GROFF_CHAR(7)         Miscellaneous Information Manual         GROFF_CHAR(7)

NAME         top

       groff_char - groff glyph names

DESCRIPTION         top

       This manual page lists the standard groff glyph names and the default
       input mapping, latin1.  The glyphs in this document look different
       depending on which output device was chosen (with option -T for the
       man(1) program or the roff formatter).  Glyphs not available for the
       device that is being used to print or view this manual page are
       marked with ‘(N/A)’; the device currently used is ‘utf8’.

       In the actual version, groff provides only 8-bit characters for
       direct input and named entities for further glyphs.  On ASCII
       platforms, input character codes in the range 0 to 127 (decimal)
       represent the usual 7-bit ASCII characters, while codes between 127
       and 255 are interpreted as the corresponding characters in the latin1
       (ISO-8859-1) code set by default.  This mapping is contained in the
       file latin1.tmac and can be changed by loading a different input
       encoding.  Note that some of the input characters are reserved by
       groff, either for internal use or for special input purposes.  On
       EBCDIC platforms, only code page cp1047 is supported (which contains
       the same characters as latin1; the input encoding file is called
       cp1047.tmac).  Again, some input characters are reserved for internal
       and special purposes.

       All roff systems provide the concept of named glyphs.  In traditional
       roff systems, only names of length 2 were used, while groff also
       provides support for longer names.  It is strongly suggested that
       only named glyphs are used for all character representations outside
       of the printable 7-bit ASCII range.

       Some of the predefined groff escape sequences (with names of
       length 1) also produce single glyphs; these exist for historical
       reasons or are printable versions of syntactical characters.  They
       include ‘\\’, ‘\'’, ‘\`’, ‘\-’, ‘\.’, and ‘\e’; see groff(7).

       In groff, all of these different types of characters and glyphs can
       be tested positively with the ‘.if c’ conditional.

REFERENCE         top

       In this section, the glyphs in groff are specified in tabular form.
       The meaning of the columns is as follows.

       Output shows how the glyph is printed for the current device;
              although this can have quite a different shape on other
              devices, it always represents the same glyph.

       Input  specifies how the glyph is input either directly by a key on
              the keyboard, or by a groff escape sequence.

       Code   applies to glyphs which can be input with a single character,
              and gives the ISO latin1 decimal code of that input character.
              Note that this code is equivalent to the lowest 256 Unicode
              characters, including 7-bit ASCII in the range 0 to 127.

              gives the usual PostScript name of the glyph.

              is the glyph name used in composite glyph names.  The names in
              the Unicode column look like u0021 or u0041_0300.  In groff,
              the corresponding Unicode characters can be constructed by
              adding a backslash and a pair of square brackets, for example
              \[u0021] or \[u0041_0300].

   7-bit Character Codes 32–126
       These are the basic glyphs having 7-bit ASCII code values assigned.
       They are identical to the printable characters of the character
       standards ISO-8859-1 (latin1) and Unicode (range Basic Latin).  The
       glyph names used in composite glyph names are ‘u0020’ up to ‘u007E’.

       Note that input characters in the range 0-31 and character 127 are
       not printable characters.  Most of them are invalid input characters
       for groff anyway, and the valid ones have special meaning.  For
       EBCDIC, the printable characters are in the range 66-255.

       48-57  Decimal digits 0 to 9 (print as themselves).

       65-90  Upper case letters A-Z (print as themselves).

       97-122 Lower case letters a–z (print as themselves).

       Most of the remaining characters not in the just described ranges
       print as themselves; the only exceptions are the following

       `      the ISO latin1 ‘Grave Accent’ (code 96) prints as ‘, a left
              single quotation mark (Unicode u2018).  The same output glyph
              can be requested explicitly with ‘\(oq’.  The original
              character can be obtained with ‘\`’ (Unicode u0060).

       '      the ISO latin1 ‘Apostrophe’ (code 39) prints as ’, a right
              single quotation mark (Unicode u2019).  The same output glyph
              is commonly used in typography to represent a punctation
              apostrophe, for example in contractions.  It can be requested
              explicitly with ‘\(cq’.  The original character can be
              obtained with ‘\(aq’ (Unicode u0027).

       -      the ISO latin1 ‘Hyphen, Minus Sign’ (code 45) prints as a
              hyphen (Unicode u2010).  The same output glyph can be
              requested explicitly with ‘\(hy’.  A minus sign can be
              obtained with ‘\-’ (Unicode u2212).

       ~      the ISO latin1 ‘Tilde’ (code 126) is reduced in size to be
              usable as a diacritic (Unicode u02DC).  A larger glyph can be
              obtained with ‘\(ti’ (Unicode u007E).

       ^      the ISO latin1 ‘Circumflex Accent’ (code 94) is reduced in
              size to be usable as a diacritic (Unicode u02C6); a larger
              glyph can be obtained with ‘\(ha’ (Unicode u005E).

       Output   Input   Code   PostScript     Unicode   Notes
       !        !       33     exclam         u0021     exclamation mark (bang)
       "        "       34     quotedbl       u0022     double quote
       #        #       35     numbersign     u0023     number sign
       $        $       36     dollar         u0024     currency dollar sign
       %        %       37     percent        u0025     percent
       &        &       38     ampersand      u0026     ampersand
       ’        '       39     quoteright     u2019     right quote
       '        \(aq           quotesingle    u0027     apostrophe quote
       (        (       40     parenleft      u0028     parentheses left
       )        )       41     parenright     u0029     parentheses right
       *        *       42     asterisk       u002A     asterisk
       +        +       43     plus           u002B     plus
       ,        ,       44     comma          u002C     comma
       ‐        -       45     hyphen         u2010     hyphen

