PROLOG | NAME | SYNOPSIS | DESCRIPTION | OPTIONS | OPERANDS | STDIN | INPUT FILES | ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES | ASYNCHRONOUS EVENTS | STDOUT | STDERR | OUTPUT FILES | EXTENDED DESCRIPTION | EXIT STATUS | CONSEQUENCES OF ERRORS | APPLICATION USAGE | EXAMPLES | RATIONALE | FUTURE DIRECTIONS | SEE ALSO | COPYRIGHT

SPLIT(1P)                 POSIX Programmer's Manual                SPLIT(1P)

PROLOG         top

       This manual page is part of the POSIX Programmer's Manual.  The Linux
       implementation of this interface may differ (consult the
       corresponding Linux manual page for details of Linux behavior), or
       the interface may not be implemented on Linux.

NAME         top

       split — split files into pieces

SYNOPSIS         top

       split [−l line_count] [−a suffix_length] [file[name]]

       split −b n[k|m] [−a suffix_length] [file[name]]

DESCRIPTION         top

       The split utility shall read an input file and write one or more
       output files.  The default size of each output file shall be 1000
       lines. The size of the output files can be modified by specification
       of the −b or −l options. Each output file shall be created with a
       unique suffix. The suffix shall consist of exactly suffix_length
       lowercase letters from the POSIX locale. The letters of the suffix
       shall be used as if they were a base-26 digit system, with the first
       suffix to be created consisting of all 'a' characters, the second
       with a 'b' replacing the last 'a', and so on, until a name of all 'z'
       characters is created. By default, the names of the output files
       shall be 'x', followed by a two-character suffix from the character
       set as described above, starting with "aa", "ab", "ac", and so on,
       and continuing until the suffix "zz", for a maximum of 676 files.

       If the number of files required exceeds the maximum allowed by the
       suffix length provided, such that the last allowable file would be
       larger than the requested size, the split utility shall fail after
       creating the last file with a valid suffix; split shall not delete
       the files it created with valid suffixes. If the file limit is not
       exceeded, the last file created shall contain the remainder of the
       input file, and may be smaller than the requested size.

OPTIONS         top

       The split utility shall conform to the Base Definitions volume of
       POSIX.1‐2008, Section 12.2, Utility Syntax Guidelines.

       The following options shall be supported:

       −a suffix_length
                 Use suffix_length letters to form the suffix portion of the
                 filenames of the split file. If −a is not specified, the
                 default suffix length shall be two. If the sum of the name
                 operand and the suffix_length option-argument would create
                 a filename exceeding {NAME_MAX} bytes, an error shall
                 result; split shall exit with a diagnostic message and no
                 files shall be created.

       −b n      Split a file into pieces n bytes in size.

       −b nk     Split a file into pieces n*1024 bytes in size.

       −b nm     Split a file into pieces n*1048576 bytes in size.

       −l line_count
                 Specify the number of lines in each resulting file piece.
                 The line_count argument is an unsigned decimal integer. The
                 default is 1000. If the input does not end with a
                 <newline>, the partial line shall be included in the last
                 output file.

OPERANDS         top

       The following operands shall be supported:

       file      The pathname of the ordinary file to be split. If no input
                 file is given or file is '−', the standard input shall be
                 used.

       name      The prefix to be used for each of the files resulting from
                 the split operation. If no name argument is given, 'x'
                 shall be used as the prefix of the output files. The
                 combined length of the basename of prefix and suffix_length
                 cannot exceed {NAME_MAX} bytes. See the OPTIONS section.

STDIN         top

       See the INPUT FILES section.

INPUT FILES         top

       Any file can be used as input.

ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES         top

       The following environment variables shall affect the execution of
       split:

       LANG      Provide a default value for the internationalization
                 variables that are unset or null. (See the Base Definitions
                 volume of POSIX.1‐2008, Section 8.2, Internationalization
                 Variables for the precedence of internationalization
                 variables used to determine the values of locale
                 categories.)

