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GROFF_CHAR(7)         Miscellaneous Information Manual         GROFF_CHAR(7)

NAME         top

       groff_char - groff glyph names

DESCRIPTION         top

       This manual page lists the standard groff glyph names and the default
       input mapping, latin1.  The glyphs in this document look different
       depending on which output device was chosen (with option -T for the
       man(1) program or the roff formatter).  Glyphs not available for the
       device that is being used to print or view this manual page are
       marked with `(N/A)'; the device currently used is `utf8'.

       In the actual version, groff provides only 8-bit characters for
       direct input and named entities for further glyphs.  On ASCII
       platforms, input character codes in the range 0 to 127 (decimal)
       represent the usual 7-bit ASCII characters, while codes between 127
       and 255 are interpreted as the corresponding characters in the latin1
       (ISO-8859-1) code set by default.  This mapping is contained in the
       file latin1.tmac and can be changed by loading a different input
       encoding.  Note that some of the input characters are reserved by
       groff, either for internal use or for special input purposes.  On
       EBCDIC platforms, only code page cp1047 is supported (which contains
       the same characters as latin1; the input encoding file is called
       cp1047.tmac).  Again, some input characters are reserved for internal
       and special purposes.

       All roff systems provide the concept of named glyphs.  In traditional
       roff systems, only names of length 2 were used, while groff also
       provides support for longer names.  It is strongly suggested that
       only named glyphs are used for all character representations outside
       of the printable 7-bit ASCII range.

       Some of the predefined groff escape sequences (with names of
       length 1) also produce single glyphs; these exist for historical
       reasons or are printable versions of syntactical characters.  They
       include `\\', `\´', `\`', `\-', `\.', and `\e'; see groff(7).

       In groff, all of these different types of characters and glyphs can
       be tested positively with the `.if c' conditional.

REFERENCE         top

       In this section, the glyphs in groff are specified in tabular form.
       The meaning of the columns is as follows.

       Output shows how the glyph is printed for the current device;
              although this can have quite a different shape on other
              devices, it always represents the same glyph.

       Input  specifies how the glyph is input either directly by a key on
              the keyboard, or by a groff escape sequence.

       Code   applies to glyphs which can be input with a single character,
              and gives the ISO latin1 decimal code of that input character.
              Note that this code is equivalent to the lowest 256 Unicode
              characters, including 7-bit ASCII in the range 0 to 127.

       PostScript
              gives the usual PostScript name of the glyph.

       Unicode
              is the glyph name used in composite glyph names.

   7-bit Character Codes 32–126
       These are the basic glyphs having 7-bit ASCII code values assigned.
       They are identical to the printable characters of the character
       standards ISO-8859-1 (latin1) and Unicode (range Basic Latin).  The
       glyph names used in composite glyph names are `u0020' up to `u007E'.

       Note that input characters in the range 0-31 and character 127 are
       not printable characters.  Most of them are invalid input characters
       for groff anyway, and the valid ones have special meaning.  For
       EBCDIC, the printable characters are in the range 66-255.

       48-57  Decimal digits 0 to 9 (print as themselves).

       65-90  Upper case letters A-Z (print as themselves).

       97-122 Lower case letters a–z (print as themselves).

       Most of the remaining characters not in the just described ranges
       print as themselves; the only exceptions are the following
       characters:

       `      the ISO latin1 `Grave Accent' (code 96) prints as `, a left
              single quotation mark; the original character can be obtained
              with `\`'.

       '      the ISO latin1 `Apostrophe' (code 39) prints as ', a right
              single quotation mark; the original character can be obtained
              with `\(aq'.

       -      the ISO latin1 `Hyphen, Minus Sign' (code 45) prints as a
              hyphen; a minus sign can be obtained with `\-'.

       ~      the ISO latin1 `Tilde' (code 126) is reduced in size to be
              usable as a diacritic; a larger glyph can be obtained with
              `\(ti'.

       ^      the ISO latin1 `Circumflex Accent' (code 94) is reduced in
              size to be usable as a diacritic; a larger glyph can be
              obtained with `\(ha'.

       Output   Input   Code   PostScript     Unicode   Notes
       ───────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
       !        !       33     exclam         u0021
       "        "       34     quotedbl       u0022
       #        #       35     numbersign     u0023
       $        $       36     dollar         u0024
       %        %       37     percent        u0025
       &        &       38     ampersand      u0026
       '        '       39     quoteright     u0027
       (        (       40     parenleft      u0028
       )        )       41     parenright     u0029
       *        *       42     asterisk       u002A
       +        +       43     plus           u002B
       ,        ,       44     comma          u002C
       -        -       45     hyphen         u2010
       .        .       46     period         u002E
       /        /       47     slash          u002F
       :        :       58     colon          u003A
       ;        ;       59     semicolon      u003B
       <        <       60     less           u003C
       =        =       61     equal          u003D
       >        >       62     greater        u003E
       ?        ?       63     question       u003F
       @        @       64     at             u0040
       [        [       91     bracketleft    u005B
       \        \       92     backslash      u005C
       ]        ]       93     bracketright   u005D
       ^        ^       94     circumflex     u005E     circumflex accent
       _        _       95     underscore     u005F
       `        `       96     quoteleft      u0060

       {        {       123    braceleft      u007B
       |        |       124    bar            u007C
       }        }       125    braceright     u007D
       ~        ~       126    tilde          u007E     tilde accent

   8-bit Character Codes 160 to 255
       They are interpreted as printable characters according to the latin1
       (ISO-8859-1) code set, being identical to the Unicode range Latin-1
       Supplement.

