later, it is necessary
       to explicitly enable these protocol versions in ovs-ofctl (using -O).
       For more information, see ``Q: What versions of OpenFlow does Open
       vSwitch support?'' in the Open vSwitch FAQ.

       [--bundle] add-group switch group
       [--bundle] add-group switch - < file
       [--bundle] add-groups switch file
              Add each group entry to switch's tables.  Each group
              specification (e.g., each line in file) may start with add,
              modify, add_or_mod, delete, insert_bucket, or remove_bucket
              keyword to specify whether a flow is to be added, modified, or
              deleted, or whether a group bucket is to be added or removed.
              For backwards compatibility a group specification without one
              of these keywords is treated as a group add.  All group mods
              are executed in the order specified.

       [--bundle] [--may-create] mod-group switch group
       [--bundle] [--may-create] mod-group switch - < file
              Modify the action buckets in entries from switch's tables for
              each group entry.  If a specified group does not already
              exist, then without --may-create, this command has no effect;
              with --may-create, it creates a new group.  The --may-create
              option uses an Open vSwitch extension to OpenFlow only
              implemented in Open vSwitch 2.6 and later.

       [--bundle] del-groups switch
       [--bundle] del-groups switch [group]
       [--bundle] del-groups switch - < file
              Deletes entries from switch's group table.  With only a switch
              argument, deletes all groups.  Otherwise, deletes the group
              for each group entry.

       [--bundle] insert-buckets switch group
       [--bundle] insert-buckets switch - < file
              Add buckets to an existing group present in the switch's group
              table.  If no command_bucket_id is present in the group
              specification then all buckets of the group are removed.

       [--bundle] remove-buckets switch group
       [--bundle] remove-buckets switch - < file
              Remove buckets to an existing group present in the switch's
              group table.  If no command_bucket_id is present in the group
              specification then all buckets of the group are removed.

       dump-groups switch [group]
              Prints group entries in switch's tables to console.  To dump
              only a specific group, specify its number as group.
              Otherwise, if group is omitted, or if it is specified as ALL,
              then all groups are printed.

              Only OpenFlow 1.5 and later support dumping a specific group.
              Earlier versions of OpenFlow always dump all groups.

       dump-group-features switch
              Prints to the console the group features of the switch.

       dump-group-stats switch [group]
              Prints to the console statistics for the specified group in
              switch's tables.  If group is omitted then statistics for all
              groups are printed.

   OpenFlow 1.3+ Switch Meter Table Commands
       These commands manage the meter table in an OpenFlow switch.  In each
       case, meter specifies a meter entry in the format described in Meter
       Syntax, below.

       OpenFlow 1.3 introduced support for meters, so these commands only
       work with switches that support OpenFlow 1.3 or later.  It is
       necessary to explicitly enable these protocol versions in ovs-ofctl
       (using -O) and in the switch itself (with the protocols column in the
       Bridge table).  For more information, see ``Q: What versions of
       OpenFlow does Open vSwitch support?'' in the Open vSwitch FAQ.

       add-meter switch meter
              Add a meter entry to switch's tables. The meter syntax is
              described in section Meter Syntax, below.

       mod-meter switch meter
              Modify an existing meter.

       del-meters switch [meter]
              Delete entries from switch's meter table.  To delete only a
              specific meter, specify its number as meter.  Otherwise, if
              meter is omitted, or if it is specified as all, then all
              meters are deleted.

       dump-meters switch [meter]
              Print entries from switch's meter table.  To print only a
              specific meter, specify its number as meter.  Otherwise, if
              meter is omitted, or if it is specified as all, then all
              meters are printed.

       meter-stats switch [meter]
              Print meter statistics.  meter can specify a single meter with
              syntax meter=id, or all meters with syntax meter=all.

       meter-features switch
              Print meter features.

   OpenFlow Switch Bundle Command
       Transactional updates to both flow and group tables can be made with
       the bundle command.  file is a text file that contains zero or more
       flow mods, group mods, or packet-outs in Flow Syntax, Group Syntax,
       or Packet-Out Syntax, each line preceded by flow, group, or
       packet-out keyword, correspondingly.  The flow keyword may be
       optionally followed by one of the keywords add, modify,
       modify_strict, delete, or delete_strict, of which the add is assumed
       if a bare flow is given.  Similarly, the group keyword may be
       optionally followed by one of the keywords add, modify, add_or_mod,
       delete, insert_bucket, or remove_bucket, of which the add is assumed
       if a bare group is given.

       bundle switch file
              Execute all flow and group mods in file as a single atomic
              transaction against switch's tables.  All bundled mods are
              executed in the order specified.

   OpenFlow Switch Tunnel TLV Table Commands
       Open vSwitch maintains a mapping table between tunnel option TLVs
       (defined by <class, type, length>) and NXM fields tun_metadatan,
       where n ranges from 0 to 63, that can be operated on for the purposes
       of matches, actions, etc. This TLV table can be used for Geneve
       option TLVs or other protocols with options in same TLV format as
       Geneve options. This mapping must be explicitly specified by the user
       through the following commands.

       A TLV mapping is specified with the syntax
       {class=class,type=type,len=length}->tun_metadatan.  When an option
       mapping exists for a given tun_metadatan, matching on the defined
       field becomes possible, e.g.:

              ovs-ofctl add-tlv-map br0
              "{class=0xffff,type=0,len=4}->tun_metadata0"

              ovs-ofctl add-flow br0 tun_metadata0=1234,actions=controller

       A mapping should not be changed while it is in active use by a flow.
       The result of doing so is undefined.

       These commands are Nicira extensions to OpenFlow and require Open
       vSwitch 2.5 or later.

       add-tlv-map switch option[,option]...
              Add each option to switch's tables. Duplicate fields are
              rejected.

       del-tlv-map switch [option[,option]]...
              Delete each option from switch's table, or all option TLV
              mapping if no option is specified.  Fields that aren't mapped
              are ignored.

       dump-tlv-map switch
              Show the currently mapped fields in the switch's option table
              as well as switch capabilities.

   OpenFlow Switch Monitoring Commands
       snoop switch
              Connects to switch and prints to the console all OpenFlow
              messages received.  Unlike other ovs-ofctl commands, if switch
              is the name of a bridge, then the snoop command connects to a
              Unix domain socket named
              /usr/local/var/run/openvswitch/switch.snoop.  ovs-vswitchd
              listens on such a socket for each bridge and sends to it all
              of the OpenFlow messages sent to or received from its
              configured OpenFlow controller.  Thus, this command can be
              used to view OpenFlow protocol activity between a switch and
              its controller.

              When a switch has more than one controller configured, only
              the traffic to and from a single controller is output.  If
              none of the controllers is configured as a master or a slave
              (using a Nicira extension to OpenFlow 1.0 or 1.1, or a
              standard request in OpenFlow 1.2 or later), then a controller
              is chosen arbitrarily among them.  If there is a master
              controller, it is chosen; otherwise, if there are any
              controllers that are not masters or slaves, one is chosen
              arbitrarily; otherwise, a slave controller is chosen
              arbitrarily.  This choice is made once at connection time and
              does not change as controllers reconfigure their roles.

