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SSH_CONFIG(5)              BSD File Formats Manual             SSH_CONFIG(5)

NAME         top

     ssh_config — OpenSSH SSH client configuration files

SYNOPSIS         top

     ~/.ssh/config
     /etc/ssh/ssh_config

DESCRIPTION         top

     ssh(1) obtains configuration data from the following sources in the
     following order:

           1.   command-line options
           2.   user's configuration file (~/.ssh/config)
           3.   system-wide configuration file (/etc/ssh/ssh_config)

     For each parameter, the first obtained value will be used.  The config‐
     uration files contain sections separated by Host specifications, and
     that section is only applied for hosts that match one of the patterns
     given in the specification.  The matched host name is usually the one
     given on the command line (see the CanonicalizeHostname option for
     exceptions).

     Since the first obtained value for each parameter is used, more host-
     specific declarations should be given near the beginning of the file,
     and general defaults at the end.

     The file contains keyword-argument pairs, one per line.  Lines starting
     with ‘#’ and empty lines are interpreted as comments.  Arguments may
     optionally be enclosed in double quotes (") in order to represent argu‐
     ments containing spaces.  Configuration options may be separated by
     whitespace or optional whitespace and exactly one ‘=’; the latter for‐
     mat is useful to avoid the need to quote whitespace when specifying
     configuration options using the ssh, scp, and sftp -o option.

     The possible keywords and their meanings are as follows (note that key‐
     words are case-insensitive and arguments are case-sensitive):

     Host    Restricts the following declarations (up to the next Host or
             Match keyword) to be only for those hosts that match one of the
             patterns given after the keyword.  If more than one pattern is
             provided, they should be separated by whitespace.  A single ‘*’
             as a pattern can be used to provide global defaults for all
             hosts.  The host is usually the hostname argument given on the
             command line (see the CanonicalizeHostname keyword for excep‐
             tions).

             A pattern entry may be negated by prefixing it with an exclama‐
             tion mark (‘!’).  If a negated entry is matched, then the Host
             entry is ignored, regardless of whether any other patterns on
             the line match.  Negated matches are therefore useful to pro‐
             vide exceptions for wildcard matches.

             See PATTERNS for more information on patterns.

     Match   Restricts the following declarations (up to the next Host or
             Match keyword) to be used only when the conditions following
             the Match keyword are satisfied.  Match conditions are speci‐
             fied using one or more criteria or the single token all which
             always matches.  The available criteria keywords are:
             canonical, exec, host, originalhost, user, and localuser.  The
             all criteria must appear alone or immediately after canonical.
             Other criteria may be combined arbitrarily.  All criteria but
             all and canonical require an argument.  Criteria may be negated
             by prepending an exclamation mark (‘!’).

             The canonical keyword matches only when the configuration file
             is being re-parsed after hostname canonicalization (see the
             CanonicalizeHostname option.)  This may be useful to specify
             conditions that work with canonical host names only.  The exec
             keyword executes the specified command under the user's shell.
             If the command returns a zero exit status then the condition is
             considered true.  Commands containing whitespace characters
             must be quoted.  Arguments to exec accept the tokens described
             in the TOKENS section.

             The other keywords' criteria must be single entries or comma-
             separated lists and may use the wildcard and negation operators
             described in the PATTERNS section.  The criteria for the host
             keyword are matched against the target hostname, after any sub‐
             stitution by the Hostname or CanonicalizeHostname options.  The
             originalhost keyword matches against the hostname as it was
             specified on the command-line.  The user keyword matches
             against the target username on the remote host.  The localuser
             keyword matches against the name of the local user running
             ssh(1) (this keyword may be useful in system-wide ssh_config
             files).

     AddKeysToAgent
             Specifies whether keys should be automatically added to a run‐
             ning ssh-agent(1).  If this option is set to yes and a key is
             loaded from a file, the key and its passphrase are added to the
             agent with the default lifetime, as if by ssh-add(1).  If this
             option is set to ask, ssh(1) will require confirmation using
             the SSH_ASKPASS program before adding a key (see ssh-add(1) for
             details).  If this option is set to confirm, each use of the
             key must be confirmed, as if the -c option was specified to
             ssh-add(1).  If this option is set to no, no keys are added to
             the agent.  The argument must be yes, confirm, ask, or no (the
             default).

     AddressFamily
             Specifies which address family to use when connecting.  Valid
             arguments are any (the default), inet (use IPv4 only), or inet6
             (use IPv6 only).

     BatchMode
             If set to yes, passphrase/password querying will be disabled.
             This option is useful in scripts and other batch jobs where no
             user is present to supply the password.  The argument must be
             yes or no (the default).

     BindAddress
             Use the specified address on the local machine as the source
             address of the connection.  Only useful on systems with more
             than one address.  Note that this option does not work if
             UsePrivilegedPort is set to yes.

     CanonicalDomains
             When CanonicalizeHostname is enabled, this option specifies the
             list of domain suffixes in which to search for the specified
             destination host.

     CanonicalizeFallbackLocal
             Specifies whether to fail with an error when hostname canoni‐
             calization fails.  The default, yes, will attempt to look up
             the unqualified hostname using the system resolver's search
             rules.  A value of no will cause ssh(1) to fail instantly if
             CanonicalizeHostname is enabled and the target hostname cannot
             be found in any of the domains specified by CanonicalDomains.

     CanonicalizeHostname
             Controls whether explicit hostname canonicalization is per‐
             formed.  The default, no, is not to perform any name rewriting
             and let the system resolver handle all hostname lookups.  If
             set to yes then, for connections that do not use a
             ProxyCommand, ssh(1) will attempt to canonicalize the hostname
             specified on the command line using the CanonicalDomains suf‐
             fixes and CanonicalizePermittedCNAMEs rules.  If
             CanonicalizeHostname is set to always, then canonicalization is
             applied to proxied connections too.