       Input characters in range 128-159 (on non-EBCDIC hosts) are not
       printable characters.

       160    the ISO latin1 no-break space is mapped to `\~', the
              stretchable space character.

       173    the soft hyphen control character.  groff never uses this
              character for output (thus it is omitted in the table below);
              the input character 173 is mapped onto `\%'.

       The remaining ranges (161-172, 174-255) are printable characters that
       print as themselves.  Although they can be specified directly with
       the keyboard on systems with a latin1 code page, it is better to use
       their glyph names; see next section.

       Output   Input   Code   PostScript       Unicode      Notes
       ────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
       ¡        ¡       161    exclamdown       u00A1        inverted exclamation mark
       ¢        ¢       162    cent             u00A2
       £        £       163    sterling         u00A3
       ¤        ¤       164    currency         u00A4
       ¥        ¥       165    yen              u00A5
       ¦        ¦       166    brokenbar        u00A6
       §        §       167    section          u00A7
       ¨        ¨       168    dieresis         u00A8
       ©        ©       169    copyright        u00A9
       ª        ª       170    ordfeminine      u00AA
       «        «       171    guillemotleft    u00AB
       ¬        ¬       172    logicalnot       u00AC
       ®        ®       174    registered       u00AE
       ¯        ¯       175    macron           u00AF
       °        °       176    degree           u00B0
       ±        ±       177    plusminus        u00B1
       ²        ²       178    twosuperior      u00B2
       ³        ³       179    threesuperior    u00B3
       ´        ´       180    acute            u00B4        acute accent
       µ        µ       181    mu               u00B5        micro sign
       ¶        ¶       182    paragraph        u00B6
       ·        ·       183    periodcentered   u00B7
       ¸        ¸       184    cedilla          u00B8
       ¹        ¹       185    onesuperior      u00B9
       º        º       186    ordmasculine     u00BA
       »        »       187    guillemotright   u00BB
       ¼        ¼       188    onequarter       u00BC
       ½        ½       189    onehalf          u00BD
       ¾        ¾       190    threequarters    u00BE
       ¿        ¿       191    questiondown     u00BF
       À        À       192    Agrave           u0041_0300
       Á        Á       193    Aacute           u0041_0301
       Â        Â       194    Acircumflex      u0041_0302
       Ã        Ã       195    Atilde           u0041_0303
       Ä        Ä       196    Adieresis        u0041_0308
       Å        Å       197    Aring            u0041_030A
       Æ        Æ       198    AE               u00C6
       Ç        Ç       199    Ccedilla         u0043_0327
       È        È       200    Egrave           u0045_0300
       É        É       201    Eacute           u0045_0301

       Ê        Ê       202    Ecircumflex      u0045_0302
       Ë        Ë       203    Edieresis        u0045_0308
       Ì        Ì       204    Igrave           u0049_0300
       Í        Í       205    Iacute           u0049_0301
       Î        Î       206    Icircumflex      u0049_0302
       Ï        Ï       207    Idieresis        u0049_0308
       Ð        Ð       208    Eth              u00D0
       Ñ        Ñ       209    Ntilde           u004E_0303
       Ò        Ò       210    Ograve           u004F_0300
       Ó        Ó       211    Oacute           u004F_0301
       Ô        Ô       212    Ocircumflex      u004F_0302
       Õ        Õ       213    Otilde           u004F_0303
       Ö        Ö       214    Odieresis        u004F_0308
       ×        ×       215    multiply         u00D7
       Ø        Ø       216    Oslash           u00D8
       Ù        Ù       217    Ugrave           u0055_0300
       Ú        Ú       218    Uacute           u0055_0301
       Û        Û       219    Ucircumflex      u0055_0302
       Ü        Ü       220    Udieresis        u0055_0308
       Ý        Ý       221    Yacute           u0059_0301
       Þ        Þ       222    Thorn            u00DE
       ß        ß       223    germandbls       u00DF
       à        à       224    agrave           u0061_0300
       á        á       225    aacute           u0061_0301
       â        â       226    acircumflex      u0061_0302
       ã        ã       227    atilde           u0061_0303
       ä        ä       228    adieresis        u0061_0308
       å        å       229    aring            u0061_030A
       æ        æ       230    ae               u00E6
       ç        ç       231    ccedilla         u0063_0327
       è        è       232    egrave           u0065_0300
       é        é       233    eacute           u0065_0301
       ê        ê       234    ecircumflex      u0065_0302
       ë        ë       235    edieresis        u0065_0308
       ì        ì       236    igrave           u0069_0300
       í        í       237    iacute           u0069_0301
       î        î       238    icircumflex      u0069_0302
       ï        ï       239    idieresis        u0069_0308
       ð        ð       240    eth              u00F0
       ñ        ñ       241    ntilde           u006E_0303
       ò        ò       242    ograve           u006F_0300
       ó        ó       243    oacute           u006F_0301
       ô        ô       244    ocircumflex      u006F_0302
       õ        õ       245    otilde           u006F_0303
       ö        ö       246    odieresis        u006F_0308
       ÷        ÷       247    divide           u00F7
       ø        ø       248    oslash           u00F8
       ù        ù       249    ugrave           u0075_0300
       ú        ú       250    uacute           u0075_0301
       û        û       251    ucircumflex      u0075_0302
       ü        ü       252    udieresis        u0075_0308
       ý        ý       253    yacute           u0079_0301
       þ        þ       254    thorn            u00FE
       ÿ        ÿ       255    ydieresis        u0079_0308

