ASTRACEROUTE(8)              netsniff-ng toolkit             ASTRACEROUTE(8)

NAME         top

       astraceroute - autonomous system trace route utility

SYNOPSIS         top

       astraceroute [options]

DESCRIPTION         top

       astraceroute is a small utility to retrieve path information in a
       traceroute like way, but with additional geographical location
       information. It tracks the route of a packet from the local host to
       the remote host by successively increasing the IP's TTL field,
       starting from 1, in the hope that each intermediate node will send an
       ICMP TIME_EXCEEDED notification back to the local host when the TTL
       value is decremented to 0.

       astraceroute supports IPv4 and IPv6 queries and will display country
       and city information, if available, the AS number the hop belongs to,
       and its ISP name. astraceroute also displays timing information and
       reverse DNS data.

       Due to astraceroute's configurability, it is also possible to gather
       some more useful information about the hop regarding what it does and
       does not allow to pass through. This is done by using clear text
       strings for probing DPIs or ``great firewalls'' to determine if they
       will filter out blacklisted critical keywords. This tool might be a
       good start for further in-depth analysis of such systems.

OPTIONS         top

   -H <host>, --host <host>
       Hostname or IPv4 or IPv6 address of the remote host where the AS
       route should be traced to. In the case of an IPv6 address or host,
       option ''-6'' must be used. IPv4 is the default.

   -p <port>, --port <port>
       TCP port for the remote host to use. If not specified, the default
       port used is 80.

   -i <device>, -d <device>, --dev <device>
       Networking device to start the trace route from, e.g. eth0, wlan0.

   -b <IP>, --bind <IP>
       IP address to bind to other than the network device's address. You
       must specify -6 for an IPv6 address.

   -f <ttl>, --init-ttl <ttl>
       Initial TTL value to be used. This option might be useful if you are
       not interested in the first n hops, but only the following ones. The
       default initial TTL value is 1.

   -m <ttl>, --max-ttl <ttl>
       Maximum TTL value to be used. If not otherwise specified, the maximum
       TTL value is 30. Thus, after this has been reached astraceroute

   -q <num>, --num-probes <num>
       Specifies the number of queries to be done on a particular hop. The
       default is 2 query requests.

   -x <sec>, --timeout <sec>
       Tells astraceroute the probe response timeout in seconds, in other
       words the maximum time astraceroute must wait for an ICMP response
       from the current hop. The default is 3 seconds.

   -X <string>, --payload <string>
       Places an ASCII cleartext string into the packet payload. Cleartext
       that contains whitespace must be put into quotes (e.g.: "censor me").

   -l <len>, --totlen <len>
       Specifies the total length of the packet. Payload that does not have
       a cleartext string in it is padded with random garbage.

   -4, --ipv4
       Use IPv4 only requests. This is the default.

   -6, --ipv6
       Use IPv6 only requests. This must be used when passing an IPv6 host
       as an argument.

   -n, --numeric
       Tells astraceroute to not perform reverse DNS lookup for hop replies.
       The reverse option is ''-N''.

   -u, --update
       The built-in geo-database update mechanism will be invoked to get
       Maxmind's latest version. To configure search locations for
       databases, the file /etc/netsniff-ng/geoip.conf contains possible
       addresses. Thus, to save bandwidth or for mirroring Maxmind's
       databases (to bypass their traffic limit policy), different hosts or
       IP addresses can be placed into geoip.conf, separated by a newline.

   -L, --latitude
       Also show latitude and longitude of hops.

   -N, --dns
       Tells astraceroute to perform reverse DNS lookup for hop replies. The
       reverse option is ''-n''.

   -S, --syn
       Use TCP's SYN flag for the request.

   -A, --ack
       Use TCP's ACK flag for the request.

   -F, --fin
       Use TCP's FIN flag for the request.

   -P, --psh
       Use TCP's PSH flag for the request.

   -U, --urg
       Use TCP's URG flag for the request.

   -R, --rst
       Use TCP's RST flag for the request.