              If a switch has no controller configured, or if the configured
              controller is disconnected, no traffic is sent, so monitoring
              will not show any traffic.

       monitor switch [miss-len] [invalid_ttl] [watch:[spec...]]
              Connects to switch and prints to the console all OpenFlow
              messages received.  Usually, switch should specify the name of
              a bridge in the ovs-vswitchd database. This is available only
              in OpenFlow 1.0 as Nicira extension.

              If miss-len is provided, ovs-ofctl sends an OpenFlow ``set
              configuration'' message at connection setup time that requests
              miss-len bytes of each packet that misses the flow table.
              Open vSwitch does not send these and other asynchronous
              messages to an ovs-ofctl monitor client connection unless a
              nonzero value is specified on this argument.  (Thus, if
              miss-len is not specified, very little traffic will ordinarily
              be printed.)

              If invalid_ttl is passed, ovs-ofctl sends an OpenFlow ``set
              configuration'' message at connection setup time that requests
              INVALID_TTL_TO_CONTROLLER, so that ovs-ofctl monitor can
              receive ``packet-in'' messages when TTL reaches zero on
              dec_ttl action.  Only OpenFlow 1.1 and 1.2 support
              invalid_ttl; Open vSwitch also implements it for OpenFlow 1.0
              as an extension.

              watch:[spec...] causes ovs-ofctl to send a ``monitor request''
              Nicira extension message to the switch at connection setup
              time.  This message causes the switch to send information
              about flow table changes as they occur.  The following comma-
              separated spec syntax is available:

              !initial
                     Do not report the switch's initial flow table contents.

              !add   Do not report newly added flows.

              !delete
                     Do not report deleted flows.

              !modify
                     Do not report modifications to existing flows.

              !own   Abbreviate changes made to the flow table by
                     ovs-ofctl's own connection to the switch.  (These could
                     only occur using the ofctl/send command described below
                     under RUNTIME MANAGEMENT COMMANDS.)

              !actions
                     Do not report actions as part of flow updates.

              table=table
                     Limits the monitoring to the table with the given
                     table, which may be expressed as a number between 0 and
                     254 or (unless --no-names is specified) a name.  By
                     default, all tables are monitored.

              out_port=port
                     If set, only flows that output to port are monitored.
                     The port may be an OpenFlow port number or keyword
                     (e.g. LOCAL).

              field=value
                     Monitors only flows that have field specified as the
                     given value.  Any syntax valid for matching on
                     dump-flows may be used.

              This command may be useful for debugging switch or controller
              implementations.  With watch:, it is particularly useful for
              observing how a controller updates flow tables.

   OpenFlow Switch and Controller Commands
       The following commands, like those in the previous section, may be
       applied to OpenFlow switches, using any of the connection methods
       described in that section.  Unlike those commands, these may also be
       applied to OpenFlow controllers.

       probe target
              Sends a single OpenFlow echo-request message to target and
              waits for the response.  With the -t or --timeout option, this
              command can test whether an OpenFlow switch or controller is
              up and running.

       ping target [n]
              Sends a series of 10 echo request packets to target and times
              each reply.  The echo request packets consist of an OpenFlow
              header plus n bytes (default: 64) of randomly generated
              payload.  This measures the latency of individual requests.

       benchmark target n count
              Sends count echo request packets that each consist of an
              OpenFlow header plus n bytes of payload and waits for each
              response.  Reports the total time required.  This is a measure
              of the maximum bandwidth to target for round-trips of n-byte
              messages.

   Other Commands
       ofp-parse file
              Reads file (or stdin if file is -) as a series of OpenFlow
              messages in the binary format used on an OpenFlow connection,
              and prints them to the console.  This can be useful for
              printing OpenFlow messages captured from a TCP stream.

       ofp-parse-pcap file [port...]
              Reads file, which must be in the PCAP format used by network
              capture tools such as tcpdump or wireshark, extracts all the
              TCP streams for OpenFlow connections, and prints the OpenFlow
              messages in those connections in human-readable format on
              stdout.

              OpenFlow connections are distinguished by TCP port number.
              Non-OpenFlow packets are ignored.  By default, data on TCP
              ports 6633 and 6653 are considered to be OpenFlow.  Specify
              one or more port arguments to override the default.

              This command cannot usefully print SSL encrypted traffic.  It
              does not understand IPv6.

   Flow Syntax
       Some ovs-ofctl commands accept an argument that describes a flow or
       flows.  Such flow descriptions comprise a series of field=value
       assignments, separated by commas or white space.  (Embedding spaces
       into a flow description normally requires quoting to prevent the
       shell from breaking the description into multiple arguments.)

       Flow descriptions should be in normal form.  This means that a flow
       may only specify a value for an L3 field if it also specifies a
       particular L2 protocol, and that a flow may only specify an L4 field
       if it also specifies particular L2 and L3 protocol types.  For
       example, if the L2 protocol type dl_type is wildcarded, then L3
       fields nw_src, nw_dst, and nw_proto must also be wildcarded.
       Similarly, if dl_type or nw_proto (the L3 protocol type) is
       wildcarded, so must be the L4 fields tcp_dst and tcp_src.  ovs-ofctl
       will warn about flows not in normal form.

       ovs-fields(7) describes the supported fields and how to match them.
       In addition to match fields, commands that operate on flows accept a
       few additional key-value pairs:

       table=table
              For flow dump commands, limits the flows dumped to those in
              table, which may be expressed as a number between 0 and 255 or
              (unless --no-names is specified) a name.  If not specified (or
              if 255 is specified as table), then flows in all tables are
              dumped.

              For flow table modification commands, behavior varies based on
              the OpenFlow version used to connect to the switch:

              OpenFlow 1.0
                     OpenFlow 1.0 does not support table for modifying
                     flows.  ovs-ofctl will exit with an error if table
                     (other than table=255) is specified for a switch that
                     only supports OpenFlow 1.0.

                     In OpenFlow 1.0, the switch chooses the table into
                     which to insert a new flow.  The Open vSwitch software
                     switch always chooses table 0.  Other Open vSwitch
                     datapaths and other OpenFlow implementations may choose
                     different tables.

                     The OpenFlow 1.0 behavior in Open vSwitch for modifying
                     or removing flows depends on whether --strict is used.
                     Without --strict, the command applies to matching flows
                     in all tables.  With --strict, the command will operate
                     on any single matching flow in any table; it will do
                     nothing if there are matches in more than one table.
                     (The distinction between these behaviors only matters
                     if non-OpenFlow 1.0 commands were also used, because
                     OpenFlow 1.0 alone cannot add flows with the same
                     matching criteria to multiple tables.)

