SYSTEMD-ANALYZE(1)             systemd-analyze            SYSTEMD-ANALYZE(1)

NAME         top

       systemd-analyze - Analyze system boot-up performance

SYNOPSIS         top

       systemd-analyze [OPTIONS...] [time]

       systemd-analyze [OPTIONS...] blame

       systemd-analyze [OPTIONS...] critical-chain [UNIT...]

       systemd-analyze [OPTIONS...] plot [> file.svg]

       systemd-analyze [OPTIONS...] dot [PATTERN...] [>]

       systemd-analyze [OPTIONS...] dump

       systemd-analyze [OPTIONS...] set-log-level LEVEL

       systemd-analyze [OPTIONS...] set-log-target TARGET

       systemd-analyze [OPTIONS...] syscall-filter [SET...]

       systemd-analyze [OPTIONS...] verify [FILES...]

DESCRIPTION         top

       systemd-analyze may be used to determine system boot-up performance
       statistics and retrieve other state and tracing information from the
       system and service manager, and to verify the correctness of unit

       systemd-analyze time prints the time spent in the kernel before
       userspace has been reached, the time spent in the initial RAM disk
       (initrd) before normal system userspace has been reached, and the
       time normal system userspace took to initialize. Note that these
       measurements simply measure the time passed up to the point where all
       system services have been spawned, but not necessarily until they
       fully finished initialization or the disk is idle.

       systemd-analyze blame prints a list of all running units, ordered by
       the time they took to initialize. This information may be used to
       optimize boot-up times. Note that the output might be misleading as
       the initialization of one service might be slow simply because it
       waits for the initialization of another service to complete.

       systemd-analyze critical-chain [UNIT...]  prints a tree of the
       time-critical chain of units (for each of the specified UNITs or for
       the default target otherwise). The time after the unit is active or
       started is printed after the "@" character. The time the unit takes
       to start is printed after the "+" character. Note that the output
       might be misleading as the initialization of one service might depend
       on socket activation and because of the parallel execution of units.

       systemd-analyze plot prints an SVG graphic detailing which system
       services have been started at what time, highlighting the time they
       spent on initialization.

       systemd-analyze dot generates textual dependency graph description in
       dot format for further processing with the GraphViz dot(1) tool. Use
       a command line like systemd-analyze dot | dot -Tsvg > systemd.svg to
       generate a graphical dependency tree. Unless --order or --require is
       passed, the generated graph will show both ordering and requirement
       dependencies. Optional pattern globbing style specifications (e.g.
       *.target) may be given at the end. A unit dependency is included in
       the graph if any of these patterns match either the origin or
       destination node.

       systemd-analyze dump outputs a (usually very long) human-readable
       serialization of the complete server state. Its format is subject to
       change without notice and should not be parsed by applications.

       systemd-analyze set-log-level LEVEL changes the current log level of
       the systemd daemon to LEVEL (accepts the same values as --log-level=
       described in systemd(1)).

       systemd-analyze set-log-target TARGET changes the current log target
       of the systemd daemon to TARGET (accepts the same values as
       --log-target=, described in systemd(1)).

       systemd-analyze syscall-filter [SET...]  will list system calls
       contained in the specified system call set SET, or all known sets if
       no sets are specified. Argument SET must include the "@" prefix.

       systemd-analyze verify will load unit files and print warnings if any
       errors are detected. Files specified on the command line will be
       loaded, but also any other units referenced by them. The full unit
       search path is formed by combining the directories for all command
       line arguments, and the usual unit load paths (variable
       $SYSTEMD_UNIT_PATH is supported, and may be used to replace or
       augment the compiled in set of unit load paths; see systemd.unit(5)).
       All units files present in the directories containing the command
       line arguments will be used in preference to the other paths.

       If no command is passed, systemd-analyze time is implied.

OPTIONS         top

       The following options are understood:

           Operates on the user systemd instance.

           Operates on the system systemd instance. This is the implied

       --order, --require
           When used in conjunction with the dot command (see above),
           selects which dependencies are shown in the dependency graph. If
           --order is passed, only dependencies of type After= or Before=
           are shown. If --require is passed, only dependencies of type
           Requires=, Requisite=, Wants= and Conflicts= are shown. If
           neither is passed, this shows dependencies of all these types.