       -        \-             minus          u2212     minus sign
       .        .       46     period         u002E     period, dot
       /        /       47     slash          u002F     slash
       :        :       58     colon          u003A     colon
       ;        ;       59     semicolon      u003B     semicolon
       <        <       60     less           u003C     less than
       =        =       61     equal          u003D     equal
       >        >       62     greater        u003E     greater than
       ?        ?       63     question       u003F     question mark
       @        @       64     at             u0040     at
       [        [       91     bracketleft    u005B     square bracket left
       \        \       92     backslash      u005C     backslash
       ]        ]       93     bracketright   u005D     square bracket right
       ^        ^       94     circumflex     u02C6     modifier circumflex
       ^        \(ha           asciicircum    u005E     circumflex accent
       _        _       95     underscore     u005F     underscore
       ‘        `       96     quoteleft      u2018     left quote
       `        \(ga           grave          u0060     grave accent
       {        {       123    braceleft      u007B     curly brace left
       |        |       124    bar            u007C     bar
       }        }       125    braceright     u007D     curly brace right
       ˜        ~       126    tilde          u02DC     small tilde
       ~        \(ti           asciitilde     u007E     tilde

   8-bit Character Codes 160 to 255
       They are interpreted as printable characters according to the  latin1
       (ISO-8859-1)  code  set, being identical to the Unicode range Latin-1

       Input characters in range  128-159  (on  non-EBCDIC  hosts)  are  not
       printable characters.

       160    the   ISO  latin1  no-break  space  is  mapped  to  ‘\~’,  the
              stretchable space character.

       173    the soft hyphen control  character.   groff  never  uses  this
              character  for output (thus it is omitted in the table below);
              the input character 173 is mapped onto ‘\%’.

       The remaining ranges (161-172, 174-255) are printable characters that
       print  as  themselves.   Although they can be specified directly with
       the keyboard on systems with a latin1 code page, it is better to  use
       their glyph names; see next section.

       Output   Input   Code   PostScript       Unicode      Notes
       ¡        ¡       161    exclamdown       u00A1        inverted exclamation mark
       ¢        ¢       162    cent             u00A2        currency unit
       £        £       163    sterling         u00A3        pound sterling
       ¤        ¤       164    currency         u00A4        generic currency symbol
       ¥        ¥       165    yen              u00A5        Japanese currency symbol
       ¦        ¦       166    brokenbar        u00A6        broken bar
       §        §       167    section          u00A7        section sign
       ¨        ¨       168    dieresis         u00A8        dieresis (umlaut)
       ©        ©       169    copyright        u00A9        copyright symbol
       ª        ª       170    ordfeminine      u00AA        feminine ordinal (Spanish)
       «        «       171    guillemotleft    u00AB        left guillemet [sic]
       ¬        ¬       172    logicalnot       u00AC        logical not
       ®        ®       174    registered       u00AE        registered mark symbol
       ¯        ¯       175    macron           u00AF        overbar accent
       °        °       176    degree           u00B0        degree sign
       ±        ±       177    plusminus        u00B1        plus-minus sign
       ²        ²       178    twosuperior      u00B2        superscript 2
       ³        ³       179    threesuperior    u00B3        superscript 3
       ´        ´       180    acute            u00B4        acute accent

       µ        µ       181    mu               u00B5        micro sign
       ¶        ¶       182    paragraph        u00B6        end of paragraphs marker
       ·        ·       183    periodcentered   u00B7        centered period
       ¸        ¸       184    cedilla          u00B8        cedilla accent
       ¹        ¹       185    onesuperior      u00B9        superscript 1
       º        º       186    ordmasculine     u00BA        masculine ordinal (Spanish)
       »        »       187    guillemotright   u00BB        right guillemet [sic]
       ¼        ¼       188    onequarter       u00BC        1/4 symbol
       ½        ½       189    onehalf          u00BD        1/2 symbol
       ¾        ¾       190    threequarters    u00BE        3/4 symbol
       ¿        ¿       191    questiondown     u00BF        inverted question mark
       À        À       192    Agrave           u0041_0300   A grave
       Á        Á       193    Aacute           u0041_0301   A acute
       Â        Â       194    Acircumflex      u0041_0302   A circumflex
       Ã        Ã       195    Atilde           u0041_0303   A tilde
       Ä        Ä       196    Adieresis        u0041_0308   A dieresis (umlaut)
       Å        Å       197    Aring            u0041_030A   A ring
       Æ        Æ       198    AE               u00C6        A+E combined
       Ç        Ç       199    Ccedilla         u0043_0327   C cedilla
       È        È       200    Egrave           u0045_0300   E grave
       É        É       201    Eacute           u0045_0301   E acute
       Ê        Ê       202    Ecircumflex      u0045_0302   E circumflex
       Ë        Ë       203    Edieresis        u0045_0308   E dieresis (umlaut)
       Ì        Ì       204    Igrave           u0049_0300   I grave
       Í        Í       205    Iacute           u0049_0301   I acute
       Î        Î       206    Icircumflex      u0049_0302   I circumflex
       Ï        Ï       207    Idieresis        u0049_0308   I dieresis
       Ð        Ð       208    Eth              u00D0        E th
       Ñ        Ñ       209    Ntilde           u004E_0303   N tilde
       Ò        Ò       210    Ograve           u004F_0300   O grave
       Ó        Ó       211    Oacute           u004F_0301   O acute
       Ô        Ô       212    Ocircumflex      u004F_0302   O circumflex
       Õ        Õ       213    Otilde           u004F_0303   O tilde
       Ö        Ö       214    Odieresis        u004F_0308   O dieresis (umlaut)
       ×        ×       215    multiply         u00D7        multiply
       Ø        Ø       216    Oslash           u00D8        O slash
       Ù        Ù       217    Ugrave           u0055_0300   U grave
       Ú        Ú       218    Uacute           u0055_0301   U acute
       Û        Û       219    Ucircumflex      u0055_0302   U circumflex
       Ü        Ü       220    Udieresis        u0055_0308   U dieresis (umlaut)
       Ý        Ý       221    Yacute           u0059_0301   Y acute
       Þ        Þ       222    Thorn            u00DE        Thorn
       ß        ß       223    germandbls       u00DF        German double s (sharp s)
       à        à       224    agrave           u0061_0300   a grave
       á        á       225    aacute           u0061_0301   a acute
       â        â       226    acircumflex      u0061_0302   a circumflex
       ã        ã       227    atilde           u0061_0303   a tilde
       ä        ä       228    adieresis        u0061_0308   a dieresis (umlaut)
       å        å       229    aring            u0061_030A   a ring
       æ        æ       230    ae               u00E6        a+e combined
       ç        ç       231    ccedilla         u0063_0327   c cedilla
       è        è       232    egrave           u0065_0300   e grave
       é        é       233    eacute           u0065_0301   e acute
       ê        ê       234    ecircumflex      u0065_0302   e circumflex
       ë        ë       235    edieresis        u0065_0308   e dieresis (umlaut)
       ì        ì       236    igrave           u0069_0300   i grave
       í        í       237    iacute           u0069_0301   i acute
       î        î       238    icircumflex      u0069_0302   i circumflex
       ï        ï       239    idieresis        u0069_0308   i dieresis (umlaut)
       ð        ð       240    eth              u00F0        e th
       ñ        ñ       241    ntilde           u006E_0303   n tilde
       ò        ò       242    ograve           u006F_0300   o grave
       ó        ó       243    oacute           u006F_0301   o acute
       ô        ô       244    ocircumflex      u006F_0302   o circumflex
       õ        õ       245    otilde           u006F_0303   o tilde