              OpenFlow 1.0 with table_id extension
                     Open vSwitch implements an OpenFlow extension that
                     allows the controller to specify the table on which to
                     operate.  ovs-ofctl automatically enables the extension
                     when table is specified and OpenFlow 1.0 is used.
                     ovs-ofctl automatically detects whether the switch
                     supports the extension.  As of this writing, this
                     extension is only known to be implemented by Open
                     vSwitch.

                     With this extension, ovs-ofctl operates on the
                     requested table when table is specified, and acts as
                     described for OpenFlow 1.0 above when no table is
                     specified (or for table=255).

              OpenFlow 1.1
                     OpenFlow 1.1 requires flow table modification commands
                     to specify a table.  When table is not specified (or
                     table=255 is specified), ovs-ofctl defaults to table 0.

              OpenFlow 1.2 and later
                     OpenFlow 1.2 and later allow flow deletion commands,
                     but not other flow table modification commands, to
                     operate on all flow tables, with the behavior described
                     above for OpenFlow 1.0.

       duration=...
       n_packet=...
       n_bytes=...
              ovs-ofctl ignores assignments to these ``fields'' to allow
              output from the dump-flows command to be used as input for
              other commands that parse flows.

       The add-flow, add-flows, and mod-flows commands require an additional
       field, which must be the final field specified:

       actions=[action][,action...]
              Specifies a comma-separated list of actions to take on a
              packet when the flow entry matches.  If no action is
              specified, then packets matching the flow are dropped.  See
              ovs-actions(7) for details on the syntax and semantics of
              actions.  K

       An opaque identifier called a cookie can be used as a handle to
       identify a set of flows:

       cookie=value
              A cookie can be associated with a flow using the add-flow,
              add-flows, and mod-flows commands.  value can be any 64-bit
              number and need not be unique among flows.  If this field is
              omitted, a default cookie value of 0 is used.

       cookie=value/mask
              When using NXM, the cookie can be used as a handle for
              querying, modifying, and deleting flows.  value and mask may
              be supplied for the del-flows, mod-flows, dump-flows, and
              dump-aggregate commands to limit matching cookies.  A 1-bit in
              mask indicates that the corresponding bit in cookie must match
              exactly, and a 0-bit wildcards that bit.  A mask of -1 may be
              used to exactly match a cookie.

              The mod-flows command can update the cookies of flows that
              match a cookie by specifying the cookie field twice (once with
              a mask for matching and once without to indicate the new
              value):

              ovs-ofctl mod-flows br0 cookie=1,actions=normal
                     Change all flows' cookies to 1 and change their actions
                     to normal.

              ovs-ofctl mod-flows br0 cookie=1/-1,cookie=2,actions=normal
                     Update cookies with a value of 1 to 2 and change their
                     actions to normal.

              The ability to match on cookies was added in Open vSwitch
              1.5.0.

       The following additional field sets the priority for flows added by
       the add-flow and add-flows commands.  For mod-flows and del-flows
       when --strict is specified, priority must match along with the rest
       of the flow specification.  For mod-flows without --strict, priority
       is only significant if the command creates a new flow, that is, non-
       strict mod-flows does not match on priority and will not change the
       priority of existing flows.  Other commands do not allow priority to
       be specified.

       priority=value
              The priority at which a wildcarded entry will match in
              comparison to others.  value is a number between 0 and 65535,
              inclusive.  A higher value will match before a lower one.  An
              exact-match entry will always have priority over an entry
              containing wildcards, so it has an implicit priority value of
              65535.  When adding a flow, if the field is not specified, the
              flow's priority will default to 32768.

              OpenFlow leaves behavior undefined when two or more flows with
              the same priority can match a single packet.  Some users
              expect ``sensible'' behavior, such as more specific flows
              taking precedence over less specific flows, but OpenFlow does
              not specify this and Open vSwitch does not implement it.
              Users should therefore take care to use priorities to ensure
              the behavior that they expect.

       The add-flow, add-flows, and mod-flows commands support the following
       additional options.  These options affect only new flows.  Thus, for
       add-flow and add-flows, these options are always significant, but for
       mod-flows they are significant only if the command creates a new
       flow, that is, their values do not update or affect existing flows.

       idle_timeout=seconds
              Causes the flow to expire after the given number of seconds of
              inactivity.  A value of 0 (the default) prevents a flow from
              expiring due to inactivity.

       hard_timeout=seconds
              Causes the flow to expire after the given number of seconds,
              regardless of activity.  A value of 0 (the default) gives the
              flow no hard expiration deadline.

       importance=value
              Sets the importance of a flow.  The flow entry eviction
              mechanism can use importance as a factor in deciding which
              flow to evict.  A value of 0 (the default) makes the flow non-
              evictable on the basis of importance.  Specify a value between
              0 and 65535.

              Only OpenFlow 1.4 and later support importance.

       send_flow_rem
              Marks the flow with a flag that causes the switch to generate
              a ``flow removed'' message and send it to interested
              controllers when the flow later expires or is removed.

       check_overlap
              Forces the switch to check that the flow match does not
              overlap that of any different flow with the same priority in
              the same table.  (This check is expensive so it is best to
              avoid it.)

       reset_counts
              When this flag is specified on a flow being added to a switch,
              and the switch already has a flow with an identical match, an
              OpenFlow 1.2 (or later) switch resets the flow's packet and
              byte counters to 0.  Without the flag, the packet and byte
              counters are preserved.

              OpenFlow 1.0 and 1.1 switches always reset counters in this
              situation, as if reset_counts were always specified.

              Open vSwitch 1.10 added support for reset_counts.

       no_packet_counts
       no_byte_counts
              Adding these flags to a flow advises an OpenFlow 1.3 (or
              later) switch that the controller does not need packet or byte
              counters, respectively, for the flow.  Some switch
              implementations might achieve higher performance or reduce
              resource consumption when these flags are used.  These flags
              provide no benefit to the Open vSwitch software switch
              implementation.

              OpenFlow 1.2 and earlier do not support these flags.

              Open vSwitch 1.10 added support for no_packet_counts and
              no_byte_counts.

       The dump-flows, dump-aggregate, del-flow and del-flows commands
       support these additional optional fields:

       out_port=port
              If set, a matching flow must include an output action to port,
              which must be an OpenFlow port number or name (e.g. local).

       out_group=group
              If set, a matching flow must include an group action naming
              group, which must be an OpenFlow group number.  This field is
              supported in Open vSwitch 2.5 and later and requires OpenFlow
              1.1 or later.

   Table Entry Output
       The dump-tables and dump-aggregate commands print information about
       the entries in a datapath's tables.  Each line of output is a flow
       entry as described in Flow Syntax, above, plus some additional
       fields:

       duration=secs
              The time, in seconds, that the entry has been in the table.
              secs includes as much precision as the switch provides,
              possibly to nanosecond resolution.

       n_packets
              The number of packets that have matched the entry.

       n_bytes
              The total number of bytes from packets that have matched the
              entry.