   Named Glyphs
       Glyph names can be embedded into the document text by using escape
       sequences.  groff(7) describes how these escape sequences look.
       Glyph names can consist of quite arbitrary characters from the ASCII
       or latin1 code set, not only alphanumeric characters.  Here some
       examples:

       \(ch   A glyph having the 2-character name ch.

       \[char_name]
              A glyph having the name char_name (having length 1, 2, 3,
              ...).  Note that `c' is not the same as `\[c]' (c a single
              character): The latter is internally mapped to glyph name
              `\c'.  By default, groff defines a single glyph name starting
              with a backslash, namely `\-', which can be either accessed as
              `\-' or `\[-]'.

       \[base_glyph composite_1 composite_2 ...]
              A composite glyph; see below for a more detailed description.

       In groff, each 8-bit input character can also referred to by the
       construct `\[charn]' where n is the decimal code of the character, a
       number between 0 and 255 without leading zeros (those entities are
       not glyph names).  They are normally mapped onto glyphs using the
       .trin request.  Another special convention is the handling of glyphs
       with names directly derived from a Unicode code point; this is
       discussed below.  Moreover, new glyph names can be created by the
       .char request; see groff(7).

       In the following, a plus sign in the `Notes' column indicates that
       this particular glyph name appears in the PS version of the original
       troff documentation, CSTR 54.

       Entries marked with `***' denote glyphs for mathematical purposes
       (mainly used for DVI output).  Normally, such glyphs have metrics
       which make them unusable in normal text.

       Output   Input   PostScript   Unicode   Notes
       ────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
       Ð        \[-D]   Eth          u00D0     uppercase eth
       ð        \[Sd]   eth          u00F0     lowercase eth
       Þ        \[TP]   Thorn        u00DE     uppercase thorn
       þ        \[Tp]   thorn        u00FE     lowercase thorn
       ß        \[ss]   germandbls   u00DF     German sharp s

       Ligatures and Other Latin Glyphs

       Output   Input   PostScript   Unicode           Notes
       ────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
       ff       \[ff]   ff           u0066_0066        ff ligature +
       fi       \[fi]   fi           u0066_0069        fi ligature +
       fl       \[fl]   fl           u0066_006C        fl ligature +
       ffi      \[Fi]   ffi          u0066_0066_0069   ffi ligature +
       ffl      \[Fl]   ffl          u0066_0066_006C   ffl ligature +
       Ł        \[/L]   Lslash       u0141             (Polish)
       ł        \[/l]   lslash       u0142             (Polish)
       Ø        \[/O]   Oslash       u00D8             (Scandinavian)
       ø        \[/o]   oslash       u00F8             (Scandinavian)
       Æ        \[AE]   AE           u00C6
       æ        \[ae]   ae           u00E6
       Π       \[OE]   OE           u0152
       œ        \[oe]   oe           u0153
       IJ        \[IJ]   IJ           u0132             (Dutch)
       ij        \[ij]   ij           u0133             (Dutch)
       ı        \[.i]   dotlessi     u0131             (Turkish)
       ȷ        \[.j]   dotlessj     u0237             j without a dot

       Accented Characters

       Output   Input   PostScript    Unicode      Notes
       ──────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
       Á        \['A]   Aacute        u0041_0301
       Ć        \['C]   Cacute        u0043_0301
       É        \['E]   Eacute        u0045_0301
       Í        \['I]   Iacute        u0049_0301
       Ó        \['O]   Oacute        u004F_0301
       Ú        \['U]   Uacute        u0055_0301
       Ý        \['Y]   Yacute        u0059_0301
       á        \['a]   aacute        u0061_0301
       ć        \['c]   cacute        u0063_0301