       ö        ö       246    odieresis        u006F_0308   o dieresis (umlaut)
       ÷        ÷       247    divide           u00F7        divide
       ø        ø       248    oslash           u00F8        o slash
       ù        ù       249    ugrave           u0075_0300   u grave
       ú        ú       250    uacute           u0075_0301   u acute
       û        û       251    ucircumflex      u0075_0302   u circumflex
       ü        ü       252    udieresis        u0075_0308   u dieresis (umlaut)
       ý        ý       253    yacute           u0079_0301   y acute
       þ        þ       254    thorn            u00FE        thorn
       ÿ        ÿ       255    ydieresis        u0079_0308   y dieresis (umlaut)

   Named Glyphs
       Glyph  names  can  be embedded into the document text by using escape
       sequences.  groff(7)  describes  how  these  escape  sequences  look.
       Glyph  names can consist of quite arbitrary characters from the ASCII
       or latin1 code set, not  only  alphanumeric  characters.   Here  some

       \(ch   A glyph having the 2-character name ch.

              A  glyph  having  the  name  char_name (having length 1, 2, 3,
              ...).  Note that ‘c’ is not the same  as  ‘\[c]’  (c a  single
              character):  The  latter  is  internally  mapped to glyph name
              ‘\c’.  By default, groff defines a single glyph name  starting
              with a backslash, namely ‘\-’, which can be either accessed as
              ‘\-’ or ‘\[-]’.

       \[base_glyph composite_1 composite_2 ...]
              A composite glyph; see below for a more detailed description.

       In groff, each 8-bit input character can  also  referred  to  by  the
       construct  ‘\[charn]’ where n is the decimal code of the character, a
       number between 0 and 255 without leading zeros  (those  entities  are
       not  glyph  names).   They  are normally mapped onto glyphs using the
       .trin request.

       Another special convention is  the  handling  of  glyphs  with  names
       directly  derived  from  a  Unicode  code point; this is shown in the
       ‘Unicode’ column of the table below.   In  general,  all  glyphs  not
       having  a name as listed in this manual page can be accessed with the
       ‘\[uXXXX]’ construct; please go to section  ‘Using  Symbols’  in  the
       groff info manual for more details.

       Moreover,  new  glyph  names can be created by the .char request; see

       In the following, a plus sign ‘+’ in  the  ‘Notes’  column  indicates
       that  this  particular  glyph  name  appears in the PS version of the
       original troff documentation, CSTR 54.

       Entries marked with ‘***’ denote  glyphs  for  mathematical  purposes
       (mainly  used  for  DVI  output).  Normally, such glyphs have metrics
       which make them unusable in normal text.

       Output   Input   PostScript   Unicode   Notes
       Ð        \[-D]   Eth          u00D0     uppercase eth
       ð        \[Sd]   eth          u00F0     lowercase eth
       Þ        \[TP]   Thorn        u00DE     uppercase thorn
       þ        \[Tp]   thorn        u00FE     lowercase thorn
       ß        \[ss]   germandbls   u00DF     German double s (sharp s)

       Ligatures and Other Latin Glyphs

       Output   Input   PostScript   Unicode           Notes
       ff       \[ff]   ff           u0066_0066        ff ligature +
       fi       \[fi]   fi           u0066_0069        fi ligature +
       fl       \[fl]   fl           u0066_006C        fl ligature +
       ffi      \[Fi]   ffi          u0066_0066_0069   ffi ligature +
       ffl      \[Fl]   ffl          u0066_0066_006C   ffl ligature +
       Ł        \[/L]   Lslash       u0141             L slash (Polish)
       ł        \[/l]   lslash       u0142             l slash (Polish)
       Ø        \[/O]   Oslash       u00D8             O slash (Scandinavian)
       ø        \[/o]   oslash       u00F8             o slash (Scandinavian)
       Æ        \[AE]   AE           u00C6             A+E combined
       æ        \[ae]   ae           u00E6             a+e combined
       Π       \[OE]   OE           u0152             O+E combined
       œ        \[oe]   oe           u0153             o+e combined
       IJ        \[IJ]   IJ           u0132             I+J combined (Dutch)
       ij        \[ij]   ij           u0133             i+j combined(Dutch)
       ı        \[.i]   dotlessi     u0131             i without a dot (Turkish)
       ȷ        \[.j]   dotlessj     u0237             j without a dot