       The following additional fields are included only if the switch is
       Open vSwitch 1.6 or later and the NXM flow format is used to dump the
       flow (see the description of the --flow-format option below).  The
       values of these additional fields are approximations only and in
       particular idle_age will sometimes become nonzero even for busy
       flows.

       hard_age=secs
              The integer number of seconds since the flow was added or
              modified.  hard_age is displayed only if it differs from the
              integer part of duration.  (This is separate from duration
              because mod-flows restarts the hard_timeout timer without
              zeroing duration.)

       idle_age=secs
              The integer number of seconds that have passed without any
              packets passing through the flow.

   Packet-Out Syntax
       ovs-ofctl bundle command accepts packet-outs to be specified in the
       bundle file.  Each packet-out comprises of a series of field=value
       assignments, separated by commas or white space.  (Embedding spaces
       into a packet-out description normally requires quoting to prevent
       the shell from breaking the description into multiple arguments.).
       Unless noted otherwise only the last instance of each field is
       honoured.  This same syntax is also supported by the ovs-ofctl
       packet-out command.

       in_port=port
              The port number to be considered the in_port when processing
              actions.  This can be any valid OpenFlow port number, or any
              of the LOCAL, CONTROLLER, or NONE.  This field is required.

       pipeline_field=value
              Optionally, user can specify a list of pipeline fields for a
              packet-out message. The supported pipeline fields includes
              tunnel fields and register fields as defined in ovs-fields(7).

       packet=hex-string
              The actual packet to send, expressed as a string of
              hexadecimal bytes.  This field is required.

       actions=[action][,action...]
              The syntax of actions are identical to the actions= field
              described in Flow Syntax above.  Specifying actions= is
              optional, but omitting actions is interpreted as a drop, so
              the packet will not be sent anywhere from the switch.  actions
              must be specified at the end of each line, like for flow mods.

   Group Syntax
       Some ovs-ofctl commands accept an argument that describes a group or
       groups.  Such flow descriptions comprise a series field=value
       assignments, separated by commas or white space.  (Embedding spaces
       into a group description normally requires quoting to prevent the
       shell from breaking the description into multiple arguments.). Unless
       noted otherwise only the last instance of each field is honoured.

       group_id=id
              The integer group id of group.  When this field is specified
              in del-groups or dump-groups, the keyword "all" may be used to
              designate all groups.  This field is required.

       type=type
              The type of the group.  The add-group, add-groups and mod-
              groups commands require this field.  It is prohibited for
              other commands. The following keywords designated the allowed
              types:

              all    Execute all buckets in the group.

              select Execute one bucket in the group, balancing across the
                     buckets according to their weights.  To select a
                     bucket, for each live bucket, Open vSwitch hashes flow
                     data with the bucket ID and multiplies by the bucket
                     weight to obtain a ``score,'' and then selects the
                     bucket with the highest score.  Use selection_method to
                     control the flow data used for selection.

              indirect
                     Executes the one bucket in the group.

              ff
              fast_failover
                     Executes the first live bucket in the group which is
                     associated with a live port or group.

       command_bucket_id=id
              The bucket to operate on.  The insert-buckets and remove-
              buckets commands require this field.  It is prohibited for
              other commands.  id may be an integer or one of the following
              keywords:

              all    Operate on all buckets in the group.  Only valid when
                     used with the remove-buckets command in which case the
                     effect is to remove all buckets from the group.

              first  Operate on the first bucket present in the group.  In
                     the case of the insert-buckets command the effect is to
                     insert new bucets just before the first bucket already
                     present in the group; or to replace the buckets of the
                     group if there are no buckets already present in the
                     group.  In the case of the remove-buckets command the
                     effect is to remove the first bucket of the group; or
                     do nothing if there are no buckets present in the
                     group.

              last   Operate on the last bucket present in the group.  In
                     the case of the insert-buckets command the effect is to
                     insert new bucets just after the last bucket already
                     present in the group; or to replace the buckets of the
                     group if there are no buckets already present in the
                     group.  In the case of the remove-buckets command the
                     effect is to remove the last bucket of the group; or do
                     nothing if there are no buckets present in the group.

              If id is an integer then it should correspond to the bucket_id
              of a bucket present in the group.  In case of the insert-
              buckets command the effect is to insert buckets just before
              the bucket in the group whose bucket_id is id.  In case of the
              iremove-buckets command the effect is to remove the in the
              group whose bucket_id is id.  It is an error if there is no
              bucket persent group in whose bucket_id is id.

       selection_method=method
              The selection method used to select a bucket for a select
              group.  This is a string of 1 to 15 bytes in length known to
              lower layers.  This field is optional for add-group,
              add-groups and mod-group commands on groups of type select.
              Prohibited otherwise.  If no selection method is specified,
              Open vSwitch up to release 2.9 applies the hash method with
              default fields. From 2.10 onwards Open vSwitch defaults to the
              dp_hash method with symmetric L3/L4 hash algorithm, unless the
              weighted group buckets cannot be mapped to a maximum of 64
              dp_hash values with sufficient accuracy.  In those rare cases
              Open vSwitch 2.10 and later fall back to the hash method with
              the default set of hash fields.

              dp_hash
                     Use a datapath computed hash value.  The hash algorithm
                     varies accross different datapath implementations.
                     dp_hash uses the upper 32 bits of the
                     selection_method_param as the datapath hash algorithm
                     selector.  The supported values are 0 (corresponding to
                     hash computation over the IP 5-tuple) and 1
                     (corresponding to a symmetric hash computation over the
                     IP 5-tuple).  Selecting specific fields with the fields
                     option is not supported with dp_hash).  The lower 32
                     bits are used as the hash basis.

                     Using dp_hash has the advantage that it does not
                     require the generated datapath flows to exact match any
                     additional packet header fields.  For example, even if
                     multiple TCP connections thus hashed to different
                     select group buckets have different source port
                     numbers, generally all of them would be handled with a
                     small set of already established datapath flows,
                     resulting in less latency for TCP SYN packets.  The
                     downside is that the shared datapath flows must match
                     each packet twice, as the datapath hash value
                     calculation happens only when needed, and a second
                     match is required to match some bits of its value.
                     This double-matching incurs a small additional latency
                     cost for each packet, but this latency is orders of
                     magnitude less than the latency of creating new
                     datapath flows for new TCP connections.

              hash   Use a hash computed over the fields specified with the
                     fields option, see below.  If no hash fields are
                     specified, hash defaults to a symmetric hash over the
                     combination of MAC addresses, VLAN tags, Ether type, IP
                     addresses and L4 port numbers.  hash uses the
                     selection_method_param as the hash basis.

                     Note that the hashed fields become exact matched by the
                     datapath flows.  For example, if the TCP source port is
                     hashed, the created datapath flows will match the
                     specific TCP source port value present in the packet
                     received.  Since each TCP connection generally has a
                     different source port value, a separate datapath flow
                     will be need to be inserted for each TCP connection
                     thus hashed to a select group bucket.

