NAME | SYNOPSIS | DESCRIPTION | AUTHOR | REPORTING BUGS | COPYRIGHT | SEE ALSO | COLOPHON

TAIL(1)                         User Commands                        TAIL(1)

NAME         top

       tail - output the last part of files

SYNOPSIS         top

       tail [OPTION]... [FILE]...

DESCRIPTION         top

       Print the last 10 lines of each FILE to standard output.  With more
       than one FILE, precede each with a header giving the file name.

       With no FILE, or when FILE is -, read standard input.

       Mandatory arguments to long options are mandatory for short options
       too.

       -c, --bytes=[+]NUM
              output the last NUM bytes; or use -c +NUM to output starting
              with byte NUM of each file

       -f, --follow[={name|descriptor}]
              output appended data as the file grows;

              an absent option argument means 'descriptor'

       -F     same as --follow=name --retry

       -n, --lines=[+]NUM
              output the last NUM lines, instead of the last 10; or use -n
              +NUM to output starting with line NUM

       --max-unchanged-stats=N
              with --follow=name, reopen a FILE which has not

              changed size after N (default 5) iterations to see if it has
              been unlinked or renamed (this is the usual case of rotated
              log files); with inotify, this option is rarely useful

       --pid=PID
              with -f, terminate after process ID, PID dies

       -q, --quiet, --silent
              never output headers giving file names

       --retry
              keep trying to open a file if it is inaccessible

       -s, --sleep-interval=N
              with -f, sleep for approximately N seconds (default 1.0)
              between iterations; with inotify and --pid=P, check process P
              at least once every N seconds

       -v, --verbose
              always output headers giving file names

       -z, --zero-terminated
              line delimiter is NUL, not newline

       --help display this help and exit

       --version
              output version information and exit

       NUM may have a multiplier suffix: b 512, kB 1000, K 1024, MB
       1000*1000, M 1024*1024, GB 1000*1000*1000, G 1024*1024*1024, and so
       on for T, P, E, Z, Y.

       With --follow (-f), tail defaults to following the file descriptor,
       which means that even if a tail'ed file is renamed, tail will
       continue to track its end.  This default behavior is not desirable
       when you really want to track the actual name of the file, not the
       file descriptor (e.g., log rotation).  Use --follow=name in that
       case.  That causes tail to track the named file in a way that
       accommodates renaming, removal and creation.

AUTHOR         top

       Written by Paul Rubin, David MacKenzie, Ian Lance Taylor, and Jim
       Meyering.

REPORTING BUGS         top

       GNU coreutils online help: <http://www.gnu.org/software/coreutils/>
       Report tail translation bugs to <http://translationproject.org/team/>

COPYRIGHT         top

       Copyright © 2017 Free Software Foundation, Inc.  License GPLv3+: GNU
       GPL version 3 or later <http://gnu.org/licenses/gpl.html>.
       This is free software: you are free to change and redistribute it.
       There is NO WARRANTY, to the extent permitted by law.

SEE ALSO         top

       head(1)

       Full documentation at: <http://www.gnu.org/software/coreutils/tail>
       or available locally via: info '(coreutils) tail invocation'

COLOPHON         top

       This page is part of the coreutils (basic file, shell and text
       manipulation utilities) project.  Information about the project can
       be found at ⟨http://www.gnu.org/software/coreutils/⟩.  If you have a
       bug report for this manual page, see 
       ⟨http://www.gnu.org/software/coreutils/⟩.  This page was obtained from
       the tarball coreutils-8.27.tar.xz fetched from 
       ⟨http://www.gnutls.org/download.html⟩ on 2017-05-03.  If you discover
       any rendering problems in this HTML version of the page, or you
       believe there is a better or more up-to-date source for the page, or
       you have corrections or improvements to the information in this
       COLOPHON (which is not part of the original manual page), send a mail
       to man-pages@man7.org

GNU coreutils 8.27               March 2017                          TAIL(1)

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