       Accented Characters

       Output   Input   PostScript    Unicode      Notes
       Á        \['A]   Aacute        u0041_0301   A acute
       Ć        \['C]   Cacute        u0043_0301   C acute
       É        \['E]   Eacute        u0045_0301   E acute
       Í        \['I]   Iacute        u0049_0301   I acute
       Ó        \['O]   Oacute        u004F_0301   O acute
       Ú        \['U]   Uacute        u0055_0301   U acute
       Ý        \['Y]   Yacute        u0059_0301   Y acute
       á        \['a]   aacute        u0061_0301   a acute
       ć        \['c]   cacute        u0063_0301   c acute
       é        \['e]   eacute        u0065_0301   e acute
       í        \['i]   iacute        u0069_0301   i acute
       ó        \['o]   oacute        u006F_0301   o acute
       ú        \['u]   uacute        u0075_0301   u acute
       ý        \['y]   yacute        u0079_0301   y acute
       Ä        \[:A]   Adieresis     u0041_0308   A dieresis (umlaut)
       Ë        \[:E]   Edieresis     u0045_0308   E dieresis (umlaut)
       Ï        \[:I]   Idieresis     u0049_0308   I dieresis (umlaut)
       Ö        \[:O]   Odieresis     u004F_0308   O dieresis (umlaut)
       Ü        \[:U]   Udieresis     u0055_0308   U dieresis (umlaut)
       Ÿ        \[:Y]   Ydieresis     u0059_0308   Y dieresis (umlaut)
       ä        \[:a]   adieresis     u0061_0308   a dieresis (umlaut)
       ë        \[:e]   edieresis     u0065_0308   e dieresis (umlaut)
       ï        \[:i]   idieresis     u0069_0308   i dieresis (umlaut)
       ö        \[:o]   odieresis     u006F_0308   o dieresis (umlaut)
       ü        \[:u]   udieresis     u0075_0308   u dieresis (umlaut)
       ÿ        \[:y]   ydieresis     u0079_0308   y dieresis (umlaut)
       Â        \[^A]   Acircumflex   u0041_0302   A circumflex
       Ê        \[^E]   Ecircumflex   u0045_0302   E circumflex
       Î        \[^I]   Icircumflex   u0049_0302   I circumflex
       Ô        \[^O]   Ocircumflex   u004F_0302   O circumflex
       Û        \[^U]   Ucircumflex   u0055_0302   U circumflex
       â        \[^a]   acircumflex   u0061_0302   a circumflex
       ê        \[^e]   ecircumflex   u0065_0302   e circumflex
       î        \[^i]   icircumflex   u0069_0302   i circumflex
       ô        \[^o]   ocircumflex   u006F_0302   o circumflex
       û        \[^u]   ucircumflex   u0075_0302   u circumflex
       À        \[`A]   Agrave        u0041_0300   A grave
       È        \[`E]   Egrave        u0045_0300   E grave
       Ì        \[`I]   Igrave        u0049_0300   I grave
       Ò        \[`O]   Ograve        u004F_0300   O grave
       Ù        \[`U]   Ugrave        u0055_0300   U grave
       à        \[`a]   agrave        u0061_0300   a grave

       è        \[`e]   egrave        u0065_0300   e grave
       ì        \[`i]   igrave        u0069_0300   i grave
       ò        \[`o]   ograve        u006F_0300   o grave
       ù        \[`u]   ugrave        u0075_0300   u grave
       Ã        \[~A]   Atilde        u0041_0303   A tilde
       Ñ        \[~N]   Ntilde        u004E_0303   N tilde
       Õ        \[~O]   Otilde        u004F_0303   O tilde
       ã        \[~a]   atilde        u0061_0303   a tilde
       ñ        \[~n]   ntilde        u006E_0303   n tilde
       õ        \[~o]   otilde        u006F_0303   o tilde
       Š        \[vS]   Scaron        u0053_030C   S caron
       š        \[vs]   scaron        u0073_030C   s caron
       Ž        \[vZ]   Zcaron        u005A_030C   Z caron
       ž        \[vz]   zcaron        u007A_030C   z caron
       Ç        \[,C]   Ccedilla      u0043_0327   C cedilla
       ç        \[,c]   ccedilla      u0063_0327   c cedilla
       Å        \[oA]   Aring         u0041_030A   A ring
       å        \[oa]   aring         u0061_030A   a ring


       The composite request is used to map most  of  the  accents  to  non-
       spacing glyph names; the values given in parentheses are the original
       (spacing) ones.