             If this option is enabled, then the configuration files are
             processed again using the new target name to pick up any new
             configuration in matching Host and Match stanzas.

     CanonicalizeMaxDots
             Specifies the maximum number of dot characters in a hostname
             before canonicalization is disabled.  The default, 1, allows a
             single dot (i.e. hostname.subdomain).

     CanonicalizePermittedCNAMEs
             Specifies rules to determine whether CNAMEs should be followed
             when canonicalizing hostnames.  The rules consist of one or
             more arguments of source_domain_list:target_domain_list, where
             source_domain_list is a pattern-list of domains that may follow
             CNAMEs in canonicalization, and target_domain_list is a pat‐
             tern-list of domains that they may resolve to.

             For example, "*.a.example.com:*.b.example.com,*.c.example.com"
             will allow hostnames matching "*.a.example.com" to be canoni‐
             calized to names in the "*.b.example.com" or "*.c.example.com"
             domains.

     CertificateFile
             Specifies a file from which the user's certificate is read.  A
             corresponding private key must be provided separately in order
             to use this certificate either from an IdentityFile directive
             or -i flag to ssh(1), via ssh-agent(1), or via a
             PKCS11Provider.

             Arguments to CertificateFile may use the tilde syntax to refer
             to a user's home directory or the tokens described in the
             TOKENS section.

             It is possible to have multiple certificate files specified in
             configuration files; these certificates will be tried in
             sequence.  Multiple CertificateFile directives will add to the
             list of certificates used for authentication.

     ChallengeResponseAuthentication
             Specifies whether to use challenge-response authentication.
             The argument to this keyword must be yes (the default) or no.

     CheckHostIP
             If set to yes (the default), ssh(1) will additionally check the
             host IP address in the known_hosts file.  This allows it to
             detect if a host key changed due to DNS spoofing and will add
             addresses of destination hosts to ~/.ssh/known_hosts in the
             process, regardless of the setting of StrictHostKeyChecking.
             If the option is set to no, the check will not be executed.

     Cipher  Specifies the cipher to use for encrypting the session in pro‐
             tocol version 1.  Currently, blowfish, 3des (the default), and
             des are supported, though des is only supported in the ssh(1)
             client for interoperability with legacy protocol 1 implementa‐
             tions; its use is strongly discouraged due to cryptographic
             weaknesses.

     Ciphers
             Specifies the ciphers allowed for protocol version 2 in order
             of preference.  Multiple ciphers must be comma-separated.  If
             the specified value begins with a ‘+’ character, then the spec‐
             ified ciphers will be appended to the default set instead of
             replacing them.  If the specified value begins with a ‘-’ char‐
             acter, then the specified ciphers (including wildcards) will be
             removed from the default set instead of replacing them.

             The supported ciphers are:

                   3des-cbc
                   aes128-cbc
                   aes192-cbc
                   aes256-cbc
                   aes128-ctr
                   aes192-ctr
                   aes256-ctr
                   aes128-gcm@openssh.com
                   aes256-gcm@openssh.com
                   arcfour
                   arcfour128
                   arcfour256
                   blowfish-cbc
                   cast128-cbc
                   chacha20-poly1305@openssh.com

             The default is:

                   chacha20-poly1305@openssh.com,
                   aes128-ctr,aes192-ctr,aes256-ctr,
                   aes128-gcm@openssh.com,aes256-gcm@openssh.com,
                   aes128-cbc,aes192-cbc,aes256-cbc

             The list of available ciphers may also be obtained using "ssh
             -Q cipher".

     ClearAllForwardings
             Specifies that all local, remote, and dynamic port forwardings
             specified in the configuration files or on the command line be
             cleared.  This option is primarily useful when used from the
             ssh(1) command line to clear port forwardings set in configura‐
             tion files, and is automatically set by scp(1) and sftp(1).
             The argument must be yes or no (the default).

     Compression
             Specifies whether to use compression.  The argument must be yes
             or no (the default).

     CompressionLevel
             Specifies the compression level to use if compression is
             enabled.  The argument must be an integer from 1 (fast) to 9
             (slow, best).  The default level is 6, which is good for most
             applications.  The meaning of the values is the same as in
             gzip(1).  Note that this option applies to protocol version 1
             only.

     ConnectionAttempts
             Specifies the number of tries (one per second) to make before
             exiting.  The argument must be an integer.  This may be useful
             in scripts if the connection sometimes fails.  The default is
             1.

     ConnectTimeout
             Specifies the timeout (in seconds) used when connecting to the
             SSH server, instead of using the default system TCP timeout.
             This value is used only when the target is down or really
             unreachable, not when it refuses the connection.

     ControlMaster
             Enables the sharing of multiple sessions over a single network
             connection.  When set to yes, ssh(1) will listen for connec‐
             tions on a control socket specified using the ControlPath argu‐
             ment.  Additional sessions can connect to this socket using the
             same ControlPath with ControlMaster set to no (the default).
             These sessions will try to reuse the master instance's network
             connection rather than initiating new ones, but will fall back
             to connecting normally if the control socket does not exist, or
             is not listening.

             Setting this to ask will cause ssh(1) to listen for control
             connections, but require confirmation using ssh-askpass(1).  If
             the ControlPath cannot be opened, ssh(1) will continue without
             connecting to a master instance.

             X11 and ssh-agent(1) forwarding is supported over these multi‐
             plexed connections, however the display and agent forwarded
             will be the one belonging to the master connection i.e. it is
             not possible to forward multiple displays or agents.

