PROLOG | NAME | SYNOPSIS | DESCRIPTION | OPTIONS | OPERANDS | STDIN | INPUT FILES | ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES | ASYNCHRONOUS EVENTS | STDOUT | STDERR | OUTPUT FILES | EXTENDED DESCRIPTION | EXIT STATUS | CONSEQUENCES OF ERRORS | APPLICATION USAGE | EXAMPLES | RATIONALE | FUTURE DIRECTIONS | SEE ALSO | COPYRIGHT

PWD(1P)                   POSIX Programmer's Manual                  PWD(1P)

PROLOG         top

       This manual page is part of the POSIX Programmer's Manual.  The Linux
       implementation of this interface may differ (consult the
       corresponding Linux manual page for details of Linux behavior), or
       the interface may not be implemented on Linux.

NAME         top

       pwd — return working directory name

SYNOPSIS         top

       pwd [−L|−P]

DESCRIPTION         top

       The pwd utility shall write to standard output an absolute pathname
       of the current working directory, which does not contain the
       filenames dot or dot-dot.

OPTIONS         top

       The pwd utility shall conform to the Base Definitions volume of
       POSIX.1‐2008, Section 12.2, Utility Syntax Guidelines.

       The following options shall be supported by the implementation:

       −L        If the PWD environment variable contains an absolute
                 pathname of the current directory that does not contain the
                 filenames dot or dot-dot, pwd shall write this pathname to
                 standard output. Otherwise, if the PWD environment variable
                 contains a pathname of the current directory that is longer
                 than {PATH_MAX} bytes including the terminating null, and
                 the pathname does not contain any components that are dot
                 or dot-dot, it is unspecified whether pwd writes this
                 pathname to standard output or behaves as if the −P option
                 had been specified. Otherwise, the −L option shall behave
                 as the −P option.

       −P        The pathname written to standard output shall not contain
                 any components that refer to files of type symbolic link.
                 If there are multiple pathnames that the pwd utility could
                 write to standard output, one beginning with a single
                 <slash> character and one or more beginning with two
                 <slash> characters, then it shall write the pathname
                 beginning with a single <slash> character. The pathname
                 shall not contain any unnecessary <slash> characters after
                 the leading one or two <slash> characters.

       If both −L and −P are specified, the last one shall apply. If neither
       −L nor −P is specified, the pwd utility shall behave as if −L had
       been specified.

OPERANDS         top

       None.

STDIN         top

       Not used.

INPUT FILES         top

       None.

ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES         top

       The following environment variables shall affect the execution of
       pwd:

       LANG      Provide a default value for the internationalization
                 variables that are unset or null. (See the Base Definitions
                 volume of POSIX.1‐2008, Section 8.2, Internationalization
                 Variables the precedence of internationalization variables
                 used to determine the values of locale categories.)

       LC_ALL    If set to a non-empty string value, override the values of
                 all the other internationalization variables.

       LC_MESSAGES
                 Determine the locale that should be used to affect the
                 format and contents of diagnostic messages written to
                 standard error.

       NLSPATH   Determine the location of message catalogs for the
                 processing of LC_MESSAGES.

       PWD       An absolute pathname of the current working directory. If
                 an application sets or unsets the value of PWD, the
                 behavior of pwd is unspecified.

ASYNCHRONOUS EVENTS         top

       Default.

STDOUT         top

       The pwd utility output is an absolute pathname of the current working
       directory:

           "%s\n", <directory pathname>

STDERR         top

       The standard error shall be used only for diagnostic messages.

OUTPUT FILES         top

       None.

EXTENDED DESCRIPTION         top

       None.

EXIT STATUS         top

       The following exit values shall be returned:

        0    Successful completion.

       >0    An error occurred.

CONSEQUENCES OF ERRORS         top

       If an error is detected, output shall not be written to standard
       output, a diagnostic message shall be written to standard error, and
       the exit status is not zero.

       The following sections are informative.

APPLICATION USAGE         top

       If the pathname obtained from pwd is longer than {PATH_MAX} bytes, it
       could produce an error if passed to cd.  Therefore, in order to
       return to that directory it may be necessary to break the pathname
       into sections shorter than {PATH_MAX} and call cd on each section in
       turn (the first section being an absolute pathname and subsequent
       sections being relative pathnames).

EXAMPLES         top

       None.

RATIONALE         top

       Some implementations have historically provided pwd as a shell
       special built-in command.

       In most utilities, if an error occurs, partial output may be written
       to standard output. This does not happen in historical
       implementations of pwd.  Because pwd is frequently used in historical
       shell scripts without checking the exit status, it is important that
       the historical behavior is required here; therefore, the CONSEQUENCES
       OF ERRORS section specifically disallows any partial output being
       written to standard output.

       An earlier version of this standard stated that the PWD environment
       variable was affected when the −P option was in effect. This was
       incorrect; conforming implementations do not do this.

FUTURE DIRECTIONS         top

       None.

SEE ALSO         top

       cd(1p)

       The Base Definitions volume of POSIX.1‐2008, Chapter 8, Environment
       Variables, Section 12.2, Utility Syntax Guidelines

       The System Interfaces volume of POSIX.1‐2008, getcwd(3p)

COPYRIGHT         top

       Portions of this text are reprinted and reproduced in electronic form
       from IEEE Std 1003.1, 2013 Edition, Standard for Information
       Technology -- Portable Operating System Interface (POSIX), The Open
       Group Base Specifications Issue 7, Copyright (C) 2013 by the
       Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc and The Open
       Group.  (This is POSIX.1-2008 with the 2013 Technical Corrigendum 1
       applied.) In the event of any discrepancy between this version and
       the original IEEE and The Open Group Standard, the original IEEE and
       The Open Group Standard is the referee document. The original
       Standard can be obtained online at http://www.unix.org/online.html .

       Any typographical or formatting errors that appear in this page are
       most likely to have been introduced during the conversion of the
       source files to man page format. To report such errors, see
       https://www.kernel.org/doc/man-pages/reporting_bugs.html .

IEEE/The Open Group                 2013                             PWD(1P)