   -E, --ecn-syn
       Use TCP's ECN flag for the request.

   -t <tos>, --tos <tos>
       Explicitly specify IP's TOS.

   -G, --nofrag
       Set IP's no fragmentation flag.

   -Z, --show-packet
       Show and dissect the returned packet.

   -v, --version
       Show version information and exit.

   -h, --help
       Show user help and exit.

USAGE EXAMPLE         top

   astraceroute -i eth0 -N -S -H
       This sends out a TCP SYN probe via the ''eth0'' networking device to
       the remote IPv4 host This request is most likely to
       pass. Also, tell astraceroute to perform reverse DNS lookups for each

   astraceroute -6 -i eth0 -S -E -N -H
       In this example, a TCP SYN/ECN probe for the IPv6 host
       is being performed. Also in this case, the ''eth0'' device is being
       used as well as a reverse DNS lookup for each hop.

   astraceroute -i eth0 -N -F -H
       Here, we send out a TCP FIN probe to the remote host
       Again, on each hop a reverse DNS lookup is being done and the queries
       are transmitted from ''eth0''. IPv4 is used.

   astraceroute -i eth0 -N -FPU -H
       As in most other examples, we perform a trace route to IPv4 host and do a TCP Xmas probe this time.

   astraceroute -i eth0 -N -H -X censor-me -Z
       In this example, we have a Null probe to the remote host netsniff-, port 80 (default) and this time, we append the cleartext
       string "censor-me" into the packet payload to test if a firewall or
       DPI will let this string pass. Such a trace could be done once
       without, and once with, a blacklisted string to gather possible
       information about censorship.

NOTE         top

       If a TCP-based probe fails after a number of retries, astraceroute
       will automatically fall back to ICMP-based probes to pass through
       firewalls and routers used in load balancing for example.

       To gather more information about astraceroute's displayed AS numbers,
       see e.g.:<number>.

BUGS         top

       The geographical locations are estimated with the help of Maxmind's
       GeoIP database and can differ from the real physical location. To
       decrease the possible errors, update the database regularly using
       astraceroute's --update option.

       At some point in time, we need a similar approach to gather more
       reliable path information such as in the paris-traceroute tool.

       Due to the generic nature of astraceroute, it currently has a built-
       in mechanism to stop the trace after a fixed number of hops, since
       the configurable TCP flags can have anything included. It is possible
       to decrease this number of course.  In the future, if a SYN probe is
       sent out, there should be a listener so that we can stop the trace if
       we detect a handshake in progress.

LEGAL         top

       astraceroute is licensed under the GNU GPL version 2.0.

HISTORY         top

       astraceroute was originally written for the netsniff-ng toolkit by
       Daniel Borkmann. It is currently maintained by Tobias Klauser
       <> and Daniel Borkmann <>.

SEE ALSO         top

       netsniff-ng(8), trafgen(8), mausezahn(8), ifpps(8), bpfc(8),
       flowtop(8), curvetun(8)

AUTHOR         top

       Manpage was written by Daniel Borkmann.

COLOPHON         top

       This page is part of the Linux netsniff-ng toolkit project. A
       description of the project, and information about reporting bugs, can
       be found at

COLOPHON         top

       This page is part of the netsniff-ng (a free Linux networking
       toolkit) project.  Information about the project can be found at 
       ⟨⟩.  If you have a bug report for this manual
       page, send it to  This page was
       obtained from the project's upstream Git repository
       ⟨git://⟩ on 2018-04-30.  (At
       that time, the date of the most recent commit that was found in the
       repository was 2018-04-19.)  If you discover any rendering problems
       in this HTML version of the page, or you believe there is a better or
       more up-to-date source for the page, or you have corrections or
       improvements to the information in this COLOPHON (which is not part
       of the original manual page), send a mail to

Linux                           03 March 2013                ASTRACEROUTE(8)

Pages that refer to this page: bpfc(8)curvetun(8)flowtop(8)ifpps(8)mausezahn(8)netsniff-ng(8)trafgen(8)