       Output   Input   PostScript     Unicode         Notes
       ˝        \[a"]   hungarumlaut   u030B (u02DD)   Hungarian umlaut
       ¯        \[a-]   macron         u0304 (u00AF)   overbar accent
       ˙        \[a.]   dotaccent      u0307 (u02D9)   dot accent
       ^        \[a^]   circumflex     u0302 (u005E)   circumflex accent
       ´        \[aa]   acute          u0301 (u00B4)   acute accent +
       `        \[ga]   grave          u0300 (u0060)   grave accent +
       ˘        \[ab]   breve          u0306 (u02D8)   breve accent
       ¸        \[ac]   cedilla        u0327 (u00B8)   cedilla accent
       ¨        \[ad]   dieresis       u0308 (u00A8)   umlaut accent
       ˇ        \[ah]   caron          u030C (u02C7)   caron accent
       ˚        \[ao]   ring           u030A (u02DA)   small circle, ring accent
       ~        \[a~]   tilde          u0303 (u007E)   tilde accent
       ˛        \[ho]   ogonek         u0328 (u02DB)   hook accent
       ^        \[ha]   asciicircum    u005E           high circumflex, ASCII
                                                       character, in mathematics
                                                       the power sign
       ~        \[ti]   asciitilde     u007E           tilde in vertical middle,
                                                       ASCII, in Unix-like the
                                                       home directory


       Output   Input   PostScript       Unicode   Notes
       „        \[Bq]   quotedblbase     u201E     low double comma quote
       ‚        \[bq]   quotesinglbase   u201A     low single comma quote
       “        \[lq]   quotedblleft     u201C     left double quote
       ”        \[rq]   quotedblright    u201D     right double quote
       ‘        \[oq]   quoteleft        u2018     single open (left) quote
       ’        \[cq]   quoteright       u2019     single closing (right) quote
       '        \[aq]   quotesingle      u0027     apostrophe quote (ASCII 39)
       "        \[dq]   quotedbl         u0022     double quote (ASCII 34)
       «        \[Fo]   guillemotleft    u00AB     left guillemet [sic]
       »        \[Fc]   guillemotright   u00BB     right guillemet [sic]
       ‹        \[fo]   guilsinglleft    u2039     single left-pointing angle
                                                   quotation mark
       ›        \[fc]   guilsinglright   u203A     single right-pointing angle
                                                   quotation mark


       Output   Input   PostScript     Unicode   Notes
       ¡        \[r!]   exclamdown     u00A1     inverted exclamation mark
       ¿        \[r?]   questiondown   u00BF     inverted question mark
       —        \[em]   emdash         u2014     em-dash symbol +
       –        \[en]   endash         u2013     en-dash symbol
       ‐        \[hy]   hyphen         u2010     hyphen symbol +


       The  extensible  bracket  pieces  are  font-invariant   glyphs.    In
       classical  troff  only  one  glyph was available to vertically extend
       brackets,  braces,  and  parentheses:  ‘bv’.   We   map   it   rather
       arbitrarily to u23AA.

       Note that not all devices contain extensible bracket pieces which can
       be piled up with ‘\b’ due to the restrictions of the escape's  piling
       algorithm.  A general solution to build brackets out of pieces is the
       following macro:

              .\" Make a pile centered vertically 0.5em
              .\" above the baseline.
              .\" The first argument is placed at the top.
              .\" The pile is returned in string 'pile'
              .de pile-make
              .  nr pile-wd 0
              .  nr pile-ht 0
              .  ds pile-args
              .  nr pile-# \n[.$]
              .  while \n[pile-#] \{\
              .    nr pile-wd (\n[pile-wd] >? \w'\$[\n[pile-#]]')
              .    nr pile-ht +(\n[rst] - \n[rsb])
              .    as pile-args \v'\n[rsb]u'\"
              .    as pile-args \Z'\$[\n[pile-#]]'\"
              .    as pile-args \v'-\n[rst]u'\"
              .    nr pile-# -1
              .  \}
              .  ds pile \v'(-0.5m + (\n[pile-ht]u / 2u))'\"
              .  as pile \*[pile-args]\"
              .  as pile \v'((\n[pile-ht]u / 2u) + 0.5m)'\"
              .  as pile \h'\n[pile-wd]u'\"

       Another complication is the fact that  some  glyphs  which  represent
       bracket  pieces  in original troff can be used for other mathematical
       symbols also, for example ‘lf’ and ‘rf’  which  provide  the  ‘floor’
       operator.   Other  devices  (most notably for DVI output) don't unify
       such glyphs.  For this reason, the four glyphs ‘lf’, ‘rf’, ‘lc’,  and
       ‘rc’  are  not  unified  with  similarly  looking bracket pieces.  In
       groff, only  glyphs  with  long  names  are  guaranteed  to  pile  up
       correctly for all devices (provided those glyphs exist).

       Output   Input               PostScript       Unicode   Notes
       [        \[lB]               bracketleft      u005B     left square
       ]        \[rB]               bracketright     u005D     right square

       {        \[lC]               braceleft        u007B     left curly
       }        \[rC]               braceright       u007D     right curly
       ⟨        \[la]               angleleft        u27E8     left angle
       ⟩        \[ra]               angleright       u27E9     right angle

       ⎪        \[bv]               braceex          u23AA     curly brace
                                                               extension ***
       ⎪        \[braceex]          braceex          u23AA     curly brace

       ⎡        \[bracketlefttp]    bracketlefttp    u23A1     left square
                                                               bracket top
       ⎣        \[bracketleftbt]    bracketleftbt    u23A3     left square
       ⎢        \[bracketleftex]    bracketleftex    u23A2     left square
       ⎤        \[bracketrighttp]   bracketrighttp   u23A4     right square
                                                               bracket top
       ⎦        \[bracketrightbt]   bracketrightbt   u23A6     right square
       ⎥        \[bracketrightex]   bracketrightex   u23A5     right square

       ╭        \[lt]               bracelefttp      u23A7     left curly
                                                               brace top +
       ⎧        \[bracelefttp]      bracelefttp      u23A7     left curly
                                                               brace top
       ┥        \[lk]               braceleftmid     u23A8     left curly
                                                               brace middle
       ⎨        \[braceleftmid]     braceleftmid     u23A8     left curly
                                                               brace middle
       ╰        \[lb]               braceleftbt      u23A9     left curly
                                                               brace bottom
       ⎩        \[braceleftbt]      braceleftbt      u23A9     left curly
                                                               brace bottom
       ⎪        \[braceleftex]      braceleftex      u23AA     left curly
       ╮        \[rt]               bracerighttp     u23AB     right curly
                                                               brace top +
       ⎫        \[bracerighttp]     bracerighttp     u23AB     right curly
                                                               brace top
       ┝        \[rk]               bracerightmid    u23AC     right curly
                                                               brace middle
       ⎬        \[bracerightmid]    bracerightmid    u23AC     right curly
                                                               brace middle
       ╯        \[rb]               bracerightbt     u23AD     right curly
                                                               brace bottom
       ⎭        \[bracerightbt]     bracerightbt     u23AD     right curly
                                                               brace bottom