              This option uses a Netronome OpenFlow extension which is only
              supported when using Open vSwitch 2.4 and later with OpenFlow
              1.5 and later.

       selection_method_param=param
              64-bit integer parameter to the selection method selected by
              the selection_method field.  The parameter's use is defined by
              the lower-layer that implements the selection_method.  It is
              optional if the selection_method field is specified as a non-
              empty string.  Prohibited otherwise. The default value is
              zero.

              This option uses a Netronome OpenFlow extension which is only
              supported when using Open vSwitch 2.4 and later with OpenFlow
              1.5 and later.

       fields=field
       fields(field[=mask]...)
              The field parameters to selection method selected by the
              selection_method field.  The syntax is described in Flow
              Syntax with the additional restrictions that if a value is
              provided it is treated as a wildcard mask and wildcard masks
              following a slash are prohibited. The pre-requisites of fields
              must be provided by any flows that output to the group.  The
              use of the fields is defined by the lower-layer that
              implements the selection_method.  They are optional if the
              selection_method field is specified as ``hash', prohibited
              otherwise.  The default is no fields.

              This option will use a Netronome OpenFlow extension which is
              only supported when using Open vSwitch 2.4 and later with
              OpenFlow 1.5 and later.

       bucket=bucket_parameters
              The add-group, add-groups and mod-group commands require at
              least one bucket field. Bucket fields must appear after all
              other fields.  Multiple bucket fields to specify multiple
              buckets.  The order in which buckets are specified corresponds
              to their order in the group. If the type of the group is
              "indirect" then only one group may be specified.
              bucket_parameters consists of a list of field=value
              assignments, separated by commas or white space followed by a
              comma-separated list of actions.  The fields for
              bucket_parameters are:

              bucket_id=id
                     The 32-bit integer group id of the bucket.  Values
                     greater than 0xffffff00 are reserved.  This field was
                     added in Open vSwitch 2.4 to conform with the OpenFlow
                     1.5 specification. It is not supported when earlier
                     versions of OpenFlow are used.  Open vSwitch will
                     automatically allocate bucket ids when they are not
                     specified.

              actions=[action][,action...]
                     The syntax of actions are identical to the actions=
                     field described in Flow Syntax above. Specifying
                     actions= is optional, any unknown bucket parameter will
                     be interpreted as an action.

              weight=value
                     The relative weight of the bucket as an integer. This
                     may be used by the switch during bucket select for
                     groups whose type is select.

              watch_port=port
                     Port used to determine liveness of group.  This or the
                     watch_group field is required for groups whose type is
                     ff or fast_failover.  This or the watch_group field can
                     also be used for groups whose type is select.

              watch_group=group_id
                     Group identifier of group used to determine liveness of
                     group.  This or the watch_port field is required for
                     groups whose type is ff or fast_failover.  This or the
                     watch_port field can also be used for groups whose type
                     is select.

   Meter Syntax
       The meter table commands accept an argument that describes a meter.
       Such meter descriptions comprise a series field=value assignments,
       separated by commas or white space.  (Embedding spaces into a group
       description normally requires quoting to prevent the shell from
       breaking the description into multiple arguments.). Unless noted
       otherwise only the last instance of each field is honoured.

       meter=id
              The identifier for the meter.  An integer is used to specify a
              user-defined meter.  In addition, the keywords "all",
              "controller", and "slowpath", are also supported as virtual
              meters.  The "controller" and "slowpath" virtual meters apply
              to packets sent to the controller and to the OVS userspace,
              respectively.

              When this field is specified in del-meter, dump-meter, or
              meter-stats, the keyword "all" may be used to designate all
              meters.  This field is required, except for meter-stats, which
              dumps all stats when this field is not specified.

       kbps
       pktps  The unit for the rate and burst_size band parameters.  kbps
              specifies kilobits per second, and pktps specifies packets per
              second.  A unit is required for the add-meter and mod-meter
              commands.

       burst  If set, enables burst support for meter bands through the
              burst_size parameter.

       stats  If set, enables the collection of meter and band statistics.

       bands=band_parameters
              The add-meter and mod-meter commands require at least one band
              specification. Bands must appear after all other fields.

              type=type
                     The type of the meter band.  This keyword starts a new
                     band specification.  Each band specifies a rate above
                     which the band is to take some action. The action
                     depends on the band type.  If multiple bands' rate is
                     exceeded, then the band with the highest rate among the
                     exceeded bands is selected.  The following keywords
                     designate the allowed meter band types:

                     drop   Drop packets exceeding the band's rate limit.

              The other band_parameters are:

              rate=value
                     The relative rate limit for this band, in kilobits per
                     second or packets per second, depending on whether kbps
                     or pktps was specified.

              burst_size=size
                     If burst is specified for the meter entry, configures
                     the maximum burst allowed for the band in kilobits or
                     packets, depending on whether kbps or pktps was
                     specified.  If unspecified, the switch is free to
                     select some reasonable value depending on its
                     configuration.

OPTIONS         top

       --strict
              Uses strict matching when running flow modification commands.

       --names
       --no-names
              Every OpenFlow port has a name and a number, and every
              OpenFlow flow table has a number and sometimes a name.  By
              default, ovs-ofctl commands accept both port and table names
              and numbers, and they display port and table names if
              ovs-ofctl is running on an interactive console, numbers
              otherwise.  With --names, ovs-ofctl commands both accept and
              display port and table names; with --no-names, commands
              neither accept nor display port and table names.

              If a port or table name contains special characters or might
              be confused with a keyword within a flow, it may be enclosed
              in double quotes (escaped from the shell).  If necessary,
              JSON-style escape sequences may be used inside quotes, as
              specified in RFC 7159.  When it displays port and table names,
              ovs-ofctl quotes any name that does not start with a letter
              followed by letters or digits.

              Open vSwitch added support for port names and these options.
              Open vSwitch 2.10 added support for table names.  Earlier
              versions always behaved as if --no-names were specified.

              Open vSwitch does not place its own limit on the length of
              port names, but OpenFlow limits port names to 15 bytes.
              Because ovs-ofctl uses OpenFlow to retrieve the mapping
              between port names and numbers, names longer than this limit
              will be truncated for both display and acceptance.  Truncation
              can also cause long names that are different to appear to be
              the same; when a switch has two ports with the same
              (truncated) name, ovs-ofctl refuses to display or accept the
              name, using the number instead.

              OpenFlow and Open vSwitch limit table names to 32 bytes.

       --stats
       --no-stats
              The dump-flows command by default, or with --stats, includes
              flow duration, packet and byte counts, and idle and hard age
              in its output.  With --no-stats, it omits all of these, as
              well as cookie values and table IDs if they are zero.

       --read-only
              Do not execute read/write commands.

       --bundle
              Execute flow mods as an OpenFlow 1.4 atomic bundle
              transaction.