             Two additional options allow for opportunistic multiplexing:
             try to use a master connection but fall back to creating a new
             one if one does not already exist.  These options are: auto and
             autoask.  The latter requires confirmation like the ask option.

     ControlPath
             Specify the path to the control socket used for connection
             sharing as described in the ControlMaster section above or the
             string none to disable connection sharing.  Arguments to
             ControlPath may use the tilde syntax to refer to a user's home
             directory or the tokens described in the TOKENS section.  It is
             recommended that any ControlPath used for opportunistic connec‐
             tion sharing include at least %h, %p, and %r (or alternatively
             %C) and be placed in a directory that is not writable by other
             users.  This ensures that shared connections are uniquely iden‐
             tified.

     ControlPersist
             When used in conjunction with ControlMaster, specifies that the
             master connection should remain open in the background (waiting
             for future client connections) after the initial client connec‐
             tion has been closed.  If set to no, then the master connection
             will not be placed into the background, and will close as soon
             as the initial client connection is closed.  If set to yes or
             0, then the master connection will remain in the background
             indefinitely (until killed or closed via a mechanism such as
             the "ssh -O exit").  If set to a time in seconds, or a time in
             any of the formats documented in sshd_config(5), then the back‐
             grounded master connection will automatically terminate after
             it has remained idle (with no client connections) for the spec‐
             ified time.

     DynamicForward
             Specifies that a TCP port on the local machine be forwarded
             over the secure channel, and the application protocol is then
             used to determine where to connect to from the remote machine.

             The argument must be [bind_address:]port.  IPv6 addresses can
             be specified by enclosing addresses in square brackets.  By
             default, the local port is bound in accordance with the
             GatewayPorts setting.  However, an explicit bind_address may be
             used to bind the connection to a specific address.  The
             bind_address of localhost indicates that the listening port be
             bound for local use only, while an empty address or ‘*’ indi‐
             cates that the port should be available from all interfaces.

             Currently the SOCKS4 and SOCKS5 protocols are supported, and
             ssh(1) will act as a SOCKS server.  Multiple forwardings may be
             specified, and additional forwardings can be given on the com‐
             mand line.  Only the superuser can forward privileged ports.

     EnableSSHKeysign
             Setting this option to yes in the global client configuration
             file /etc/ssh/ssh_config enables the use of the helper program
             ssh-keysign(8) during HostbasedAuthentication.  The argument
             must be yes or no (the default).  This option should be placed
             in the non-hostspecific section.  See ssh-keysign(8) for more
             information.

     EscapeChar
             Sets the escape character (default: ‘~’).  The escape character
             can also be set on the command line.  The argument should be a
             single character, ‘^’ followed by a letter, or none to disable
             the escape character entirely (making the connection transpar‐
             ent for binary data).

     ExitOnForwardFailure
             Specifies whether ssh(1) should terminate the connection if it
             cannot set up all requested dynamic, tunnel, local, and remote
             port forwardings, (e.g. if either end is unable to bind and
             listen on a specified port).  Note that ExitOnForwardFailure
             does not apply to connections made over port forwardings and
             will not, for example, cause ssh(1) to exit if TCP connections
             to the ultimate forwarding destination fail.  The argument must
             be yes or no (the default).

     FingerprintHash
             Specifies the hash algorithm used when displaying key finger‐
             prints.  Valid options are: md5 and sha256 (the default).

     ForwardAgent
             Specifies whether the connection to the authentication agent
             (if any) will be forwarded to the remote machine.  The argument
             must be yes or no (the default).

             Agent forwarding should be enabled with caution.  Users with
             the ability to bypass file permissions on the remote host (for
             the agent's Unix-domain socket) can access the local agent
             through the forwarded connection.  An attacker cannot obtain
             key material from the agent, however they can perform opera‐
             tions on the keys that enable them to authenticate using the
             identities loaded into the agent.

     ForwardX11
             Specifies whether X11 connections will be automatically redi‐
             rected over the secure channel and DISPLAY set.  The argument
             must be yes or no (the default).

             X11 forwarding should be enabled with caution.  Users with the
             ability to bypass file permissions on the remote host (for the
             user's X11 authorization database) can access the local X11
             display through the forwarded connection.  An attacker may then
             be able to perform activities such as keystroke monitoring if
             the ForwardX11Trusted option is also enabled.

     ForwardX11Timeout
             Specify a timeout for untrusted X11 forwarding using the format
             described in the TIME FORMATS section of sshd_config(5).  X11
             connections received by ssh(1) after this time will be refused.
             The default is to disable untrusted X11 forwarding after twenty
             minutes has elapsed.

     ForwardX11Trusted
             If this option is set to yes, remote X11 clients will have full
             access to the original X11 display.

             If this option is set to no (the default), remote X11 clients
             will be considered untrusted and prevented from stealing or
             tampering with data belonging to trusted X11 clients.  Further‐
             more, the xauth(1) token used for the session will be set to
             expire after 20 minutes.  Remote clients will be refused access
             after this time.

             See the X11 SECURITY extension specification for full details
             on the restrictions imposed on untrusted clients.

     GatewayPorts
             Specifies whether remote hosts are allowed to connect to local
             forwarded ports.  By default, ssh(1) binds local port forward‐
             ings to the loopback address.  This prevents other remote hosts
             from connecting to forwarded ports.  GatewayPorts can be used
             to specify that ssh should bind local port forwardings to the
             wildcard address, thus allowing remote hosts to connect to for‐
             warded ports.  The argument must be yes or no (the default).

     GlobalKnownHostsFile
             Specifies one or more files to use for the global host key
             database, separated by whitespace.  The default is
             /etc/ssh/ssh_known_hosts, /etc/ssh/ssh_known_hosts2.