       é        \['e]   eacute        u0065_0301
       í        \['i]   iacute        u0069_0301
       ó        \['o]   oacute        u006F_0301
       ú        \['u]   uacute        u0075_0301
       ý        \['y]   yacute        u0079_0301
       Ä        \[:A]   Adieresis     u0041_0308   A with umlaut
       Ë        \[:E]   Edieresis     u0045_0308
       Ï        \[:I]   Idieresis     u0049_0308
       Ö        \[:O]   Odieresis     u004F_0308
       Ü        \[:U]   Udieresis     u0055_0308
       Ÿ        \[:Y]   Ydieresis     u0059_0308
       ä        \[:a]   adieresis     u0061_0308
       ë        \[:e]   edieresis     u0065_0308
       ï        \[:i]   idieresis     u0069_0308
       ö        \[:o]   odieresis     u006F_0308
       ü        \[:u]   udieresis     u0075_0308
       ÿ        \[:y]   ydieresis     u0079_0308
       Â        \[^A]   Acircumflex   u0041_0302
       Ê        \[^E]   Ecircumflex   u0045_0302
       Î        \[^I]   Icircumflex   u0049_0302
       Ô        \[^O]   Ocircumflex   u004F_0302
       Û        \[^U]   Ucircumflex   u0055_0302
       â        \[^a]   acircumflex   u0061_0302
       ê        \[^e]   ecircumflex   u0065_0302
       î        \[^i]   icircumflex   u0069_0302
       ô        \[^o]   ocircumflex   u006F_0302
       û        \[^u]   ucircumflex   u0075_0302
       À        \[`A]   Agrave        u0041_0300
       È        \[`E]   Egrave        u0045_0300
       Ì        \[`I]   Igrave        u0049_0300
       Ò        \[`O]   Ograve        u004F_0300
       Ù        \[`U]   Ugrave        u0055_0300
       à        \[`a]   agrave        u0061_0300
       è        \[`e]   egrave        u0065_0300
       ì        \[`i]   igrave        u0069_0300
       ò        \[`o]   ograve        u006F_0300
       ù        \[`u]   ugrave        u0075_0300
       Ã        \[~A]   Atilde        u0041_0303
       Ñ        \[~N]   Ntilde        u004E_0303
       Õ        \[~O]   Otilde        u004F_0303
       ã        \[~a]   atilde        u0061_0303
       ñ        \[~n]   ntilde        u006E_0303
       õ        \[~o]   otilde        u006F_0303
       Š        \[vS]   Scaron        u0053_030C
       š        \[vs]   scaron        u0073_030C
       Ž        \[vZ]   Zcaron        u005A_030C
       ž        \[vz]   zcaron        u007A_030C
       Ç        \[,C]   Ccedilla      u0043_0327
       ç        \[,c]   ccedilla      u0063_0327
       Å        \[oA]   Aring         u0041_030A
       å        \[oa]   aring         u0061_030A

       Accents

       The composite request is used to map most of the accents to non-
       spacing glyph names; the values given in parentheses are the original
       (spacing) ones.

       Output   Input   PostScript     Unicode         Notes
       ────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
       ˝        \[a"]   hungarumlaut   u030B (u02DD)   (Hungarian)
       ¯        \[a-]   macron         u0304 (u00AF)
       ˙        \[a.]   dotaccent      u0307 (u02D9)
       ^        \[a^]   circumfle      u0302 (u005E)
       ´        \[aa]   acute          u0301 (u00B4)   +
       `        \[ga]   grave          u0300 (u0060)   +
       ˘        \[ab]   breve          u0306 (u02D8)

       ¸        \[ac]   cedilla        u0327 (u00B8)
       ¨        \[ad]   dieresis       u0308 (u00A8)   umlaut
       ˇ        \[ah]   caron          u030C (u02C7)
       ˚        \[ao]   ring           u030A (u02DA)   circle
       ~        \[a~]   tilde          u0303 (u007E)
       ˛        \[ho]   ogonek         u0328 (u02DB)   hook
       ^        \[ha]   asciicircum    u005E           (spacing)
       ~        \[ti]   asciitilde     u007E           (spacing)

       Quotes

       Output   Input   PostScript       Unicode   Notes
       ────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
       „        \[Bq]   quotedblbase     u201E     low double comma quote
       ‚        \[bq]   quotesinglbase   u201A     low single comma quote
       “        \[lq]   quotedblleft     u201C
       ”        \[rq]   quotedblright    u201D
       ‘        \[oq]   quoteleft        u2018     single open quote
       ’        \[cq]   quoteright       u2019     single closing quote
       '        \[aq]   quotesingle      u0027     apostrophe quote (ASCII 39)
       "        \[dq]   quotedbl         u0022     double quote (ASCII 34)
       «        \[Fo]   guillemotleft    u00AB
       »        \[Fc]   guillemotright   u00BB
       ‹        \[fo]   guilsinglleft    u2039
       ›        \[fc]   guilsinglright   u203A

       Punctuation

       Output   Input   PostScript     Unicode Notes
       ──────────────────────────────────────────────────
       ¡        \[r!]   exclamdown     u00A1
       ¿        \[r?]   questiondown   u00BF
       —        \[em]   emdash         u2014           +
       –        \[en]   endash         u2013
       ‐        \[hy]   hyphen         u2010           +

       Brackets

       The extensible bracket pieces are font-invariant glyphs.  In
       classical troff only one glyph was available to vertically extend
       brackets, braces, and parentheses: `bv'.  We map it rather
       arbitrarily to u23AA.