       ⎪        \[bracerightex]     bracerightex     u23AA     right curly
       ⎛        \[parenlefttp]      parenlefttp      u239B     left
       ⎝        \[parenleftbt]      parenleftbt      u239D     left
       ⎜        \[parenleftex]      parenleftex      u239C     left
       ⎞        \[parenrighttp]     parenrighttp     u239E     right
       ⎠        \[parenrightbt]     parenrightbt     u23A0     right
       ⎟        \[parenrightex]     parenrightex     u239F     right


       Output   Input   PostScript      Unicode   Notes
       ←        \[<-]   arrowleft       u2190     horizontal arrow left +
       →        \[->]   arrowright      u2192     horizontal arrow right +
       ↔        \[<>]   arrowboth       u2194     horizontal arrow in both
       ↓        \[da]   arrowdown       u2193     vertical arrow down +
       ↑        \[ua]   arrowup         u2191     vertical arrow up +
       ↕        \[va]   arrowupdn       u2195     vertical arrow in both
       ⇐        \[lA]   arrowdblleft    u21D0     horizontal double arrow left
       ⇒        \[rA]   arrowdblright   u21D2     horizontal double arrow right
       ⇔        \[hA]   arrowdblboth    u21D4     horizontal double arrow in
                                                  both directions
       ⇓        \[dA]   arrowdbldown    u21D3     vertical double arrow down
       ⇑        \[uA]   arrowdblup      u21D1     vertical double arrow up
       ⇕        \[vA]   uni21D5         u21D5     vertical double arrow in both
       ⎯        \[an]   arrowhorizex    u23AF     horizontal arrow extension


       The font-invariant glyphs ‘br’, ‘ul’, and ‘rn’ form corners; they can
       be  used  to  build  boxes.   Note  that  both the PostScript and the
       Unicode-derived  names  of  these  three  glyphs   are   just   rough

       ‘rn’  also  serves  in classical troff as the horizontal extension of
       the square root sign.

       ‘ru’ is a font-invariant glyph, namely a rule of length 0.5m.

       Output   Input   PostScript   Unicode   Notes
       |        \[ba]   bar          u007C
       │        \[br]   SF110000     u2502     box rule +
       _        \[ul]   underscore   u005F     +
       ‾        \[rn]   overline     u203E     +
       _        \[ru]   ---          ---       baseline rule +
       ¦        \[bb]   brokenbar    u00A6
       /        \[sl]   slash        u002F     +

       \        \[rs]   backslash    u005C     reverse solidus

       Use ‘\[radicalex]’, not ‘\[overline]’,  for  continuation  of  square

       Text markers

       Output   Input   PostScript       Unicode   Notes
       ○        \[ci]   circle           u25CB     +
       ·        \[bu]   bullet           u2022     +
       ‡        \[dd]   daggerdbl        u2021     double dagger sign +
       †        \[dg]   dagger           u2020     dagger +
       ◊        \[lz]   lozenge          u25CA     lozenge, diamond, pound key
       □        \[sq]   uni25A1          u25A1     white square +
       ¶        \[ps]   paragraph        u00B6     end of paragraph marker
       §        \[sc]   section          u00A7     section sign +
       ☜        \[lh]   uni261C          u261C     hand pointing left +
       ☞        \[rh]   a14              u261E     hand pointing right +
       @        \[at]   at               u0040     at
       #        \[sh]   numbersign       u0023     number sign
       ↵        \[CR]   carriagereturn   u21B5     carriage return
       ✓        \[OK]   a19              u2713     check mark, tick

       Legal Symbols

       Output   Input   PostScript   Unicode   Notes
       ©        \[co]   copyright    u00A9     +
       ®        \[rg]   registered   u00AE     +
       ™        \[tm]   trademark    u2122
                \[bs]   ---          ---       AT&T Bell Labs logo +

       The Bell Labs logo is not supported in groff.

       Currency symbols

       Output   Input   PostScript   Unicode   Notes
       $        \[Do]   dollar       u0024     dollar
       ¢        \[ct]   cent         u00A2     cent +
       €        \[eu]   ---          u20AC     official Euro symbol
       €        \[Eu]   Euro         u20AC     font-specific Euro glyph variant
       ¥        \[Ye]   yen          u00A5     Japanese Yen
       £        \[Po]   sterling     u00A3     pound sterling (British)
       ¤        \[Cs]   currency     u00A4     Scandinavian currency sign
       ƒ        \[Fn]   florin       u0192     Dutch currency sign


       Output   Input   PostScript     Unicode   Notes
       °        \[de]   degree         u00B0     degree +
       ‰        \[%0]   perthousand    u2030     per thousand, per mille sign
       ′        \[fm]   minute         u2032     arc minute sign +
       ″        \[sd]   second         u2033     acr second sign
       µ        \[mc]   mu             u00B5     mu, micro sign
       ª        \[Of]   ordfeminine    u00AA     feminine ordinal (Spanish)
       º        \[Om]   ordmasculine   u00BA     masculine ordinal (Spanish)

       Logical Symbols

       Output   Input    PostScript    Unicode   Notes
       ∧        \[AN]    logicaland    u2227     logical and