     GSSAPIAuthentication
             Specifies whether user authentication based on GSSAPI is
             allowed.  The default is no.

     GSSAPIDelegateCredentials
             Forward (delegate) credentials to the server.  The default is
             no.

     HashKnownHosts
             Indicates that ssh(1) should hash host names and addresses when
             they are added to ~/.ssh/known_hosts.  These hashed names may
             be used normally by ssh(1) and sshd(8), but they do not reveal
             identifying information should the file's contents be dis‐
             closed.  The default is no.  Note that existing names and
             addresses in known hosts files will not be converted automati‐
             cally, but may be manually hashed using ssh-keygen(1).

     HostbasedAuthentication
             Specifies whether to try rhosts based authentication with pub‐
             lic key authentication.  The argument must be yes or no (the
             default).

     HostbasedKeyTypes
             Specifies the key types that will be used for hostbased authen‐
             tication as a comma-separated pattern list.  Alternately if the
             specified value begins with a ‘+’ character, then the specified
             key types will be appended to the default set instead of
             replacing them.  If the specified value begins with a ‘-’ char‐
             acter, then the specified key types (including wildcards) will
             be removed from the default set instead of replacing them.  The
             default for this option is:

                ecdsa-sha2-nistp256-cert-v01@openssh.com,
                ecdsa-sha2-nistp384-cert-v01@openssh.com,
                ecdsa-sha2-nistp521-cert-v01@openssh.com,
                ssh-ed25519-cert-v01@openssh.com,
                ssh-rsa-cert-v01@openssh.com,
                ecdsa-sha2-nistp256,ecdsa-sha2-nistp384,ecdsa-sha2-nistp521,
                ssh-ed25519,ssh-rsa

             The -Q option of ssh(1) may be used to list supported key
             types.

     HostKeyAlgorithms
             Specifies the host key algorithms that the client wants to use
             in order of preference.  Alternately if the specified value
             begins with a ‘+’ character, then the specified key types will
             be appended to the default set instead of replacing them.  If
             the specified value begins with a ‘-’ character, then the spec‐
             ified key types (including wildcards) will be removed from the
             default set instead of replacing them.  The default for this
             option is:

                ecdsa-sha2-nistp256-cert-v01@openssh.com,
                ecdsa-sha2-nistp384-cert-v01@openssh.com,
                ecdsa-sha2-nistp521-cert-v01@openssh.com,
                ssh-ed25519-cert-v01@openssh.com,
                ssh-rsa-cert-v01@openssh.com,
                ecdsa-sha2-nistp256,ecdsa-sha2-nistp384,ecdsa-sha2-nistp521,
                ssh-ed25519,ssh-rsa

             If hostkeys are known for the destination host then this
             default is modified to prefer their algorithms.

             The list of available key types may also be obtained using "ssh
             -Q key".

     HostKeyAlias
             Specifies an alias that should be used instead of the real host
             name when looking up or saving the host key in the host key
             database files.  This option is useful for tunneling SSH con‐
             nections or for multiple servers running on a single host.

     HostName
             Specifies the real host name to log into.  This can be used to
             specify nicknames or abbreviations for hosts.  Arguments to
             HostName accept the tokens described in the TOKENS section.
             Numeric IP addresses are also permitted (both on the command
             line and in HostName specifications).  The default is the name
             given on the command line.

     IdentitiesOnly
             Specifies that ssh(1) should only use the authentication iden‐
             tity and certificate files explicitly configured in the
             ssh_config files or passed on the ssh(1) command-line, even if
             ssh-agent(1) or a PKCS11Provider offers more identities.  The
             argument to this keyword must be yes or no (the default).  This
             option is intended for situations where ssh-agent offers many
             different identities.

     IdentityAgent
             Specifies the UNIX-domain socket used to communicate with the
             authentication agent.

             This option overrides the SSH_AUTH_SOCK environment variable
             and can be used to select a specific agent.  Setting the socket
             name to none disables the use of an authentication agent.  If
             the string "SSH_AUTH_SOCK" is specified, the location of the
             socket will be read from the SSH_AUTH_SOCK environment vari‐
             able.

             Arguments to IdentityAgent may use the tilde syntax to refer to
             a user's home directory or the tokens described in the TOKENS
             section.

     IdentityFile
             Specifies a file from which the user's DSA, ECDSA, Ed25519 or
             RSA authentication identity is read.  The default is
             ~/.ssh/identity for protocol version 1, and ~/.ssh/id_dsa,
             ~/.ssh/id_ecdsa, ~/.ssh/id_ed25519 and ~/.ssh/id_rsa for proto‐
             col version 2.  Additionally, any identities represented by the
             authentication agent will be used for authentication unless
             IdentitiesOnly is set.  If no certificates have been explicitly
             specified by CertificateFile, ssh(1) will try to load certifi‐
             cate information from the filename obtained by appending
             -cert.pub to the path of a specified IdentityFile.

             Arguments to IdentityFile may use the tilde syntax to refer to
             a user's home directory or the tokens described in the TOKENS
             section.

             It is possible to have multiple identity files specified in
             configuration files; all these identities will be tried in
             sequence.  Multiple IdentityFile directives will add to the
             list of identities tried (this behaviour differs from that of
             other configuration directives).

             IdentityFile may be used in conjunction with IdentitiesOnly to
             select which identities in an agent are offered during authen‐
             tication.  IdentityFile may also be used in conjunction with
             CertificateFile in order to provide any certificate also needed
             for authentication with the identity.