       Note that not all devices contain extensible bracket pieces which can
       be piled up with `\b' due to the restrictions of the escape's piling
       algorithm.  A general solution to build brackets out of pieces is the
       following macro:

              .\" Make a pile centered vertically 0.5em
              .\" above the baseline.
              .\" The first argument is placed at the top.
              .\" The pile is returned in string `pile'
              .eo
              .de pile-make
              .  nr pile-wd 0
              .  nr pile-ht 0
              .  ds pile-args
              .
              .  nr pile-# \n[.$]
              .  while \n[pile-#] \{\
              .    nr pile-wd (\n[pile-wd] >? \w'\$[\n[pile-#]]')
              .    nr pile-ht +(\n[rst] - \n[rsb])
              .    as pile-args \v'\n[rsb]u'\"
              .    as pile-args \Z'\$[\n[pile-#]]'\"
              .    as pile-args \v'-\n[rst]u'\"
              .    nr pile-# -1
              .  \}
              .
              .  ds pile \v'(-0.5m + (\n[pile-ht]u / 2u))'\"
              .  as pile \*[pile-args]\"
              .  as pile \v'((\n[pile-ht]u / 2u) + 0.5m)'\"
              .  as pile \h'\n[pile-wd]u'\"
              ..
              .ec

       Another complication is the fact that some glyphs which represent
       bracket pieces in original troff can be used for other mathematical
       symbols also, for example `lf' and `rf' which provide the `floor'
       operator.  Other devices (most notably for DVI output) don't unify
       such glyphs.  For this reason, the four glyphs `lf', `rf', `lc', and
       `rc' are not unified with similarly looking bracket pieces.  In
       groff, only glyphs with long names are guaranteed to pile up
       correctly for all devices (provided those glyphs exist).

       OutputInput            PostScript     UnicodeNotes
       ──────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
       [     \[lB]            bracketleft    u005B
       ]     \[rB]            bracketright   u005D
       {     \[lC]            braceleft      u007B
       }     \[rC]            braceright     u007D
       ⟨     \[la]            angleleft      u27E8  left angle bracket
       ⟩     \[ra]            angleright     u27E9  right angle bracket

       ⎪     \[bv]            braceex        u23AA  vertical extension *** +
       ⎪     \[braceex]       braceex        u23AA

       ⎡     \[bracketlefttp] bracketlefttp  u23A1
       ⎣     \[bracketleftbt] bracketleftbt  u23A3
       ⎢     \[bracketleftex] bracketleftex  u23A2
       ⎤     \[bracketrighttp]bracketrighttp u23A4
       ⎦     \[bracketrightbt]bracketrightbt u23A6
       ⎥     \[bracketrightex]bracketrightex u23A5

       ╭     \[lt]            bracelefttp    u23A7  +
       ⎧     \[bracelefttp]   bracelefttp    u23A7
       ┥     \[lk]            braceleftmid   u23A8  +
       ⎨     \[braceleftmid]  braceleftmid   u23A8
       ╰     \[lb]            braceleftbt    u23A9  +
       ⎩     \[braceleftbt]   braceleftbt    u23A9
       ⎪     \[braceleftex]   braceleftex    u23AA
       ╮     \[rt]            bracerighttp   u23AB  +
       ⎫     \[bracerighttp]  bracerighttp   u23AB
       ┝     \[rk]            bracerightmid  u23AC  +
       ⎬     \[bracerightmid] bracerightmid  u23AC
       ╯     \[rb]            bracerightbt   u23AD  +
       ⎭     \[bracerightbt]  bracerightbt   u23AD
       ⎪     \[bracerightex]  bracerightex   u23AA
       ⎛     \[parenlefttp]   parenlefttp    u239B
       ⎝     \[parenleftbt]   parenleftbt    u239D
       ⎜     \[parenleftex]   parenleftex    u239C
       ⎞     \[parenrighttp]  parenrighttp   u239E
       ⎠     \[parenrightbt]  parenrightbt   u23A0
       ⎟     \[parenrightex]  parenrightex   u239F

       Arrows

       Output InputPostScript    Unicode Notes
       ──────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
       ←      \[<-]arrowleft     u2190   +
       →      \[->]arrowright    u2192   +
       ↔      \[<>]arrowboth     u2194   (horizontal)
       ↓      \[da]arrowdown     u2193   +
       ↑      \[ua]arrowup       u2191   +
       ↕      \[va]arrowupdn     u2195
       ⇐      \[lA]arrowdblleft  u21D0

       ⇒      \[rA]arrowdblright u21D2
       ⇔      \[hA]arrowdblboth  u21D4   (horizontal)
       ⇓      \[dA]arrowdbldown  u21D3
       ⇑      \[uA]arrowdblup    u21D1
       ⇕      \[vA]uni21D5       u21D5   vertical double-headed double arrow
       ⎯      \[an]arrowhorizex  u23AF   horizontal arrow extension

       Lines

       The font-invariant glyphs `br', `ul', and `rn' form corners; they can
       be used to build boxes.  Note that both the PostScript and the
       Unicode-derived names of these three glyphs are just rough
       approximations.