       ∨        \[OR]    logicalor     u2228     logical or
       ¬        \[no]    logicalnot    u00AC     logical not + ***
       ¬        \[tno]   logicalnot    u00AC     text variant of ‘no’
       ∃        \[te]    existential   u2203     there exists
       ∀        \[fa]    universal     u2200     for all
       ∋        \[st]    suchthat      u220B     sucht that
       ∴        \[3d]    therefore     u2234     therefore
       ∴        \[tf]    therefore     u2234     therefore
       |        \[or]    bar           u007C     bitwise OR operator (as
                                                 used in C) +

       Mathematical Symbols

       Output   Input          PostScript       Unicode      Notes
       ½        \[12]          onehalf          u00BD        1/2 symbol +
       ¼        \[14]          onequarter       u00BC        1/4 symbol +
       ¾        \[34]          threequarters    u00BE        3/4 symbol +
       ⅛        \[18]          oneeighth        u215B        1/8 symbol
       ⅜        \[38]          threeeighths     u215C        3/8 symbol
       ⅝        \[58]          fiveeighths      u215D        5/8 symbol
       ⅞        \[78]          seveneighths     u215E        7/8 symbol
       ¹        \[S1]          onesuperior      u00B9        superscript 1
       ²        \[S2]          twosuperior      u00B2        superscript 2
       ³        \[S3]          threesuperior    u00B3        superscript 3

       +        \[pl]          plus             u002B        plus in special font +
       −        \[mi]          minus            u2212        minus in special font +
       ∓        \[-+]          uni2213          u2213        minus-plus
       ±        \[+-]          plusminus        u00B1        plus-minus + ***
       ±        \[t+-]         plusminus        u00B1        text variant of \[+-]
       ·        \[pc]          periodcentered   u00B7        period centered
       ⋅        \[md]          dotmath          u22C5        multiplication dot
       ×        \[mu]          multiply         u00D7        multiply sign + ***
       ×        \[tmu]         multiply         u00D7        text variant of \[mu]
       ⊗        \[c*]          circlemultiply   u2297        multiply sign in circle
       ⊕        \[c+]          circleplus       u2295        plus sign in circle
       ÷        \[di]          divide           u00F7        division sign + ***
       ÷        \[tdi]         divide           u00F7        text variant of \[di]
       ⁄        \[f/]          fraction         u2044        bar for fractions
       ∗        \[**]          asteriskmath     u2217        mathematical asterisk +

       ≤        \[<=]          lessequal        u2264        less or equal +
       ≥        \[>=]          greaterequal     u2265        greater or equal +
       ≪        \[<<]          uni226A          u226A        much less
       ≫        \[>>]          uni226B          u226B        much greater
       =        \[eq]          equal            u003D        equals in special font +
       ≠        \[!=]          notequal         u003D_0338   not equal +
       ≡        \[==]          equivalence      u2261        equivalent +
       ≢        \[ne]          uni2262          u2261_0338   not equivalent
       ≅        \[=~]          congruent        u2245        congruent, approx. equal
       ≃        \[|=]          uni2243          u2243        asymptot. equal to +
       ∼        \[ap]          similar          u223C        similar +
       ≈        \[~~]          approxequal      u2248        almost equal to
       ≈        \[~=]          approxequal      u2248        almost equal to
       ∝        \[pt]          proportional     u221D        proportional +

       ∅        \[es]          emptyset         u2205        empty set +
       ∈        \[mo]          element          u2208        element of a set +
       ∉        \[nm]          notelement       u2208_0338   not element of set
       ⊂        \[sb]          propersubset     u2282        proper subset +
       ⊄        \[nb]          notsubset        u2282_0338   not supset
       ⊃        \[sp]          propersuperset   u2283        proper superset +
       ⊅        \[nc]          uni2285          u2283_0338   not superset
       ⊆        \[ib]          reflexsubset     u2286        subset or equal +

       ⊇        \[ip]          reflexsuperset   u2287        superset or equal +
       ∩        \[ca]          intersection     u2229        intersection, cap +
       ∪        \[cu]          union            u222A        union, cup +

       ∠        \[/_]          angle            u2220        angle
       ⊥        \[pp]          perpendicular    u22A5        perpendicular
       ∫        \[is]          integral         u222B        integral +
       ∫        \[integral]    integral         u222B        integral ***
       ∑        \[sum]         summation        u2211        summation ***
       ∏        \[product]     product          u220F        product ***
       ∐        \[coproduct]   uni2210          u2210        coproduct ***
       ∇        \[gr]          gradient         u2207        gradient +
       √        \[sr]          radical          u221A        square root +
       √        \[sqrt]        radical          u221A        square root
                \[radicalex]   radicalex        ---          square root continuation
                \[sqrtex]      radicalex        ---          square root continuation

       ⌈        \[lc]          uni2308          u2308        left ceiling +
       ⌉        \[rc]          uni2309          u2309        right ceiling +
       ⌊        \[lf]          uni230A          u230A        left floor +
       ⌋        \[rf]          uni230B          u230B        right floor +

       ∞        \[if]          infinity         u221E        infinity +
       ℵ        \[Ah]          aleph            u2135        aleph
       ℑ        \[Im]          Ifraktur         u2111        Gothic I, imaginary
       ℜ        \[Re]          Rfraktur         u211C        Gothic R, real
       ℘        \[wp]          weierstrass      u2118        Weierstrass p
       ∂        \[pd]          partialdiff      u2202        partial differentiation
       ℏ        \[-h]          uni210F          u210F        Planck constant / 2pi
       ℏ        \[hbar]        uni210F          u210F        Planck constant / 2pi