       --from-pattern=, --to-pattern=
           When used in conjunction with the dot command (see above), this
           selects which relationships are shown in the dependency graph.
           Both options require a glob(7) pattern as an argument, which will
           be matched against the left-hand and the right-hand,
           respectively, nodes of a relationship.

           Each of these can be used more than once, in which case the unit
           name must match one of the values. When tests for both sides of
           the relation are present, a relation must pass both tests to be
           shown. When patterns are also specified as positional arguments,
           they must match at least one side of the relation. In other
           words, patterns specified with those two options will trim the
           list of edges matched by the positional arguments, if any are
           given, and fully determine the list of edges shown otherwise.

           When used in conjunction with the critical-chain command (see
           above), also show units, which finished timespan earlier, than
           the latest unit in the same level. The unit of timespan is
           seconds unless specified with a different unit, e.g. "50ms".

           Do not invoke man to verify the existence of man pages listed in

       -H, --host=
           Execute the operation remotely. Specify a hostname, or a username
           and hostname separated by "@", to connect to. The hostname may
           optionally be suffixed by a container name, separated by ":",
           which connects directly to a specific container on the specified
           host. This will use SSH to talk to the remote machine manager
           instance. Container names may be enumerated with machinectl -H

       -M, --machine=
           Execute operation on a local container. Specify a container name
           to connect to.

       -h, --help
           Print a short help text and exit.

           Print a short version string and exit.

           Do not pipe output into a pager.

EXIT STATUS         top

       On success, 0 is returned, a non-zero failure code otherwise.

EXAMPLES FOR DOT         top

       Example 1. Plots all dependencies of any unit whose name starts with

           $ systemd-analyze dot 'avahi-daemon.*' | dot -Tsvg > avahi.svg
                 $ eog avahi.svg

       Example 2. Plots the dependencies between all known target units

           systemd-analyze dot --to-pattern='*.target' --from-pattern='*.target' | dot -Tsvg > targets.svg
           $ eog targets.svg


       The following errors are currently detected:

       ·   unknown sections and directives,

       ·   missing dependencies which are required to start the given unit,

       ·   man pages listed in Documentation= which are not found in the

       ·   commands listed in ExecStart= and similar which are not found in
           the system or not executable.

       Example 3. Misspelt directives

           $ cat ./user.slice


           $ systemd-analyze verify ./user.slice
           [./user.slice:9] Unknown lvalue 'WhatIsThis' in section 'Unit'
           [./user.slice:13] Unknown section 'Service'. Ignoring.
           Error: org.freedesktop.systemd1.LoadFailed:
              Unit different.service failed to load:
              No such file or directory.
           Failed to create user.slice/start: Invalid argument
           user.slice: man nosuchfile(1) command failed with code 16

       Example 4. Missing service units

           $ tail ./a.socket ./b.socket
           ==> ./a.socket <==

           ==> ./b.socket <==

           $ systemd-analyze verify ./a.socket ./b.socket
           Service a.service not loaded, a.socket cannot be started.
           Service b@0.service not loaded, b.socket cannot be started.

ENVIRONMENT         top

           Pager to use when --no-pager is not given; overrides $PAGER. If
           neither $SYSTEMD_PAGER nor $PAGER are set, a set of well-known
           pager implementations are tried in turn, including less(1) and
           more(1), until one is found. If no pager implementation is
           discovered no pager is invoked. Setting this environment variable
           to an empty string or the value "cat" is equivalent to passing

           Override the options passed to less (by default "FRSXMK").

           Override the charset passed to less (by default "utf-8", if the
           invoking terminal is determined to be UTF-8 compatible).

SEE ALSO         top

       systemd(1), systemctl(1)

COLOPHON         top

       This page is part of the systemd (systemd system and service manager)
       project.  Information about the project can be found at 
       ⟨⟩.  If you have a bug
       report for this manual page, see
       ⟨⟩.  This
       page was obtained from the project's upstream Git repository
       ⟨⟩ on 2019-11-19.  (At that
       time, the date of the most recent commit that was found in the repos‐
       itory was 2019-11-19.)  If you discover any rendering problems in
       this HTML version of the page, or you believe there is a better or
       more up-to-date source for the page, or you have corrections or
       improvements to the information in this COLOPHON (which is not part
       of the original manual page), send a mail to

systemd 234                                               SYSTEMD-ANALYZE(1)

Pages that refer to this page: systemd.exec(5)systemd.unit(5)systemd.directives(7)systemd.index(7)