       `rn' also serves in classical troff as the horizontal extension of
       the square root sign.

       `ru' is a font-invariant glyph, namely a rule of length 0.5m.

       Output      Input       PostScript      Unicode       Notes
       ──────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
       |           \[ba]       bar             u007C
       │           \[br]       SF110000        u2502         box rule +
       _           \[ul]       underscore      u005F         +
       ‾           \[rn]       overline        u203E         +
       _           \[ru]       ---             ---           baseline rule +
       ¦           \[bb]       brokenbar       u00A6
       /           \[sl]       slash           u002F         +
       \           \[rs]       backslash       u005C         reverse solidus

       Use `\[radicalex]', not `\[overline]', for continuation of square
       root.

       Text markers

       Output    Input    PostScript        Unicode    Notes
       ──────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
       ○         \[ci]    circle            u25CB      +
       ·         \[bu]    bullet            u2022      +
       ‡         \[dd]    daggerdbl         u2021      double dagger sign +
       †         \[dg]    dagger            u2020      +
       ◊         \[lz]    lozenge           u25CA
       □         \[sq]    uni25A1           u25A1      white square +
       ¶         \[ps]    paragraph         u00B6
       §         \[sc]    section           u00A7      +
       ☜         \[lh]    uni261C           u261C      hand pointing left +
       ☞         \[rh]    a14               u261E      hand pointing right +
       @         \[at]    at                u0040
       #         \[sh]    numbersign        u0023
       ↵         \[CR]    carriagereturn    u21B5
       ✓         \[OK]    a19               u2713      check mark, tick

       Legal Symbols

       Output     Input     PostScript     Unicode     Notes
       ──────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
       ©          \[co]     copyright      u00A9       +
       ®          \[rg]     registered     u00AE       +
       ™          \[tm]     trademark      u2122
                  \[bs]     ---            ---         AT&T Bell Labs logo +

       The Bell Labs logo is not supported in groff.

       Currency symbols

       Output  Input  PostScript   Unicode  Notes
       ──────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────

       $       \[Do]  dollar       u0024
       ¢       \[ct]  cent         u00A2    +
       €       \[eu]  ---          u20AC    official Euro symbol
       €       \[Eu]  Euro         u20AC    font-specific Euro glyph variant
       ¥       \[Ye]  yen          u00A5
       £       \[Po]  sterling     u00A3    British currency sign
       ¤       \[Cs]  currency     u00A4    Scandinavian currency sign
       ƒ       \[Fn]  florin       u0192    Dutch currency sign

       Units

       Output   Input  PostScript     Unicode   Notes
       ──────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
       °        \[de]  degree         u00B0     +
       ‰        \[%0]  perthousand    u2030     per thousand, per mille sign
       ′        \[fm]  minute         u2032     footmark, prime +
       ″        \[sd]  second         u2033
       µ        \[mc]  mu             u00B5     micro sign
       ª        \[Of]  ordfeminine    u00AA
       º        \[Om]  ordmasculine   u00BA

       Logical Symbols

       Output Input PostScript  Unicode Notes
       ──────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
       ∧      \[AN] logicaland  u2227
       ∨      \[OR] logicalor   u2228
       ¬      \[no] logicalnot  u00AC   +
       ¬      \[tno]logicalnot  u00AC   text variant of `no'
       ∃      \[te] existential u2203   there exists
       ∀      \[fa] universal   u2200   for all
       ∋      \[st] suchthat    u220B
       ∴      \[3d] therefore   u2234
       ∴      \[tf] therefore   u2234
       |      \[or] bar         u007C   bitwise OR operator (as used in C) +

       Mathematical Symbols

       OutputInput        PostScript    Unicode    Notes
       ──────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
       ½     \[12]        onehalf       u00BD      +
       ¼     \[14]        onequarter    u00BC      +
       ¾     \[34]        threequarters u00BE      +
       ⅛     \[18]        oneeighth     u215B
       ⅜     \[38]        threeeighths  u215C
       ⅝     \[58]        fiveeighths   u215D
       ⅞     \[78]        seveneighths  u215E
       ¹     \[S1]        onesuperior   u00B9
       ²     \[S2]        twosuperior   u00B2
       ³     \[S3]        threesuperior u00B3