              ·      Within a bundle, all flow mods are processed in the
                     order they appear and as a single atomic transaction,
                     meaning that if one of them fails, the whole
                     transaction fails and none of the changes are made to
                     the switch's flow table, and that each given datapath
                     packet traversing the OpenFlow tables sees the flow
                     tables either as before the transaction, or after all
                     the flow mods in the bundle have been successfully
                     applied.

              ·      The beginning and the end of the flow table
                     modification commands in a bundle are delimited with
                     OpenFlow 1.4 bundle control messages, which makes it
                     possible to stream the included commands without
                     explicit OpenFlow barriers, which are otherwise used
                     after each flow table modification command.  This may
                     make large modifications execute faster as a bundle.

              ·      Bundles require OpenFlow 1.4 or higher.  An explicit -O
                     OpenFlow14 option is not needed, but you may need to
                     enable OpenFlow 1.4 support for OVS by setting the
                     OVSDB protocols column in the bridge table.

       -O [version[,version]...]
       --protocols=[version[,version]...]
              Sets the OpenFlow protocol versions that are allowed when
              establishing an OpenFlow session.

              These protocol versions are enabled by default:

              ·      OpenFlow10, for OpenFlow 1.0.
       The following protocol versions are generally supported, but for
       compatibility with older versions of Open vSwitch they are not
       enabled by default:

              ·      OpenFlow11, for OpenFlow 1.1.

              ·      OpenFlow12, for OpenFlow 1.2.

              ·      OpenFlow13, for OpenFlow 1.3.

              ·      OpenFlow14, for OpenFlow 1.4.

              ·      OpenFlow15, for OpenFlow 1.5.

       -F format[,format...]
       --flow-format=format[,format...]
              ovs-ofctl supports the following individual flow formats, any
              number of which may be listed as format:

              OpenFlow10-table_id
                     This is the standard OpenFlow 1.0 flow format.  All
                     OpenFlow switches and all versions of Open vSwitch
                     support this flow format.

              OpenFlow10+table_id
                     This is the standard OpenFlow 1.0 flow format plus a
                     Nicira extension that allows ovs-ofctl to specify the
                     flow table in which a particular flow should be placed.
                     Open vSwitch 1.2 and later supports this flow format.

              NXM-table_id (Nicira Extended Match)
                     This Nicira extension to OpenFlow is flexible and
                     extensible.  It supports all of the Nicira flow
                     extensions, such as tun_id and registers.  Open vSwitch
                     1.1 and later supports this flow format.

              NXM+table_id (Nicira Extended Match)
                     This combines Nicira Extended match with the ability to
                     place a flow in a specific table.  Open vSwitch 1.2 and
                     later supports this flow format.

              OXM-OpenFlow12
              OXM-OpenFlow13
              OXM-OpenFlow14
              OXM-OpenFlow15
                     These are the standard OXM (OpenFlow Extensible Match)
                     flow format in OpenFlow 1.2 and later.

              ovs-ofctl also supports the following abbreviations for
              collections of flow formats:

              any    Any supported flow format.

              OpenFlow10
                     OpenFlow10-table_id or OpenFlow10+table_id.

              NXM    NXM-table_id or NXM+table_id.

              OXM    OXM-OpenFlow12, OXM-OpenFlow13, or OXM-OpenFlow14.

              For commands that modify the flow table, ovs-ofctl by default
              negotiates the most widely supported flow format that supports
              the flows being added.  For commands that query the flow
              table, ovs-ofctl by default uses the most advanced format
              supported by the switch.

              This option, where format is a comma-separated list of one or
              more of the formats listed above, limits ovs-ofctl's choice of
              flow format.  If a command cannot work as requested using one
              of the specified flow formats, ovs-ofctl will report a fatal
              error.

       -P format
       --packet-in-format=format
              ovs-ofctl supports the following ``packet-in'' formats, in
              order of increasing capability:

              standard
                     This uses the OFPT_PACKET_IN message, the standard
                     ``packet-in'' message for any given OpenFlow version.
                     Every OpenFlow switch that supports a given OpenFlow
                     version supports this format.

              nxt_packet_in
                     This uses the NXT_PACKET_IN message, which adds many of
                     the capabilities of the OpenFlow 1.1 and later
                     ``packet-in'' messages before those OpenFlow versions
                     were available in Open vSwitch.  Open vSwitch 1.1 and
                     later support this format.  Only Open vSwitch 2.6 and
                     later, however, support it for OpenFlow 1.1 and later
                     (but there is little reason to use it with those
                     versions of OpenFlow).

              nxt_packet_in2
                     This uses the NXT_PACKET_IN2 message, which is
                     extensible and should avoid the need to define new
                     formats later.  In particular, this format supports
                     passing arbitrary user-provided data to a controller
                     using the userdata option on the controller action.
                     Open vSwitch 2.6 and later support this format.

              Without this option, ovs-ofctl prefers nxt_packet_in2 if the
              switch supports it.  Otherwise, if OpenFlow 1.0 is in use,
              ovs-ofctl prefers nxt_packet_in if the switch supports it.
              Otherwise, ovs-ofctl falls back to the standard packet-in
              format.  When this option is specified, ovs-ofctl insists on
              the selected format.  If the switch does not support the
              requested format, ovs-ofctl will report a fatal error.

              Before version 2.6, Open vSwitch called standard format
              openflow10 and nxt_packet_in format nxm, and ovs-ofctl still
              accepts these names as synonyms.  (The name openflow10 was a
              misnomer because this format actually varies from one OpenFlow
              version to another; it is not consistently OpenFlow 1.0
              format.  Similarly, when nxt_packet_in2 was introduced, the
              name nxm became confusing because it also uses OXM/NXM.)

              This option affects only the monitor command.

       --timestamp
              Print a timestamp before each received packet.  This option
              only affects the monitor, snoop, and ofp-parse-pcap commands.

       -m
       --more Increases the verbosity of OpenFlow messages printed and
              logged by ovs-ofctl commands.  Specify this option more than
              once to increase verbosity further.

       --sort[=field]
       --rsort[=field]
              Display output sorted by flow field in ascending (--sort) or
              descending (--rsort) order, where field is any of the fields
              that are allowed for matching or priority to sort by priority.
              When field is omitted, the output is sorted by priority.
              Specify these options multiple times to sort by multiple
              fields.

              Any given flow will not necessarily specify a value for a
              given field.  This requires special treatement:

              ·      A flow that does not specify any part of a field that
                     is used for sorting is sorted after all the flows that
                     do specify the field.  For example, --sort=tcp_src will
                     sort all the flows that specify a TCP source port in
                     ascending order, followed by the flows that do not
                     specify a TCP source port at all.

              ·      A flow that only specifies some bits in a field is
                     sorted as if the wildcarded bits were zero.  For
                     example, --sort=nw_src would sort a flow that specifies
                     nw_src=192.168.0.0/24 the same as nw_src=192.168.0.0.

              These options currently affect only dump-flows output.

   Daemon Options
       The following options are valid on POSIX based platforms.

