This manual page is part of the POSIX Programmer's Manual. The Linux
implementation of this interface may differ (consult the
corresponding Linux manual page for details of Linux behavior), or
the interface may not be implemented on Linux.
These functions shall provide access to the user accounting database.
The getutxent() function shall read the next entry from the user
accounting database. If the database is not already open, it shall
open it. If it reaches the end of the database, it shall fail.
The getutxid() function shall search forward from the current point
in the database. If the ut_type value of the utmpx structure pointed
to by id is BOOT_TIME, OLD_TIME, or NEW_TIME, then it shall stop when
it finds an entry with a matching ut_type value. If the ut_type value
is INIT_PROCESS, LOGIN_PROCESS, USER_PROCESS, or DEAD_PROCESS, then
it shall stop when it finds an entry whose type is one of these four
and whose ut_id member matches the ut_id member of the utmpx
structure pointed to by id. If the end of the database is reached
without a match, getutxid() shall fail.
The getutxline() function shall search forward from the current point
in the database until it finds an entry of the type LOGIN_PROCESS or
USER_PROCESS which also has a ut_line value matching that in the
utmpx structure pointed to by line. If the end of the database is
reached without a match, getutxline() shall fail.
The getutxid() or getutxline() function may cache data. For this
reason, to use getutxline() to search for multiple occurrences, the
application shall zero out the static data after each success, or
getutxline() may return a pointer to the same utmpx structure.
There is one exception to the rule about clearing the structure
before further reads are done. The implicit read done by pututxline()
(if it finds that it is not already at the correct place in the user
accounting database) shall not modify the static structure returned
by getutxent(), getutxid(), or getutxline(), if the application has
modified this structure and passed the pointer back to pututxline().
For all entries that match a request, the ut_type member indicates
the type of the entry. Other members of the entry shall contain
meaningful data based on the value of the ut_type member as follows:
│ut_type Member │ Other Members with Meaningful Data │
│EMPTY │ No others │
│BOOT_TIME │ ut_tv │
│OLD_TIME │ ut_tv │
│NEW_TIME │ ut_tv │
│USER_PROCESS │ ut_id, ut_user (login name of the user), ut_line, ut_pid, ut_tv │
│INIT_PROCESS │ ut_id, ut_pid, ut_tv │
│LOGIN_PROCESS │ ut_id, ut_user (implementation-defined name of the login │
│ │ process), ut_line, ut_pid, ut_tv │
│DEAD_PROCESS │ ut_id, ut_pid, ut_tv │
An implementation that provides extended security controls may impose
implementation-defined restrictions on accessing the user accounting
database. In particular, the system may deny the existence of some or
all of the user accounting database entries associated with users
other than the caller.
If the process has appropriate privileges, the pututxline() function
shall write out the structure into the user accounting database. It
shall search for a record as if by getutxid() that satisfies the
request. If this search succeeds, then the entry shall be replaced.
Otherwise, a new entry shall be made at the end of the user
The endutxent() function shall close the user accounting database.
The setutxent() function shall reset the input to the beginning of
the database. This should be done before each search for a new entry
if it is desired that the entire database be examined.
These functions need not be thread-safe.
Upon successful completion, getutxent(), getutxid(), and getutxline()
shall return a pointer to a utmpx structure containing a copy of the
requested entry in the user accounting database. Otherwise, a null
pointer shall be returned.
The return value may point to a static area which is overwritten by a
subsequent call to getutxid() or getutxline().
Upon successful completion, pututxline() shall return a pointer to a
utmpx structure containing a copy of the entry added to the user
accounting database. Otherwise, a null pointer shall be returned.
The endutxent() and setutxent() functions shall not return a value.
No errors are defined for the endutxent(), getutxent(), getutxid(),
getutxline(), and setutxent() functions.
The pututxline() function may fail if:
EPERM The process does not have appropriate privileges.
The following sections are informative.
Portions of this text are reprinted and reproduced in electronic form
from IEEE Std 1003.1, 2013 Edition, Standard for Information
Technology -- Portable Operating System Interface (POSIX), The Open
Group Base Specifications Issue 7, Copyright (C) 2013 by the
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc and The Open
Group. (This is POSIX.1-2008 with the 2013 Technical Corrigendum 1
applied.) In the event of any discrepancy between this version and
the original IEEE and The Open Group Standard, the original IEEE and
The Open Group Standard is the referee document. The original
Standard can be obtained online at http://www.unix.org/online.html .
Any typographical or formatting errors that appear in this page are
most likely to have been introduced during the conversion of the
source files to man page format. To report such errors, see
IEEE/The Open Group 2013 ENDUTXENT(3P)