       Greek glyphs

       These  glyphs  are  intended  for  technical use, not for real Greek;
       normally, the uppercase letters have upright shape, and the lowercase
       ones  are slanted.  There is a problem with the mapping of letter phi
       to Unicode.  Prior to Unicode  version 3.0,  the  difference  between
       U+03C6, GREEK SMALL LETTER PHI, and U+03D5, GREEK PHI SYMBOL, was not
       clearly described; only the glyph shapes in the Unicode book could be
       used as a reference.  Starting with Unicode 3.0, the reference glyphs
       have been exchanged and  described  verbally  also:  In  mathematical
       context,  U+03D5  is  the stroked variant and U+03C6 the curly glyph.
       Unfortunately, most font vendors didn't update their  fonts  to  this
       (incompatible)  change  in  Unicode.   At  the  time  of this writing
       (January 2006), it is not clear yet whether  the  Adobe  Glyph  Names
       ‘phi’  and  ‘phi1’  also  change its meaning if used for mathematics,
       thus  compatibility  problems  are   likely   to   happen   –   being
       conservative,  groff  currently  assumes  that  ‘phi’ in a PostScript
       symbol font is the stroked version.

       In groff, symbol ‘\[*f]’ always denotes the stroked version  of  phi,
       and ‘\[+f]’ the curly variant.

       Output   Input   PostScript   Unicode   Notes
       Α        \[*A]   Alpha        u0391     +
       Β        \[*B]   Beta         u0392     +
       Γ        \[*G]   Gamma        u0393     +
       Δ        \[*D]   Delta        u0394     +
       Ε        \[*E]   Epsilon      u0395     +

       Ζ        \[*Z]   Zeta         u0396     +
       Η        \[*Y]   Eta          u0397     +
       Θ        \[*H]   Theta        u0398     +
       Ι        \[*I]   Iota         u0399     +
       Κ        \[*K]   Kappa        u039A     +
       Λ        \[*L]   Lambda       u039B     +
       Μ        \[*M]   Mu           u039C     +
       Ν        \[*N]   Nu           u039D     +
       Ξ        \[*C]   Xi           u039E     +
       Ο        \[*O]   Omicron      u039F     +
       Π        \[*P]   Pi           u03A0     +
       Ρ        \[*R]   Rho          u03A1     +
       Σ        \[*S]   Sigma        u03A3     +
       Τ        \[*T]   Tau          u03A4     +
       Υ        \[*U]   Upsilon      u03A5     +
       Φ        \[*F]   Phi          u03A6     +
       Χ        \[*X]   Chi          u03A7     +
       Ψ        \[*Q]   Psi          u03A8     +
       Ω        \[*W]   Omega        u03A9     +
       α        \[*a]   alpha        u03B1     +
       β        \[*b]   beta         u03B2     +
       γ        \[*g]   gamma        u03B3     +
       δ        \[*d]   delta        u03B4     +
       ε        \[*e]   epsilon      u03B5     +
       ζ        \[*z]   zeta         u03B6     +
       η        \[*y]   eta          u03B7     +
       θ        \[*h]   theta        u03B8     +
       ι        \[*i]   iota         u03B9     +
       κ        \[*k]   kappa        u03BA     +
       λ        \[*l]   lambda       u03BB     +
       μ        \[*m]   mu           u03BC     +
       ν        \[*n]   nu           u03BD     +
       ξ        \[*c]   xi           u03BE     +
       ο        \[*o]   omicron      u03BF     +
       π        \[*p]   pi           u03C0     +
       ρ        \[*r]   rho          u03C1     +
       ς        \[ts]   sigma1       u03C2     terminal sigma +
       σ        \[*s]   sigma        u03C3     +
       τ        \[*t]   tau          u03C4     +
       υ        \[*u]   upsilon      u03C5     +
       ϕ        \[*f]   phi          u03D5     (stroked glyph) +
       χ        \[*x]   chi          u03C7     +
       ψ        \[*q]   psi          u03C8     +
       ω        \[*w]   omega        u03C9     +
       ϑ        \[+h]   theta1       u03D1     variant theta
       φ        \[+f]   phi1         u03C6     variant phi (curly shape)
       ϖ        \[+p]   omega1       u03D6     variant pi, looking like omega
       ϵ        \[+e]   uni03F5      u03F5     variant epsilon

       Card symbols

       Output   Input      PostScript   Unicode   Notes
       ♣        \[CL]      club         u2663     black club suit
       ♠        \[SP]      spade        u2660     black spade suit
       ♥        \[HE]      heart        u2665     black heart suit
       ♡        \[u2661]   uni2661      u2661     white heart suit
       ♦        \[DI]      diamond      u2666     black diamond suit
       ♢        \[u2662]   uni2662      u2662     white diamond suit

AUTHORS         top

       This document was written by James Clark ⟨⟩, with addi‐
       tions by Werner Lemberg ⟨⟩ and Bernd Warken
       ⟨⟩, and revised to use real tables by
       Eric S. Raymond ⟨⟩.

SEE ALSO         top

              the GNU roff formatter

              a short reference of the groff formatting language

       An extension to the troff character set for Europe, E.G. Keizer, K.J.
       Simonsen, J. Akkerhuis; EUUG Newsletter, Volume 9, No. 2, Summer 1989

       The Unicode Standard ⟨

COLOPHON         top

       This page is part of the groff (GNU troff) project.  Information
       about the project can be found at 
       ⟨⟩.  If you have a bug report for
       this manual page, see ⟨⟩.  This
       page was obtained from the project's upstream Git repository
       ⟨⟩ on 2018-10-29.  (At that
       time, the date of the most recent commit that was found in the repos‐
       itory was 2018-10-25.)  If you discover any rendering problems in
       this HTML version of the page, or you believe there is a better or
       more up-to-date source for the page, or you have corrections or
       improvements to the information in this COLOPHON (which is not part
       of the original manual page), send a mail to

1.22.3                        24 November 2017                 GROFF_CHAR(7)

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