     IgnoreUnknown
             Specifies a pattern-list of unknown options to be ignored if
             they are encountered in configuration parsing.  This may be
             used to suppress errors if ssh_config contains options that are
             unrecognised by ssh(1).  It is recommended that IgnoreUnknown
             be listed early in the configuration file as it will not be
             applied to unknown options that appear before it.

     Include
             Include the specified configuration file(s).  Multiple path‐
             names may be specified and each pathname may contain glob(3)
             wildcards and, for user configurations, shell-like ‘~’ refer‐
             ences to user home directories.  Files without absolute paths
             are assumed to be in ~/.ssh if included in a user configuration
             file or /etc/ssh if included from the system configuration
             file.  Include directive may appear inside a Match or Host
             block to perform conditional inclusion.

     IPQoS   Specifies the IPv4 type-of-service or DSCP class for connec‐
             tions.  Accepted values are af11, af12, af13, af21, af22, af23,
             af31, af32, af33, af41, af42, af43, cs0, cs1, cs2, cs3, cs4,
             cs5, cs6, cs7, ef, lowdelay, throughput, reliability, or a
             numeric value.  This option may take one or two arguments, sep‐
             arated by whitespace.  If one argument is specified, it is used
             as the packet class unconditionally.  If two values are speci‐
             fied, the first is automatically selected for interactive ses‐
             sions and the second for non-interactive sessions.  The default
             is lowdelay for interactive sessions and throughput for non-
             interactive sessions.

     KbdInteractiveAuthentication
             Specifies whether to use keyboard-interactive authentication.
             The argument to this keyword must be yes (the default) or no.

     KbdInteractiveDevices
             Specifies the list of methods to use in keyboard-interactive
             authentication.  Multiple method names must be comma-separated.
             The default is to use the server specified list.  The methods
             available vary depending on what the server supports.  For an
             OpenSSH server, it may be zero or more of: bsdauth, pam, and
             skey.

     KexAlgorithms
             Specifies the available KEX (Key Exchange) algorithms.  Multi‐
             ple algorithms must be comma-separated.  Alternately if the
             specified value begins with a ‘+’ character, then the specified
             methods will be appended to the default set instead of replac‐
             ing them.  If the specified value begins with a ‘-’ character,
             then the specified methods (including wildcards) will be
             removed from the default set instead of replacing them.  The
             default is:

                   curve25519-sha256,curve25519-sha256@libssh.org,
                   ecdh-sha2-nistp256,ecdh-sha2-nistp384,ecdh-sha2-nistp521,
                   diffie-hellman-group-exchange-sha256,
                   diffie-hellman-group-exchange-sha1,
                   diffie-hellman-group14-sha1

             The list of available key exchange algorithms may also be
             obtained using "ssh -Q kex".

     LocalCommand
             Specifies a command to execute on the local machine after suc‐
             cessfully connecting to the server.  The command string extends
             to the end of the line, and is executed with the user's shell.
             Arguments to LocalCommand accept the tokens described in the
             TOKENS section.

             The command is run synchronously and does not have access to
             the session of the ssh(1) that spawned it.  It should not be
             used for interactive commands.

             This directive is ignored unless PermitLocalCommand has been
             enabled.

     LocalForward
             Specifies that a TCP port on the local machine be forwarded
             over the secure channel to the specified host and port from the
             remote machine.  The first argument must be [bind_address:]port
             and the second argument must be host:hostport.  IPv6 addresses
             can be specified by enclosing addresses in square brackets.
             Multiple forwardings may be specified, and additional forward‐
             ings can be given on the command line.  Only the superuser can
             forward privileged ports.  By default, the local port is bound
             in accordance with the GatewayPorts setting.  However, an
             explicit bind_address may be used to bind the connection to a
             specific address.  The bind_address of localhost indicates that
             the listening port be bound for local use only, while an empty
             address or ‘*’ indicates that the port should be available from
             all interfaces.

     LogLevel
             Gives the verbosity level that is used when logging messages
             from ssh(1).  The possible values are: QUIET, FATAL, ERROR,
             INFO, VERBOSE, DEBUG, DEBUG1, DEBUG2, and DEBUG3.  The default
             is INFO.  DEBUG and DEBUG1 are equivalent.  DEBUG2 and DEBUG3
             each specify higher levels of verbose output.

     MACs    Specifies the MAC (message authentication code) algorithms in
             order of preference.  The MAC algorithm is used for data
             integrity protection.  Multiple algorithms must be comma-sepa‐
             rated.  If the specified value begins with a ‘+’ character,
             then the specified algorithms will be appended to the default
             set instead of replacing them.  If the specified value begins
             with a ‘-’ character, then the specified algorithms (including
             wildcards) will be removed from the default set instead of
             replacing them.

             The algorithms that contain "-etm" calculate the MAC after
             encryption (encrypt-then-mac).  These are considered safer and
             their use recommended.

             The default is:

                   umac-64-etm@openssh.com,umac-128-etm@openssh.com,
                   hmac-sha2-256-etm@openssh.com,hmac-sha2-512-etm@openssh.com,
                   hmac-sha1-etm@openssh.com,
                   umac-64@openssh.com,umac-128@openssh.com,
                   hmac-sha2-256,hmac-sha2-512,hmac-sha1

             The list of available MAC algorithms may also be obtained using
             "ssh -Q mac".

     NoHostAuthenticationForLocalhost
             This option can be used if the home directory is shared across
             machines.  In this case localhost will refer to a different
             machine on each of the machines and the user will get many
             warnings about changed host keys.  However, this option dis‐
             ables host authentication for localhost.  The argument to this
             keyword must be yes or no (the default).

     NumberOfPasswordPrompts
             Specifies the number of password prompts before giving up.  The
             argument to this keyword must be an integer.  The default is 3.