       +     \[pl]        plus          u002B      plus in special font +
       −     \[mi]        minus         u2212      minus in special font +
       ∓     \[-+]        uni2213       u2213
       ±     \[+-]        plusminus     u00B1      +
       ±     \[t+-]       plusminus     u00B1      text variant of `+-'
       ·     \[pc]        periodcenteredu00B7
       ⋅     \[md]        dotmath       u22C5      multiplication dot
       ×     \[mu]        multiply      u00D7      +
       ×     \[tmu]       multiply      u00D7      text variant of `mu'
       ⊗     \[c*]        circlemultiplyu2297      multiply sign in a circle
       ⊕     \[c+]        circleplus    u2295      plus in a circle
       ÷     \[di]        divide        u00F7      division +
       ÷     \[tdi]       divide        u00F7      text variant of `di'
       ⁄     \[f/]        fraction      u2044      bar for fractions
       ∗     \[**]        asteriskmath  u2217      +

       ≤     \[<=]        lessequal     u2264      +
       ≥     \[>=]        greaterequal  u2265      +
       ≪     \[<<]        uni226A       u226A      much less
       ≫     \[>>]        uni226B       u226B      much greater
       =     \[eq]        equal         u003D      equals in special font +
       ≠     \[!=]        notequal      u003D_0338 +
       ≡     \[==]        equivalence   u2261      +
       ≢     \[ne]        uni2262       u2261_0338
       ≅     \[=~]        congruent     u2245      approx. equal
       ≃     \[|=]        uni2243       u2243      asymptot. equal to +
       ∼     \[ap]        similar       u223C      +
       ≈     \[~~]        approxequal   u2248      almost equal to
       ≈     \[~=]        approxequal   u2248
       ∝     \[pt]        proportional  u221D      +

       ∅     \[es]        emptyset      u2205      +
       ∈     \[mo]        element       u2208      +
       ∉     \[nm]        notelement    u2208_0338
       ⊂     \[sb]        propersubset  u2282      +
       ⊄     \[nb]        notsubset     u2282_0338
       ⊃     \[sp]        propersupersetu2283      +
       ⊅     \[nc]        uni2285       u2283_0338 not superset
       ⊆     \[ib]        reflexsubset  u2286      +
       ⊇     \[ip]        reflexsupersetu2287      +
       ∩     \[ca]        intersection  u2229      intersection, cap +
       ∪     \[cu]        union         u222A      union, cup +

       ∠     \[/_]        angle         u2220
       ⊥     \[pp]        perpendicular u22A5
       ∫     \[is]        integral      u222B      +
       ∫     \[integral]  integral      u222B      ***
       ∑     \[sum]       summation     u2211      ***
       ∏     \[product]   product       u220F      ***
       ∐     \[coproduct] uni2210       u2210      ***
       ∇     \[gr]        gradient      u2207      +
       √     \[sr]        radical       u221A      square root +
       √     \[sqrt]      radical       u221A      ***
             \[radicalex] radicalex     ---        square root continuation
             \[sqrtex]    radicalex     ---        ***

       ⌈     \[lc]        uni2308       u2308      left ceiling +
       ⌉     \[rc]        uni2309       u2309      right ceiling +
       ⌊     \[lf]        uni230A       u230A      left floor +
       ⌋     \[rf]        uni230B       u230B      right floor +

       ∞     \[if]        infinity      u221E      +
       ℵ     \[Ah]        aleph         u2135
       ℑ     \[Im]        Ifraktur      u2111      Gothic I, imaginary
       ℜ     \[Re]        Rfraktur      u211C      Gothic R, real
       ℘     \[wp]        weierstrass   u2118      Weierstrass p
       ∂     \[pd]        partialdiff   u2202      partial differentiation +
       ℏ     \[-h]        uni210F       u210F      Planck constant / 2pi
       ℏ     \[hbar]      uni210F       u210F

       Greek glyphs

       These glyphs are intended for technical use, not for real Greek;
       normally, the uppercase letters have upright shape, and the lowercase
       ones are slanted.  There is a problem with the mapping of letter phi
       to Unicode.  Prior to Unicode version 3.0, the difference between
       U+03C6, GREEK SMALL LETTER PHI, and U+03D5, GREEK PHI SYMBOL, was not
       clearly described; only the glyph shapes in the Unicode book could be
       used as a reference.  Starting with Unicode 3.0, the reference glyphs
       have been exchanged and described verbally also: In mathematical
       context, U+03D5 is the stroked variant and U+03C6 the curly glyph.
       Unfortunately, most font vendors didn't update their fonts to this
       (incompatible) change in Unicode.  At the time of this writing
       (January 2006), it is not clear yet whether the Adobe Glyph Names
       `phi' and `phi1' also change its meaning if used for mathematics,
       thus compatibility problems are likely to happen – being
       conservative, groff currently assumes that `phi' in a PostScript
       symbol font is the stroked version.

       In groff, symbol `\[*f]' always denotes the stroked version of phi,
       and `\[+f]' the curly variant.

