systemd-analyze may be used to determine system boot-up performance
statistics and retrieve other state and tracing information from the
system and service manager, and to verify the correctness of unit
systemd-analyze time prints the time spent in the kernel before
userspace has been reached, the time spent in the initial RAM disk
(initrd) before normal system userspace has been reached, and the
time normal system userspace took to initialize. Note that these
measurements simply measure the time passed up to the point where all
system services have been spawned, but not necessarily until they
fully finished initialization or the disk is idle.
systemd-analyze blame prints a list of all running units, ordered by
the time they took to initialize. This information may be used to
optimize boot-up times. Note that the output might be misleading as
the initialization of one service might be slow simply because it
waits for the initialization of another service to complete.
systemd-analyze critical-chain [UNIT...] prints a tree of the
time-critical chain of units (for each of the specified UNITs or for
the default target otherwise). The time after the unit is active or
started is printed after the "@" character. The time the unit takes
to start is printed after the "+" character. Note that the output
might be misleading as the initialization of one service might depend
on socket activation and because of the parallel execution of units.
systemd-analyze plot prints an SVG graphic detailing which system
services have been started at what time, highlighting the time they
spent on initialization.
systemd-analyze dot generates textual dependency graph description in
dot format for further processing with the GraphViz dot(1) tool. Use
a command line like systemd-analyze dot | dot -Tsvg > systemd.svg to
generate a graphical dependency tree. Unless --order or --require is
passed, the generated graph will show both ordering and requirement
dependencies. Optional pattern globbing style specifications (e.g.
*.target) may be given at the end. A unit dependency is included in
the graph if any of these patterns match either the origin or
systemd-analyze dump outputs a (usually very long) human-readable
serialization of the complete server state. Its format is subject to
change without notice and should not be parsed by applications.
systemd-analyze set-log-level LEVEL changes the current log level of
the systemd daemon to LEVEL (accepts the same values as --log-level=
described in systemd(1)).
systemd-analyze set-log-target TARGET changes the current log target
of the systemd daemon to TARGET (accepts the same values as
--log-target=, described in systemd(1)).
systemd-analyze verify will load unit files and print warnings if any
errors are detected. Files specified on the command line will be
loaded, but also any other units referenced by them. The full unit
search path is formed by combining the directories for all command
line arguments, and the usual unit load paths (variable
$SYSTEMD_UNIT_PATH is supported, and may be used to replace or
augment the compiled in set of unit load paths; see systemd.unit(5)).
All units files present in the directories containing the command
line arguments will be used in preference to the other paths.
If no command is passed, systemd-analyze time is implied.
The following options are understood:
Operates on the user systemd instance.
Operates on the system systemd instance. This is the implied
When used in conjunction with the dot command (see above),
selects which dependencies are shown in the dependency graph. If
--order is passed, only dependencies of type After= or Before=
are shown. If --require is passed, only dependencies of type
Requires=, Requisite=, Wants= and Conflicts= are shown. If
neither is passed, this shows dependencies of all these types.
When used in conjunction with the dot command (see above), this
selects which relationships are shown in the dependency graph.
Both options require a glob(7) pattern as an argument, which will
be matched against the left-hand and the right-hand,
respectively, nodes of a relationship.
Each of these can be used more than once, in which case the unit
name must match one of the values. When tests for both sides of
the relation are present, a relation must pass both tests to be
shown. When patterns are also specified as positional arguments,
they must match at least one side of the relation. In other
words, patterns specified with those two options will trim the
list of edges matched by the positional arguments, if any are
given, and fully determine the list of edges shown otherwise.
When used in conjunction with the critical-chain command (see
above), also show units, which finished timespan earlier, than
the latest unit in the same level. The unit of timespan is
seconds unless specified with a different unit, e.g. "50ms".
Do not invoke man to verify the existence of man pages listed in
Execute the operation remotely. Specify a hostname, or a username
and hostname separated by "@", to connect to. The hostname may
optionally be suffixed by a container name, separated by ":",
which connects directly to a specific container on the specified
host. This will use SSH to talk to the remote machine manager
instance. Container names may be enumerated with machinectl -HHOST.
Execute operation on a local container. Specify a container name
to connect to.
Print a short help text and exit.
Print a short version string and exit.
Do not pipe output into a pager.
Example 1. Plots all dependencies of any unit whose name starts with"avahi-daemon"
$ systemd-analyze dot 'avahi-daemon.*' | dot -Tsvg > avahi.svg
$ eog avahi.svg
Example 2. Plots the dependencies between all known target units
systemd-analyze dot --to-pattern='*.target' --from-pattern='*.target' | dot -Tsvg > targets.svg
$ eog targets.svg
The following errors are currently detected:
· unknown sections and directives,
· missing dependencies which are required to start the given unit,
· man pages listed in Documentation= which are not found in the
· commands listed in ExecStart= and similar which are not found in
the system or not executable.
Example 3. Misspelt directives
$ cat ./user.slice
$ systemd-analyze verify ./user.slice
[./user.slice:9] Unknown lvalue 'WhatIsThis' in section 'Unit'
[./user.slice:13] Unknown section 'Service'. Ignoring.
Unit different.service failed to load:
No such file or directory.
Failed to create user.slice/start: Invalid argument
user.slice: man nosuchfile(1) command failed with code 16
Example 4. Missing service units
$ tail ./a.socket ./b.socket
==> ./a.socket <==
==> ./b.socket <==
$ systemd-analyze verify ./a.socket ./b.socket
Service a.service not loaded, a.socket cannot be started.
Service email@example.com not loaded, b.socket cannot be started.
Pager to use when --no-pager is not given; overrides $PAGER.
Setting this to an empty string or the value "cat" is equivalent
to passing --no-pager.
Override the default options passed to less ("FRSXMK").
This page is part of the systemd (systemd system and service manager)
project. Information about the project can be found at
⟨http://www.freedesktop.org/wiki/Software/systemd⟩. If you have a bug
report for this manual page, see
page was obtained from the project's upstream Git repository
⟨https://github.com/systemd/systemd.git⟩ on 2016-10-04. If you dis‐
cover any rendering problems in this HTML version of the page, or you
believe there is a better or more up-to-date source for the page, or
you have corrections or improvements to the information in this
COLOPHON (which is not part of the original manual page), send a mail
systemd 231 SYSTEMD-ANALYZE(1)