       --pidfile[=pidfile]
              Causes a file (by default, ovs-ofctl.pid) to be created
              indicating the PID of the running process.  If the pidfile
              argument is not specified, or if it does not begin with /,
              then it is created in /usr/local/var/run/openvswitch.

              If --pidfile is not specified, no pidfile is created.

       --overwrite-pidfile
              By default, when --pidfile is specified and the specified
              pidfile already exists and is locked by a running process,
              ovs-ofctl refuses to start.  Specify --overwrite-pidfile to
              cause it to instead overwrite the pidfile.

              When --pidfile is not specified, this option has no effect.

       --detach
              Runs ovs-ofctl as a background process.  The process forks,
              and in the child it starts a new session, closes the standard
              file descriptors (which has the side effect of disabling
              logging to the console), and changes its current directory to
              the root (unless --no-chdir is specified).  After the child
              completes its initialization, the parent exits.  ovs-ofctl
              detaches only when executing the monitor or snoop commands.

       --monitor
              Creates an additional process to monitor the ovs-ofctl daemon.
              If the daemon dies due to a signal that indicates a
              programming error (SIGABRT, SIGALRM, SIGBUS, SIGFPE, SIGILL,
              SIGPIPE, SIGSEGV, SIGXCPU, or SIGXFSZ) then the monitor
              process starts a new copy of it.  If the daemon dies or exits
              for another reason, the monitor process exits.

              This option is normally used with --detach, but it also
              functions without it.

       --no-chdir
              By default, when --detach is specified, ovs-ofctl changes its
              current working directory to the root directory after it
              detaches.  Otherwise, invoking ovs-ofctl from a carelessly
              chosen directory would prevent the administrator from
              unmounting the file system that holds that directory.

              Specifying --no-chdir suppresses this behavior, preventing
              ovs-ofctl from changing its current working directory.  This
              may be useful for collecting core files, since it is common
              behavior to write core dumps into the current working
              directory and the root directory is not a good directory to
              use.

              This option has no effect when --detach is not specified.

       --no-self-confinement
              By default daemon will try to self-confine itself to work with
              files under well-know, at build-time whitelisted directories.
              It is better to stick with this default behavior and not to
              use this flag unless some other Access Control is used to
              confine daemon.  Note that in contrast to other access control
              implementations that are typically enforced from kernel-space
              (e.g. DAC or MAC), self-confinement is imposed from the user-
              space daemon itself and hence should not be considered as a
              full confinement strategy, but instead should be viewed as an
              additional layer of security.

       --user Causes ovs-ofctl to run as a different user specified in
              "user:group", thus dropping most of the root privileges. Short
              forms "user" and ":group" are also allowed, with current user
              or group are assumed respectively. Only daemons started by the
              root user accepts this argument.

              On Linux, daemons will be granted CAP_IPC_LOCK and
              CAP_NET_BIND_SERVICES before dropping root privileges. Daemons
              that interact with a datapath, such as ovs-vswitchd, will be
              granted three additional capabilities, namely CAP_NET_ADMIN,
              CAP_NET_BROADCAST and CAP_NET_RAW.  The capability change will
              apply even if the new user is root.

              On Windows, this option is not currently supported. For
              security reasons, specifying this option will cause the daemon
              process not to start.

       --unixctl=socket
              Sets the name of the control socket on which ovs-ofctl listens
              for runtime management commands (see RUNTIME MANAGEMENT
              COMMANDS, below).  If socket does not begin with /, it is
              interpreted as relative to /usr/local/var/run/openvswitch.  If
              --unixctl is not used at all, the default socket is
              /usr/local/var/run/openvswitch/ovs-ofctl.pid.ctl, where pid is
              ovs-ofctl's process ID.

              On Windows a local named pipe is used to listen for runtime
              management commands.  A file is created in the absolute path
              as pointed by socket or if --unixctl is not used at all, a
              file is created as ovs-ofctl.ctl in the configured OVS_RUNDIR
              directory.  The file exists just to mimic the behavior of a
              Unix domain socket.

              Specifying none for socket disables the control socket
              feature.

   Public Key Infrastructure Options
       -p privkey.pem
       --private-key=privkey.pem
              Specifies a PEM file containing the private key used as
              ovs-ofctl's identity for outgoing SSL connections.

       -c cert.pem
       --certificate=cert.pem
              Specifies a PEM file containing a certificate that certifies
              the private key specified on -p or --private-key to be
              trustworthy.  The certificate must be signed by the
              certificate authority (CA) that the peer in SSL connections
              will use to verify it.

       -C cacert.pem
       --ca-cert=cacert.pem
              Specifies a PEM file containing the CA certificate that
              ovs-ofctl should use to verify certificates presented to it by
              SSL peers.  (This may be the same certificate that SSL peers
              use to verify the certificate specified on -c or
              --certificate, or it may be a different one, depending on the
              PKI design in use.)

       -C none
       --ca-cert=none
              Disables verification of certificates presented by SSL peers.
              This introduces a security risk, because it means that
              certificates cannot be verified to be those of known trusted
              hosts.

       -v[spec]
       --verbose=[spec]
              Sets logging levels.  Without any spec, sets the log level for
              every module and destination to dbg.  Otherwise, spec is a
              list of words separated by spaces or commas or colons, up to
              one from each category below:

              ·      A valid module name, as displayed by the vlog/list
                     command on ovs-appctl(8), limits the log level change
                     to the specified module.

              ·      syslog, console, or file, to limit the log level change
                     to only to the system log, to the console, or to a
                     file, respectively.  (If --detach is specified,
                     ovs-ofctl closes its standard file descriptors, so
                     logging to the console will have no effect.)

                     On Windows platform, syslog is accepted as a word and
                     is only useful along with the --syslog-target option
                     (the word has no effect otherwise).

              ·      off, emer, err, warn, info, or dbg, to control the log
                     level.  Messages of the given severity or higher will
                     be logged, and messages of lower severity will be
                     filtered out.  off filters out all messages.  See
                     ovs-appctl(8) for a definition of each log level.

              Case is not significant within spec.

              Regardless of the log levels set for file, logging to a file
              will not take place unless --log-file is also specified (see
              below).

              For compatibility with older versions of OVS, any is accepted
              as a word but has no effect.

       -v
       --verbose
              Sets the maximum logging verbosity level, equivalent to
              --verbose=dbg.

       -vPATTERN:destination:pattern
       --verbose=PATTERN:destination:pattern
              Sets the log pattern for destination to pattern.  Refer to
              ovs-appctl(8) for a description of the valid syntax for
              pattern.

       -vFACILITY:facility
       --verbose=FACILITY:facility
              Sets the RFC5424 facility of the log message. facility can be
              one of kern, user, mail, daemon, auth, syslog, lpr, news,
              uucp, clock, ftp, ntp, audit, alert, clock2, local0, local1,
              local2, local3, local4, local5, local6 or local7. If this
              option is not specified, daemon is used as the default for the
              local system syslog and local0 is used while sending a message
              to the target provided via the --syslog-target option.