     PasswordAuthentication
             Specifies whether to use password authentication.  The argument
             to this keyword must be yes (the default) or no.

     PermitLocalCommand
             Allow local command execution via the LocalCommand option or
             using the !command escape sequence in ssh(1).  The argument
             must be yes or no (the default).

     PKCS11Provider
             Specifies which PKCS#11 provider to use.  The argument to this
             keyword is the PKCS#11 shared library ssh(1) should use to com‐
             municate with a PKCS#11 token providing the user's private RSA
             key.

     Port    Specifies the port number to connect on the remote host.  The
             default is 22.

     PreferredAuthentications
             Specifies the order in which the client should try authentica‐
             tion methods.  This allows a client to prefer one method (e.g.
             keyboard-interactive) over another method (e.g. password).  The
             default is:

                   gssapi-with-mic,hostbased,publickey,
                   keyboard-interactive,password

     Protocol
             Specifies the protocol versions ssh(1) should support in order
             of preference.  The possible values are 1 and 2.  Multiple ver‐
             sions must be comma-separated.  When this option is set to 2,1
             ssh will try version 2 and fall back to version 1 if version 2
             is not available.  The default is version 2.  Protocol 1 suf‐
             fers from a number of cryptographic weaknesses and should not
             be used.  It is only offered to support legacy devices.

     ProxyCommand
             Specifies the command to use to connect to the server.  The
             command string extends to the end of the line, and is executed
             using the user's shell ‘exec’ directive to avoid a lingering
             shell process.

             Arguments to ProxyCommand accept the tokens described in the
             TOKENS section.  The command can be basically anything, and
             should read from its standard input and write to its standard
             output.  It should eventually connect an sshd(8) server running
             on some machine, or execute sshd -i somewhere.  Host key man‐
             agement will be done using the HostName of the host being con‐
             nected (defaulting to the name typed by the user).  Setting the
             command to none disables this option entirely.  Note that
             CheckHostIP is not available for connects with a proxy command.

             This directive is useful in conjunction with nc(1) and its
             proxy support.  For example, the following directive would con‐
             nect via an HTTP proxy at 192.0.2.0:

                ProxyCommand /usr/bin/nc -X connect -x 192.0.2.0:8080 %h %p

     ProxyJump
             Specifies one or more jump proxies as [user@]host[:port].  Mul‐
             tiple proxies may be separated by comma characters and will be
             visited sequentially.  Setting this option will cause ssh(1) to
             connect to the target host by first making a ssh(1) connection
             to the specified ProxyJump host and then establishing a TCP
             forwarding to the ultimate target from there.

             Note that this option will compete with the ProxyCommand option
             - whichever is specified first will prevent later instances of
             the other from taking effect.

     ProxyUseFdpass
             Specifies that ProxyCommand will pass a connected file descrip‐
             tor back to ssh(1) instead of continuing to execute and pass
             data.  The default is no.

     PubkeyAcceptedKeyTypes
             Specifies the key types that will be used for public key
             authentication as a comma-separated pattern list.  Alternately
             if the specified value begins with a ‘+’ character, then the
             key types after it will be appended to the default instead of
             replacing it.  If the specified value begins with a ‘-’ charac‐
             ter, then the specified key types (including wildcards) will be
             removed from the default set instead of replacing them.  The
             default for this option is:

                ecdsa-sha2-nistp256-cert-v01@openssh.com,
                ecdsa-sha2-nistp384-cert-v01@openssh.com,
                ecdsa-sha2-nistp521-cert-v01@openssh.com,
                ssh-ed25519-cert-v01@openssh.com,
                ssh-rsa-cert-v01@openssh.com,
                ecdsa-sha2-nistp256,ecdsa-sha2-nistp384,ecdsa-sha2-nistp521,
                ssh-ed25519,ssh-rsa

             The list of available key types may also be obtained using "ssh
             -Q key".

     PubkeyAuthentication
             Specifies whether to try public key authentication.  The argu‐
             ment to this keyword must be yes (the default) or no.

     RekeyLimit
             Specifies the maximum amount of data that may be transmitted
             before the session key is renegotiated, optionally followed a
             maximum amount of time that may pass before the session key is
             renegotiated.  The first argument is specified in bytes and may
             have a suffix of ‘K’, ‘M’, or ‘G’ to indicate Kilobytes,
             Megabytes, or Gigabytes, respectively.  The default is between
             ‘1G’ and ‘4G’, depending on the cipher.  The optional second
             value is specified in seconds and may use any of the units doc‐
             umented in the TIME FORMATS section of sshd_config(5).  The
             default value for RekeyLimit is default none, which means that
             rekeying is performed after the cipher's default amount of data
             has been sent or received and no time based rekeying is done.

     RemoteForward
             Specifies that a TCP port on the remote machine be forwarded
             over the secure channel to the specified host and port from the
             local machine.  The first argument must be [bind_address:]port
             and the second argument must be host:hostport.  IPv6 addresses
             can be specified by enclosing addresses in square brackets.
             Multiple forwardings may be specified, and additional forward‐
             ings can be given on the command line.  Privileged ports can be
             forwarded only when logging in as root on the remote machine.

             If the port argument is 0, the listen port will be dynamically
             allocated on the server and reported to the client at run time.

             If the bind_address is not specified, the default is to only
             bind to loopback addresses.  If the bind_address is ‘*’ or an
             empty string, then the forwarding is requested to listen on all
             interfaces.  Specifying a remote bind_address will only succeed
             if the server's GatewayPorts option is enabled (see
             sshd_config(5)).

     RequestTTY
             Specifies whether to request a pseudo-tty for the session.  The
             argument may be one of: no (never request a TTY), yes (always
             request a TTY when standard input is a TTY), force (always
             request a TTY) or auto (request a TTY when opening a login ses‐
             sion).  This option mirrors the -t and -T flags for ssh(1).

