FNMATCH(3P)               POSIX Programmer's Manual              FNMATCH(3P)

PROLOG         top

       This manual page is part of the POSIX Programmer's Manual.  The Linux
       implementation of this interface may differ (consult the
       corresponding Linux manual page for details of Linux behavior), or
       the interface may not be implemented on Linux.

NAME         top

       fnmatch — match a filename string or a pathname

SYNOPSIS         top

       #include <fnmatch.h>

       int fnmatch(const char *pattern, const char *string, int flags);

DESCRIPTION         top

       The fnmatch() function shall match patterns as described in the Shell
       and Utilities volume of POSIX.1‐2008, Section 2.13.1, Patterns
       Matching a Single Character and Section 2.13.2, Patterns Matching
       Multiple Characters.  It checks the string specified by the string
       argument to see if it matches the pattern specified by the pattern

       The flags argument shall modify the interpretation of pattern and
       string.  It is the bitwise-inclusive OR of zero or more of the flags
       defined in <fnmatch.h>.  If the FNM_PATHNAME flag is set in flags,
       then a <slash> character ('/') in string shall be explicitly matched
       by a <slash> in pattern; it shall not be matched by either the
       <asterisk> or <question-mark> special characters, nor by a bracket
       expression. If the FNM_PATHNAME flag is not set, the <slash>
       character shall be treated as an ordinary character.

       If FNM_NOESCAPE is not set in flags, a <backslash> character in
       pattern followed by any other character shall match that second
       character in string.  In particular, "\\" shall match a <backslash>
       in string.  If FNM_NOESCAPE is set, a <backslash> character shall be
       treated as an ordinary character.

       If FNM_PERIOD is set in flags, then a leading <period> ('.')  in
       string shall match a <period> in pattern; as described by rule 2 in
       the Shell and Utilities volume of POSIX.1‐2008, Section 2.13.3,
       Patterns Used for Filename Expansion where the location of
       ``leading'' is indicated by the value of FNM_PATHNAME:

        *  If FNM_PATHNAME is set, a <period> is ``leading'' if it is the
           first character in string or if it immediately follows a <slash>.

        *  If FNM_PATHNAME is not set, a <period> is ``leading'' only if it
           is the first character of string.

       If FNM_PERIOD is not set, then no special restrictions are placed on
       matching a period.

RETURN VALUE         top

       If string matches the pattern specified by pattern, then fnmatch()
       shall return 0. If there is no match, fnmatch() shall return
       FNM_NOMATCH, which is defined in <fnmatch.h>.  If an error occurs,
       fnmatch() shall return another non-zero value.

ERRORS         top

       No errors are defined.

       The following sections are informative.

EXAMPLES         top



       The fnmatch() function has two major uses. It could be used by an
       application or utility that needs to read a directory and apply a
       pattern against each entry. The find utility is an example of this.
       It can also be used by the pax utility to process its pattern
       operands, or by applications that need to match strings in a similar

       The name fnmatch() is intended to imply filename match, rather than
       pathname match. The default action of this function is to match
       filename strings, rather than pathnames, since it gives no special
       significance to the <slash> character. With the FNM_PATHNAME flag,
       fnmatch() does match pathnames, but without tilde expansion,
       parameter expansion, or special treatment for a <period> at the
       beginning of a filename.

RATIONALE         top

       This function replaced the REG_FILENAME flag of regcomp() in early
       proposals of this volume of POSIX.1‐2008. It provides virtually the
       same functionality as the regcomp() and regexec() functions using the
       REG_FILENAME and REG_FSLASH flags (the REG_FSLASH flag was proposed
       for regcomp(), and would have had the opposite effect from
       FNM_PATHNAME), but with a simpler function and less system overhead.



SEE ALSO         top

       glob(3p), Section 2.6, Word Expansions

       The Base Definitions volume of POSIX.1‐2008, fnmatch.h(0p)

COPYRIGHT         top

       Portions of this text are reprinted and reproduced in electronic form
       from IEEE Std 1003.1, 2013 Edition, Standard for Information
       Technology -- Portable Operating System Interface (POSIX), The Open
       Group Base Specifications Issue 7, Copyright (C) 2013 by the
       Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc and The Open
       Group.  (This is POSIX.1-2008 with the 2013 Technical Corrigendum 1
       applied.) In the event of any discrepancy between this version and
       the original IEEE and The Open Group Standard, the original IEEE and
       The Open Group Standard is the referee document. The original
       Standard can be obtained online at .

       Any typographical or formatting errors that appear in this page are
       most likely to have been introduced during the conversion of the
       source files to man page format. To report such errors, see .

IEEE/The Open Group                 2013                         FNMATCH(3P)