```LOG(3P)                   POSIX Programmer's Manual                  LOG(3P)
```

## PROLOG         top

```       This manual page is part of the POSIX Programmer's Manual.  The Linux
implementation of this interface may differ (consult the
corresponding Linux manual page for details of Linux behavior), or
the interface may not be implemented on Linux.
```

## NAME         top

```       log, logf, logl — natural logarithm function
```

## SYNOPSIS         top

```       #include <math.h>

double log(double x);
float logf(float x);
long double logl(long double x);
```

## DESCRIPTION         top

```       The functionality described on this reference page is aligned with
the ISO C standard. Any conflict between the requirements described
here and the ISO C standard is unintentional. This volume of
POSIX.1‐2008 defers to the ISO C standard.

These functions shall compute the natural logarithm of their argument
x, loge(x).

An application wishing to check for error situations should set errno
to zero and call feclearexcept(FE_ALL_EXCEPT) before calling these
functions. On return, if errno is non-zero or fetestexcept(FE_INVALID
| FE_DIVBYZERO | FE_OVERFLOW | FE_UNDERFLOW) is non-zero, an error
has occurred.
```

## RETURN VALUE         top

```       Upon successful completion, these functions shall return the natural
logarithm of x.

If x is ±0, a pole error shall occur and log(), logf(), and logl()
shall return −HUGE_VAL, −HUGE_VALF, and −HUGE_VALL, respectively.

For finite values of x that are less than 0, or if x is −Inf, a
domain error shall occur, and either a NaN (if supported), or an
implementation-defined value shall be returned.

If x is NaN, a NaN shall be returned.

If x is 1, +0 shall be returned.

If x is +Inf, x shall be returned.
```

## ERRORS         top

```       These functions shall fail if:

Domain Error
The finite value of x is negative, or x is −Inf.

If the integer expression (math_errhandling & MATH_ERRNO)
is non-zero, then errno shall be set to [EDOM].  If the
integer expression (math_errhandling & MATH_ERREXCEPT) is
non-zero, then the invalid floating-point exception shall
be raised.

Pole Error  The value of x is zero.

If the integer expression (math_errhandling & MATH_ERRNO)
is non-zero, then errno shall be set to [ERANGE].  If the
integer expression (math_errhandling & MATH_ERREXCEPT) is
non-zero, then the divide-by-zero floating-point
exception shall be raised.

The following sections are informative.
```

## EXAMPLES         top

```       None.
```

## APPLICATION USAGE         top

```       On error, the expressions (math_errhandling & MATH_ERRNO) and
(math_errhandling & MATH_ERREXCEPT) are independent of each other,
but at least one of them must be non-zero.
```

## RATIONALE         top

```       None.
```

## FUTURE DIRECTIONS         top

```       None.
```

```       exp(3p), feclearexcept(3p), fetestexcept(3p), isnan(3p), log10(3p),
log1p(3p)

The Base Definitions volume of POSIX.1‐2008, Section 4.19, Treatment
of Error Conditions for Mathematical Functions, math.h(0p)
```

```       Portions of this text are reprinted and reproduced in electronic form
from IEEE Std 1003.1, 2013 Edition, Standard for Information
Technology -- Portable Operating System Interface (POSIX), The Open
Group Base Specifications Issue 7, Copyright (C) 2013 by the
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc and The Open
Group.  (This is POSIX.1-2008 with the 2013 Technical Corrigendum 1
applied.) In the event of any discrepancy between this version and
the original IEEE and The Open Group Standard, the original IEEE and
The Open Group Standard is the referee document. The original
Standard can be obtained online at http://www.unix.org/online.html .