     RevokedHostKeys
             Specifies revoked host public keys.  Keys listed in this file
             will be refused for host authentication.  Note that if this
             file does not exist or is not readable, then host authentica‐
             tion will be refused for all hosts.  Keys may be specified as a
             text file, listing one public key per line, or as an OpenSSH
             Key Revocation List (KRL) as generated by ssh-keygen(1).  For
             more information on KRLs, see the KEY REVOCATION LISTS section
             in ssh-keygen(1).

     RhostsRSAAuthentication
             Specifies whether to try rhosts based authentication with RSA
             host authentication.  The argument must be yes or no (the
             default).  This option applies to protocol version 1 only and
             requires ssh(1) to be setuid root.

     RSAAuthentication
             Specifies whether to try RSA authentication.  The argument to
             this keyword must be yes (the default) or no.  RSA authentica‐
             tion will only be attempted if the identity file exists, or an
             authentication agent is running.  Note that this option applies
             to protocol version 1 only.

     SendEnv
             Specifies what variables from the local environ(7) should be
             sent to the server.  The server must also support it, and the
             server must be configured to accept these environment vari‐
             ables.  Note that the TERM environment variable is always sent
             whenever a pseudo-terminal is requested as it is required by
             the protocol.  Refer to AcceptEnv in sshd_config(5) for how to
             configure the server.  Variables are specified by name, which
             may contain wildcard characters.  Multiple environment vari‐
             ables may be separated by whitespace or spread across multiple
             SendEnv directives.  The default is not to send any environment
             variables.

             See PATTERNS for more information on patterns.

     ServerAliveCountMax
             Sets the number of server alive messages (see below) which may
             be sent without ssh(1) receiving any messages back from the
             server.  If this threshold is reached while server alive mes‐
             sages are being sent, ssh will disconnect from the server, ter‐
             minating the session.  It is important to note that the use of
             server alive messages is very different from TCPKeepAlive
             (below).  The server alive messages are sent through the
             encrypted channel and therefore will not be spoofable.  The TCP
             keepalive option enabled by TCPKeepAlive is spoofable.  The
             server alive mechanism is valuable when the client or server
             depend on knowing when a connection has become inactive.

             The default value is 3.  If, for example, ServerAliveInterval
             (see below) is set to 15 and ServerAliveCountMax is left at the
             default, if the server becomes unresponsive, ssh will discon‐
             nect after approximately 45 seconds.

     ServerAliveInterval
             Sets a timeout interval in seconds after which if no data has
             been received from the server, ssh(1) will send a message
             through the encrypted channel to request a response from the
             server.  The default is 0, indicating that these messages will
             not be sent to the server.

     StreamLocalBindMask
             Sets the octal file creation mode mask (umask) used when creat‐
             ing a Unix-domain socket file for local or remote port forward‐
             ing.  This option is only used for port forwarding to a Unix-
             domain socket file.

             The default value is 0177, which creates a Unix-domain socket
             file that is readable and writable only by the owner.  Note
             that not all operating systems honor the file mode on Unix-
             domain socket files.

     StreamLocalBindUnlink
             Specifies whether to remove an existing Unix-domain socket file
             for local or remote port forwarding before creating a new one.
             If the socket file already exists and StreamLocalBindUnlink is
             not enabled, ssh will be unable to forward the port to the
             Unix-domain socket file.  This option is only used for port
             forwarding to a Unix-domain socket file.

             The argument must be yes or no (the default).

     StrictHostKeyChecking
             If this flag is set to yes, ssh(1) will never automatically add
             host keys to the ~/.ssh/known_hosts file, and refuses to con‐
             nect to hosts whose host key has changed.  This provides maxi‐
             mum protection against trojan horse attacks, though it can be
             annoying when the /etc/ssh/ssh_known_hosts file is poorly main‐
             tained or when connections to new hosts are frequently made.
             This option forces the user to manually add all new hosts.  If
             this flag is set to no, ssh will automatically add new host
             keys to the user known hosts files.  If this flag is set to ask
             (the default), new host keys will be added to the user known
             host files only after the user has confirmed that is what they
             really want to do, and ssh will refuse to connect to hosts
             whose host key has changed.  The host keys of known hosts will
             be verified automatically in all cases.

     TCPKeepAlive
             Specifies whether the system should send TCP keepalive messages
             to the other side.  If they are sent, death of the connection
             or crash of one of the machines will be properly noticed.  How‐
             ever, this means that connections will die if the route is down
             temporarily, and some people find it annoying.

             The default is yes (to send TCP keepalive messages), and the
             client will notice if the network goes down or the remote host
             dies.  This is important in scripts, and many users want it
             too.

             To disable TCP keepalive messages, the value should be set to
             no.

     Tunnel  Request tun(4) device forwarding between the client and the
             server.  The argument must be yes, point-to-point (layer 3),
             ethernet (layer 2), or no (the default).  Specifying yes
             requests the default tunnel mode, which is point-to-point.

     TunnelDevice
             Specifies the tun(4) devices to open on the client (local_tun)
             and the server (remote_tun).

             The argument must be local_tun[:remote_tun].  The devices may
             be specified by numerical ID or the keyword any, which uses the
             next available tunnel device.  If remote_tun is not specified,
             it defaults to any.  The default is any:any.

