panel(3X)                                                          panel(3X)

NAME         top

       panel - panel stack extension for curses

SYNOPSIS         top

       #include <panel.h>

       cc [flags] sourcefiles -lpanel -lncurses

       PANEL *new_panel(WINDOW *win);
       int bottom_panel(PANEL *pan);
       int top_panel(PANEL *pan);
       int show_panel(PANEL *pan);
       void update_panels(void);
       int hide_panel(PANEL *pan);
       WINDOW *panel_window(const PANEL *pan);
       int replace_panel(PANEL *pan, WINDOW *window);
       int move_panel(PANEL *pan, int starty, int startx);
       int panel_hidden(const PANEL *pan);
       PANEL *panel_above(const PANEL *pan);
       PANEL *panel_below(const PANEL *pan);
       int set_panel_userptr(PANEL *pan, const void *ptr);
       const void *panel_userptr(const PANEL *pan);
       int del_panel(PANEL *pan);

DESCRIPTION         top

       Panels are curses(3X) windows with the added feature of depth.  Panel
       functions allow the use of stacked windows and ensure the proper
       portions of each window and the curses stdscr window are hidden or
       displayed when panels are added, moved, modified or removed.  The set
       of currently visible panels is the stack of panels.  The stdscr
       window is beneath all panels, and is not considered part of the

       A window is associated with every panel.  The panel routines enable
       you to create, move, hide, and show panels, as well as position a
       panel at any desired location in the stack.

       Panel routines are a functional layer added to curses(3X), make only
       high-level curses calls, and work anywhere terminfo curses does.

FUNCTIONS         top

              allocates  a  PANEL structure, associates it with win, places
              the panel on the top of the stack  (causes  it to  be
              displayed above any other panel) and returns a pointer to the
              new panel.

              refreshes the virtual screen to reflect the relations between
              the panels in the stack, but does not call doupdate to refresh
              the physical screen.  Use this function and not wrefresh or
              wnoutrefresh.  update_panels may be called more than once
              before a call to doupdate, but doupdate is the function
              responsible for updating the physical screen.

              removes the given panel from the  stack and deallocates the
              PANEL structure (but not its associated window).

              removes the given panel from the panel stack and thus hides it
              from view.  The PANEL structure is not lost, merely removed
              from the stack.

              returns TRUE if the panel is in the panel stack, FALSE if it
              is not.  If the panel is a null pointer, return ERR.

              makes a hidden panel visible by placing it on top of the
              panels in the panel stack.  See COMPATIBILITY below.

              puts the given visible panel on top of all panels in the
              stack.  See COMPATIBILITY below.

              puts panel at the bottom of all panels.

              moves the given panel window so that its upper-left corner is
              at starty, startx.  It does not change the position of the
              panel in the stack.  Be sure to use this function, not mvwin,
              to move a panel window.

              replaces the current window of panel with window (useful, for
              example if you want to resize a panel; if you're using
              ncurses, you can call replace_panel on the output of
              wresize(3X)).  It does not change the position of the panel in
              the stack.

              returns a pointer to the panel above pan.  If the panel
              argument is (PANEL *)0, it returns a pointer to the bottom
              panel in the stack.

              returns a pointer to the panel just below pan.  If the panel
              argument is (PANEL *)0, it returns a pointer to the top panel
              in the stack.

              sets the panel's user pointer.

              returns the user pointer for a given panel.

              returns a pointer to the window of the given panel.

DIAGNOSTICS         top

       Each routine that returns a pointer returns NULL if an error occurs.
       Each routine that returns an int value returns OK if it executes
       successfully and ERR if not.


       Reasonable care has been taken to  ensure  compatibility with  the
       native  panel facility introduced in System V (inspection of the SVr4
       manual pages suggests the programming interface is unchanged).  The
       PANEL data structures are merely  similar.  The  programmer is
       cautioned not to directly use PANEL fields.

       The functions show_panel and top_panel are identical in this
       implementation, and work equally well with displayed or hidden
       panels.  In the native System V implementation, show_panel is
       intended for making a hidden panel visible (at the top of the stack)
       and top_panel is intended for making an already-visible panel move to
       the top of the stack.  You are cautioned to use the correct function
       to ensure compatibility with native panel libraries.

NOTE         top

       In your library list, libpanel.a should be before libncurses.a; that
       is, you should say “-lpanel -lncurses”, not the other way around
       (which would give a link-error with static libraries).

PORTABILITY         top

       The panel facility was documented in SVr4.2 in Character User
       Interface Programming (UNIX SVR4.2).

       It is not part of X/Open Curses.

       Aside from ncurses, only systems based on SVr4 source code, e.g.,
       Solaris provide this library.

FILES         top

       panel.h interface for the panels library

       libpanel.a the panels library itself

SEE ALSO         top

       curses(3X), curs_variables(3X),

       This describes ncurses version @NCURSES_MAJOR@.@NCURSES_MINOR@ (patch

AUTHOR         top

       Originally written by Warren Tucker <>,
       primarily to assist in porting u386mon to systems without a native
       panels library.  Repackaged for ncurses by Zeyd ben-Halim.

COLOPHON         top

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