       --log-file[=file]
              Enables logging to a file.  If file is specified, then it is
              used as the exact name for the log file.  The default log file
              name used if file is omitted is
              /usr/local/var/log/openvswitch/ovs-ofctl.log.

       --syslog-target=host:port
              Send syslog messages to UDP port on host, in addition to the
              system syslog.  The host must be a numerical IP address, not a
              hostname.

       --syslog-method=method
              Specify method how syslog messages should be sent to syslog
              daemon.  Following forms are supported:

              ·      libc, use libc syslog() function.  Downside of using
                     this options is that libc adds fixed prefix to every
                     message before it is actually sent to the syslog daemon
                     over /dev/log UNIX domain socket.

              ·      unix:file, use UNIX domain socket directly.  It is
                     possible to specify arbitrary message format with this
                     option.  However, rsyslogd 8.9 and older versions use
                     hard coded parser function anyway that limits UNIX
                     domain socket use.  If you want to use arbitrary
                     message format with older rsyslogd versions, then use
                     UDP socket to localhost IP address instead.

              ·      udp:ip:port, use UDP socket.  With this method it is
                     possible to use arbitrary message format also with
                     older rsyslogd.  When sending syslog messages over UDP
                     socket extra precaution needs to be taken into account,
                     for example, syslog daemon needs to be configured to
                     listen on the specified UDP port, accidental iptables
                     rules could be interfering with local syslog traffic
                     and there are some security considerations that apply
                     to UDP sockets, but do not apply to UNIX domain
                     sockets.

              ·      null, discards all messages logged to syslog.

              The default is taken from the OVS_SYSLOG_METHOD environment
              variable; if it is unset, the default is libc.

       --color[=when]
              Colorize the output (for some commands); when can be never,
              always, or auto (the default).

              Only some commands support output coloring.  Color names and
              default colors may change in future releases.

              The environment variable OVS_COLORS can be used to specify
              user-defined colors and other attributes used to highlight
              various parts of the output. If set, its value is a colon-
              separated list of capabilities that defaults to
              ac:01;31:dr=34:le=31:pm=36:pr=35:sp=33:vl=32. Supported
              capabilities were initially designed for coloring flows from
              ovs-ofctl dump-flows switch command, and they are as follows.

                     ac=01;31
                            SGR substring for actions= keyword in a flow.
                            The default is a bold red text foreground.

                     dr=34  SGR substring for drop keyword.  The default is
                            a dark blue text foreground.

                     le=31  SGR substring for learn= keyword in a flow.  The
                            default is a red text foreground.

                     pm=36  SGR substring for flow match attribute names.
                            The default is a cyan text foreground.

                     pr=35  SGR substring for keywords in a flow that are
                            followed by arguments inside parenthesis.  The
                            default is a magenta text foreground.

                     sp=33  SGR substring for some special keywords in a
                            flow, notably: table=, priority=, load:,
                            output:, move:, group:, CONTROLLER:, set_field:,
                            resubmit:, exit.  The default is a yellow text
                            foreground.

                     vl=32  SGR substring for a lone flow match attribute
                            with no field name.  The default is a green text
                            foreground.

              See the Select Graphic Rendition (SGR) section in the
              documentation of the text terminal that is used for permitted
              values and their meaning as character attributes.

       -h
       --help Prints a brief help message to the console.

       -V
       --version
              Prints version information to the console.

RUNTIME MANAGEMENT COMMANDS         top

       ovs-appctl(8) can send commands to a running ovs-ofctl process.  The
       supported commands are listed below.

       exit   Causes ovs-ofctl to gracefully terminate.  This command
              applies only when executing the monitor or snoop commands.

       ofctl/set-output-file file
              Causes all subsequent output to go to file instead of stderr.
              This command applies only when executing the monitor or snoop
              commands.

       ofctl/send ofmsg...
              Sends each ofmsg, specified as a sequence of hex digits that
              express an OpenFlow message, on the OpenFlow connection.  This
              command is useful only when executing the monitor command.

       ofctl/packet-out packet-out
              Sends an OpenFlow PACKET_OUT message specified in Packet-Out
              Syntax, on the OpenFlow connection.  See Packet-Out Syntax
              section for more information.  This command is useful only
              when executing the monitor command.

       ofctl/barrier
              Sends an OpenFlow barrier request on the OpenFlow connection
              and waits for a reply.  This command is useful only for the
              monitor command.

EXAMPLES         top

       The following examples assume that ovs-vswitchd has a bridge named
       br0 configured.

       ovs-ofctl dump-tables br0
              Prints out the switch's table stats.  (This is more
              interesting after some traffic has passed through.)

       ovs-ofctl dump-flows br0
              Prints the flow entries in the switch.

       ovs-ofctl add-flow table=0 actions=learn(table=1,hard_timeout=10,
       NXM_OF_VLAN_TCI[0..11],output:NXM_OF_IN_PORT[]), resubmit(,1)
              ovs-ofctl add-flow  table=1 priority=0 actions=flood
              Implements a level 2 MAC learning switch using the learn.

       ovs-ofctl add-flow br0 'table=0,priority=0
       actions=load:3->NXM_NX_REG0[0..15],learn(table=0,priority=1,idle_timeout=10,NXM_OF_ETH_SRC[],NXM_OF_VLAN_TCI[0..11],output:NXM_NX_REG0[0..15]),output:2
              In this use of a learn action, the first packet from each
              source MAC will be sent to port 2. Subsequent packets will be
              output to port 3, with an idle timeout of 10 seconds.  NXM
              field names and match field names are both accepted, e.g.
              NXM_NX_REG0 or reg0 for the first register, and empty brackets
              may be omitted.

              Additional examples may be found documented as part of related
              sections.

SEE ALSO         top

       ovs-fields(7), ovs-actions(7), ovs-appctl(8), ovs-vswitchd(8),
       ovs-vswitchd.conf.db(8)

COLOPHON         top

       This page is part of the Open vSwitch (a distributed virtual
       multilayer switch) project.  Information about the project can be
       found at ⟨http://openvswitch.org/⟩.  If you have a bug report for
       this manual page, send it to bugs@openvswitch.org.  This page was
       obtained from the project's upstream Git repository
       ⟨https://github.com/openvswitch/ovs.git⟩ on 2019-11-19.  (At that
       time, the date of the most recent commit that was found in the repos‐
       itory was 2019-11-19.)  If you discover any rendering problems in
       this HTML version of the page, or you believe there is a better or
       more up-to-date source for the page, or you have corrections or
       improvements to the information in this COLOPHON (which is not part
       of the original manual page), send a mail to man-pages@man7.org

Open vSwitch                       2.12.90                      ovs-ofctl(8)

Pages that refer to this page: ovs-actions(7)ovs-fields(7)ovs-dpctl(8)ovs-l3ping(8)ovs-testcontroller(8)ovs-vswitchd(8)