     UpdateHostKeys
             Specifies whether ssh(1) should accept notifications of addi‐
             tional hostkeys from the server sent after authentication has
             completed and add them to UserKnownHostsFile.  The argument
             must be yes, no (the default) or ask.  Enabling this option
             allows learning alternate hostkeys for a server and supports
             graceful key rotation by allowing a server to send replacement
             public keys before old ones are removed.  Additional hostkeys
             are only accepted if the key used to authenticate the host was
             already trusted or explicitly accepted by the user.  If
             UpdateHostKeys is set to ask, then the user is asked to confirm
             the modifications to the known_hosts file.  Confirmation is
             currently incompatible with ControlPersist, and will be dis‐
             abled if it is enabled.

             Presently, only sshd(8) from OpenSSH 6.8 and greater support
             the "hostkeys@openssh.com" protocol extension used to inform
             the client of all the server's hostkeys.

     UsePrivilegedPort
             Specifies whether to use a privileged port for outgoing connec‐
             tions.  The argument must be yes or no (the default).  If set
             to yes, ssh(1) must be setuid root.  Note that this option must
             be set to yes for RhostsRSAAuthentication with older servers.

     User    Specifies the user to log in as.  This can be useful when a
             different user name is used on different machines.  This saves
             the trouble of having to remember to give the user name on the
             command line.

     UserKnownHostsFile
             Specifies one or more files to use for the user host key data‐
             base, separated by whitespace.  The default is
             ~/.ssh/known_hosts, ~/.ssh/known_hosts2.

     VerifyHostKeyDNS
             Specifies whether to verify the remote key using DNS and SSHFP
             resource records.  If this option is set to yes, the client
             will implicitly trust keys that match a secure fingerprint from
             DNS.  Insecure fingerprints will be handled as if this option
             was set to ask.  If this option is set to ask, information on
             fingerprint match will be displayed, but the user will still
             need to confirm new host keys according to the
             StrictHostKeyChecking option.  The default is no.

             See also VERIFYING HOST KEYS in ssh(1).

     VisualHostKey
             If this flag is set to yes, an ASCII art representation of the
             remote host key fingerprint is printed in addition to the fin‐
             gerprint string at login and for unknown host keys.  If this
             flag is set to no (the default), no fingerprint strings are
             printed at login and only the fingerprint string will be
             printed for unknown host keys.

     XAuthLocation
             Specifies the full pathname of the xauth(1) program.  The
             default is /usr/X11R6/bin/xauth.

PATTERNS         top

     A pattern consists of zero or more non-whitespace characters, ‘*’ (a
     wildcard that matches zero or more characters), or ‘?’ (a wildcard that
     matches exactly one character).  For example, to specify a set of dec‐
     larations for any host in the ".co.uk" set of domains, the following
     pattern could be used:

           Host *.co.uk

     The following pattern would match any host in the 192.168.0.[0-9] net‐
     work range:

           Host 192.168.0.?

     A pattern-list is a comma-separated list of patterns.  Patterns within
     pattern-lists may be negated by preceding them with an exclamation mark
     (‘!’).  For example, to allow a key to be used from anywhere within an
     organization except from the "dialup" pool, the following entry (in
     authorized_keys) could be used:

           from="!*.dialup.example.com,*.example.com"

TOKENS         top

     Arguments to some keywords can make use of tokens, which are expanded
     at runtime:

           %%    A literal ‘%’.
           %C    Shorthand for %l%h%p%r.
           %d    Local user's home directory.
           %h    The remote hostname.
           %i    The local user ID.
           %L    The local hostname.
           %l    The local hostname, including the domain name.
           %n    The original remote hostname, as given on the command line.
           %p    The remote port.
           %r    The remote username.
           %u    The local username.

     Match exec accepts the tokens %%, %h, %L, %l, %n, %p, %r, and %u.

     CertificateFile accepts the tokens %%, %d, %h, %l, %r, and %u.

     ControlPath accepts the tokens %%, %C, %h, %i, %L, %l, %n, %p, %r, and
     %u.

     HostName accepts the tokens %% and %h.

     IdentityAgent and IdentityFile accept the tokens %%, %d, %h, %l, %r,
     and %u.

     LocalCommand accepts the tokens %%, %C, %d, %h, %l, %n, %p, %r, and %u.

     ProxyCommand accepts the tokens %%, %h, %p, and %r.

FILES         top

     ~/.ssh/config
             This is the per-user configuration file.  The format of this
             file is described above.  This file is used by the SSH client.
             Because of the potential for abuse, this file must have strict
             permissions: read/write for the user, and not accessible by
             others.

     /etc/ssh/ssh_config
             Systemwide configuration file.  This file provides defaults for
             those values that are not specified in the user's configuration
             file, and for those users who do not have a configuration file.
             This file must be world-readable.

SEE ALSO         top

     ssh(1)

AUTHORS         top

     OpenSSH is a derivative of the original and free ssh 1.2.12 release by
     Tatu Ylonen.  Aaron Campbell, Bob Beck, Markus Friedl, Niels Provos,
     Theo de Raadt and Dug Song removed many bugs, re-added newer features
     and created OpenSSH.  Markus Friedl contributed the support for SSH
     protocol versions 1.5 and 2.0.

COLOPHON         top

     This page is part of the openssh (Portable OpenSSH) project.  Informa‐
     tion about the project can be found at
     http://www.openssh.com/portable.html.  If you have a bug report for
     this manual page, see http://www.openssh.com/report.html.  This page
     was obtained from the tarball openssh-7.5p1.tar.gz fetched from
     http://ftp.eu.openbsd.org/pub/OpenBSD/OpenSSH/portable/ on 2017-07-05.
     If you discover any rendering problems in this HTML version of the
     page, or you believe there is a better or more up-to-date source for
     the page, or you have corrections or improvements to the information in
     this COLOPHON (which is not part of the original manual page), send a
     mail to man-pages@man7.org

BSD                           February 27, 2017                          BSD