       Output   Input  PostScript   Unicode   Notes
       ──────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
       Α        \[*A]  Alpha        u0391     +
       Β        \[*B]  Beta         u0392     +
       Γ        \[*G]  Gamma        u0393     +
       Δ        \[*D]  Delta        u0394     +
       Ε        \[*E]  Epsilon      u0395     +
       Ζ        \[*Z]  Zeta         u0396     +
       Η        \[*Y]  Eta          u0397     +
       Θ        \[*H]  Theta        u0398     +
       Ι        \[*I]  Iota         u0399     +
       Κ        \[*K]  Kappa        u039A     +
       Λ        \[*L]  Lambda       u039B     +
       Μ        \[*M]  Mu           u039C     +
       Ν        \[*N]  Nu           u039D     +
       Ξ        \[*C]  Xi           u039E     +
       Ο        \[*O]  Omicron      u039F     +
       Π        \[*P]  Pi           u03A0     +
       Ρ        \[*R]  Rho          u03A1     +
       Σ        \[*S]  Sigma        u03A3     +
       Τ        \[*T]  Tau          u03A4     +
       Υ        \[*U]  Upsilon      u03A5     +
       Φ        \[*F]  Phi          u03A6     +
       Χ        \[*X]  Chi          u03A7     +
       Ψ        \[*Q]  Psi          u03A8     +
       Ω        \[*W]  Omega        u03A9     +
       α        \[*a]  alpha        u03B1     +
       β        \[*b]  beta         u03B2     +
       γ        \[*g]  gamma        u03B3     +
       δ        \[*d]  delta        u03B4     +
       ε        \[*e]  epsilon      u03B5     +
       ζ        \[*z]  zeta         u03B6     +
       η        \[*y]  eta          u03B7     +
       θ        \[*h]  theta        u03B8     +
       ι        \[*i]  iota         u03B9     +
       κ        \[*k]  kappa        u03BA     +
       λ        \[*l]  lambda       u03BB     +
       μ        \[*m]  mu           u03BC     +
       ν        \[*n]  nu           u03BD     +
       ξ        \[*c]  xi           u03BE     +
       ο        \[*o]  omicron      u03BF     +
       π        \[*p]  pi           u03C0     +
       ρ        \[*r]  rho          u03C1     +
       ς        \[ts]  sigma1       u03C2     terminal sigma +
       σ        \[*s]  sigma        u03C3     +
       τ        \[*t]  tau          u03C4     +
       υ        \[*u]  upsilon      u03C5     +
       ϕ        \[*f]  phi          u03D5     (stroked glyph) +
       χ        \[*x]  chi          u03C7     +
       ψ        \[*q]  psi          u03C8     +
       ω        \[*w]  omega        u03C9     +
       ϑ        \[+h]  theta1       u03D1     variant theta
       φ        \[+f]  phi1         u03C6     variant phi (curly shape)
       ϖ        \[+p]  omega1       u03D6     variant pi, looking like omega
       ϵ        \[+e]  uni03F5      u03F5     variant epsilon

       Card symbols

       Output     Input        PostScript     Unicode     Notes
       ──────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
       ♣          \[CL]        club           u2663       black club suit
       ♠          \[SP]        spade          u2660       black spade suit
       ♥          \[HE]        heart          u2665       black heart suit
       ♡          \[u2661]     uni2661        u2661       white heart suit
       ♦          \[DI]        diamond        u2666       black diamond suit
       ♢          \[u2662]     uni2662        u2662       white diamond suit

AUTHOR         top

       Copyright © 1989-2004, 2006-2009, 2012 Free Software Foundation, Inc.

       This document is distributed under the terms of the FDL (GNU Free
       Documentation License) version 1.3 or later.  You should have
       received a copy of the FDL on your system, it is also available on-
       line at the GNU copyleft site ⟨http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html⟩.

       This document is part of groff, the GNU roff distribution.  It was
       written by James Clark ⟨jjc@jclark.com⟩ with additions by Werner
       Lemberg ⟨wl@gnu.org⟩ and Bernd Warken ⟨groff-bernd.warken-72@web.de⟩.

SEE ALSO         top

       groff(1)
              the GNU roff formatter

       groff(7)
              a short reference of the groff formatting language

       An extension to the troff character set for Europe, E.G. Keizer, K.J.
       Simonsen, J. Akkerhuis; EUUG Newsletter, Volume 9, No. 2, Summer 1989

       The Unicode Standard ⟨http://www.unicode.org

COLOPHON         top

       This page is part of the groff (GNU troff) project.  Information
       about the project can be found at 
       ⟨http://www.gnu.org/software/groff/⟩.  If you have a bug report for
       this manual page, see ⟨http://www.gnu.org/software/groff/⟩.  This
       page was obtained from the tarball groff-1.22.2.tar.gz fetched from
       ⟨ftp://ftp.gnu.org/gnu/groff/⟩ on 2014-10-02.  If you discover any
       rendering problems in this HTML version of the page, or you believe
       there is a better or more up-to-date source for the page, or you have
       corrections or improvements to the information in this COLOPHON
       (which is not part of the original manual page), send a mail to
       man-pages@man7.org

1.22.2                         7 February 2013                 GROFF_CHAR(7)