       LC_ALL    If set to a non-empty string value, override the values of
                 all the other internationalization variables.

       LC_CTYPE  Determine the locale for the interpretation of sequences of
                 bytes of text data as characters (for example, single-byte
                 as opposed to multi-byte characters in arguments and input
                 files).

       LC_MESSAGES
                 Determine the locale that should be used to affect the
                 format and contents of diagnostic messages written to
                 standard error.

       NLSPATH   Determine the location of message catalogs for the
                 processing of LC_MESSAGES.

ASYNCHRONOUS EVENTS         top

       Default.

STDOUT         top

       Not used.

STDERR         top

       The standard error shall be used only for diagnostic messages.

OUTPUT FILES         top

       The output files contain portions of the original input file;
       otherwise, unchanged.

EXTENDED DESCRIPTION         top

       None.

EXIT STATUS         top

       The following exit values shall be returned:

        0    Successful completion.

       >0    An error occurred.

CONSEQUENCES OF ERRORS         top

       Default.

       The following sections are informative.

APPLICATION USAGE         top

       None.

EXAMPLES         top

       In the following examples foo is a text file that contains 5000
       lines.

        1. Create five files, xaa, xab, xac, xad, and xae:

               split foo

        2. Create five files, but the suffixed portion of the created files
           consists of three letters, xaaa, xaab, xaac, xaad, and xaae:

               split −a 3 foo

        3. Create three files with four-letter suffixes and a supplied
           prefix, bar_aaaa, bar_aaab, and bar_aaac:

               split −a 4 −l 2000 foo bar_

        4. Create as many files as are necessary to contain at most 20*1024
           bytes, each with the default prefix of x and a five-letter
           suffix:

               split −a 5 −b 20k foo

RATIONALE         top

       The −b option was added to provide a mechanism for splitting files
       other than by lines. While most uses of the −b option are for
       transmitting files over networks, some believed it would have
       additional uses.

       The −a option was added to overcome the limitation of being able to
       create only 676 files.

       Consideration was given to deleting this utility, using the rationale
       that the functionality provided by this utility is available via the
       csplit utility (see csplit(1p)).  Upon reconsideration of the purpose
       of the User Portability Utilities option, it was decided to retain
       both this utility and the csplit utility because users use both
       utilities and have historical expectations of their behavior.
       Furthermore, the splitting on byte boundaries in split cannot be
       duplicated with the historical csplit.

       The text ``split shall not delete the files it created with valid
       suffixes'' would normally be assumed, but since the related utility,
       csplit, does delete files under some circumstances, the historical
       behavior of split is made explicit to avoid misinterpretation.

       Earlier versions of this standard allowed a line_count option. This
       form is no longer specified by POSIX.1‐2008 but may be present in
       some implementations.

FUTURE DIRECTIONS         top

       None.

SEE ALSO         top

       csplit(1p)

       The Base Definitions volume of POSIX.1‐2008, Chapter 8, Environment
       Variables, Section 12.2, Utility Syntax Guidelines

COPYRIGHT         top

       Portions of this text are reprinted and reproduced in electronic form
       from IEEE Std 1003.1, 2013 Edition, Standard for Information
       Technology -- Portable Operating System Interface (POSIX), The Open
       Group Base Specifications Issue 7, Copyright (C) 2013 by the
       Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc and The Open
       Group.  (This is POSIX.1-2008 with the 2013 Technical Corrigendum 1
       applied.) In the event of any discrepancy between this version and
       the original IEEE and The Open Group Standard, the original IEEE and
       The Open Group Standard is the referee document. The original
       Standard can be obtained online at http://www.unix.org/online.html .

       Any typographical or formatting errors that appear in this page are
       most likely to have been introduced during the conversion of the
       source files to man page format. To report such errors, see
       https://www.kernel.org/doc/man-pages/reporting_bugs.html .

IEEE/The Open Group                 2013                           SPLIT(1P)

Pages that refer to this page: csplit(1p)