MYSQL_UPGRADE(1)           MariaDB Database System          MYSQL_UPGRADE(1)

NAME         top

       mysql_upgrade - check tables for MariaDB upgrade

SYNOPSIS         top

       mysql_upgrade [options]

DESCRIPTION         top

       mysql_upgrade examines all tables in all databases for
       incompatibilities with the current version of the MariaDB Server.
       mysql_upgrade also upgrades the system tables so that you can take
       advantage of new privileges or capabilities that might have been

       mysql_upgrade should be executed each time you upgrade MariaDB.

       If a table is found to have a possible incompatibility, mysql_upgrade
       performs a table check. If any problems are found, a table repair is

           On Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista, you must run
           mysql_upgrade with administrator privileges. You can do this by
           running a Command Prompt as Administrator and running the
           command. Failure to do so may result in the upgrade failing to
           execute correctly.

           You should always back up your current MariaDB installation
           before performing an upgrade.

       To use mysql_upgrade, make sure that the server is running, and then
       invoke it like this:

           shell> mysql_upgrade [options]

       After running mysql_upgrade, stop the server and restart it so that
       any changes made to the system tables take effect.

       mysql_upgrade executes the following commands to check and repair
       tables and to upgrade the system tables:

           mysqlcheck --all-databases --check-upgrade --auto-repair
           mysql < fix_priv_tables
           mysqlcheck --all-databases --check-upgrade --fix-db-names --fix-table-names

       Notes about the preceding commands:

       ·   Because mysql_upgrade invokes mysqlcheck with the --all-databases
           option, it processes all tables in all databases, which might
           take a long time to complete. Each table is locked and therefore
           unavailable to other sessions while it is being processed. Check
           and repair operations can be time-consuming, particularly for
           large tables.

       ·   For details about what checks the --check-upgrade option entails,
           see the description of the FOR UPGRADE option of the CHECK TABLE

       ·   fix_priv_tables represents a script generated internally by
           mysql_upgrade that contains SQL statements to upgrade the tables
           in the mysql database.

       All checked and repaired tables are marked with the current MariaDB
       version number. This ensures that next time you run mysql_upgrade
       with the same version of the server, it can tell whether there is any
       need to check or repair the table again.

       mysql_upgrade also saves the MariaDB version number in a file named
       mysql_upgrade_info in the data directory. This is used to quickly
       check whether all tables have been checked for this release so that
       table-checking can be skipped. To ignore this file and perform the
       check regardless, use the --force option.

       If you install MariaDB from RPM packages on Linux, you must install
       the server and client RPMs.  mysql_upgrade is included in the server
       RPM but requires the client RPM because the latter includes

       mysql_upgrade supports the following options, which can be specified
       on the command line or in the [mysql_upgrade] and [client] option
       file groups. Other options are passed to mysqlcheck. For example, it
       might be necessary to specify the --password[=password] option.
       mysql_upgrade also supports the options for processing option files.

       ·   --help, -?

           Display a short help message and exit.

       ·   --basedir=path

           Old option accepted for backward compatibility but ignored.

       ·   --character-sets-dir=path

           Old option accepted for backward compatibility but ignored.

       ·   --datadir=path

           Old option accepted for backward compatibility but ignored.

       ·   --debug=path, -# path

           For debug builds, output debug log.

       ·   --debug-check

           Print some debugging information when the program exits.

       ·   --debug-info, -T

           Print debugging information and memory and CPU usage statistics
           when the program exits.

       ·   --default-character-set=name

           Old option accepted for backward compatibility but ignored.

       ·   --force

           Ignore the mysql_upgrade_info file and force execution of
           mysqlcheck even if mysql_upgrade has already been executed for
           the current version of MariaDB.

       ·   --host

           Connect to MariaDB on the given host.

       ·   --password[=password], -p[password]

           The password to use when connecting to the server. If you use the
           short option form (-p), you cannot have a space between the
           option and the password. If you omit the password value following
           the --password or -p option on the command line, mysql_upgrade
           prompts for one.

           Specifying a password on the command line should be considered
           insecure. You can use an option file to avoid giving the password
           on the command line.

       ·   --port=port_num, -P port_num

           The TCP/IP port number to use for the connection.

       ·   --protocol={TCP|SOCKET|PIPE|MEMORY}

           The connection protocol to use for connecting to the server. It
           is useful when the other connection parameters normally would
           cause a protocol to be used other than the one you want.

       ·   --silent

           Print less information.

       ·   --socket=path, -S path

           For connections to localhost, the Unix socket file to use, or, on
           Windows, the name of the named pipe to use.

       ·   --ssl

           Enable SSL for connection (automatically enabled with other
           flags). Disable with --skip-ssl.

       ·   --ssl-ca=name

           CA file in PEM format (check OpenSSL docs, implies --ssl).

       ·   --ssl-capath=name

           CA directory (check OpenSSL docs, implies --ssl).

       ·   --ssl-cert=name

           X509 cert in PEM format (check OpenSSL docs, implies --ssl).

       ·   --ssl-cipher=name

           SSL cipher to use (check OpenSSL docs, implies --ssl).

       ·   --ssl-key=name

           X509 key in PEM format (check OpenSSL docs, implies --ssl).

       ·   --ssl-crl=name

           Certificate revocation list (check OpenSSL docs, implies --ssl).

       ·   --ssl-crlpath=name

           Certificate revocation list path (check OpenSSL docs, implies

       ·   --ssl-verify-server-cert

           Verify server's "Common Name" in its cert against hostname used
           when connecting. This option is disabled by default.

       ·   --tmpdir=path, -t path

           The path name of the directory to use for creating temporary

       ·   --upgrade-system-tables, -s

           Only upgrade the system tables in the mysql database. Tables in
           other databases are not checked or touched.

       ·   --user=user_name, -u user_name

           The MariaDB user name to use when connecting to the server and
           not using the current login.

       ·   --verbose

           Display more output about the process. Using it twice will print
           connection arguments; using it 3 times will print out all CHECK,
           RENAME and ALTER TABLE commands used during the check phase;
           using it 4 times (added in MariaDB 10.0.14) will also write out
           all mysqlcheck commands used.

       ·   --version, -V

           Output version information and exit.

       ·   --version-check, -k

           Run this program only if its 'server version' matches the version
           of the server to which it's connecting. Note: the 'server
           version' of the program is the version of the MariaDB server with
           which it was built/distributed. Defaults to on; use
           --skip-version-check to disable.

       ·   --write-binlog

           Cause binary logging to be enabled while mysql_upgrade runs.

COPYRIGHT         top

       Copyright 2007-2008 MySQL AB, 2008-2010 Sun Microsystems, Inc.,
       2010-2015 MariaDB Foundation

       This documentation is free software; you can redistribute it and/or
       modify it only under the terms of the GNU General Public License as
       published by the Free Software Foundation; version 2 of the License.

       This documentation is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
       but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
       General Public License for more details.

       You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
       along with the program; if not, write to the Free Software
       Foundation, Inc., 51 Franklin Street, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA
       02110-1335 USA or see

SEE ALSO         top

       For more information, please refer to the MariaDB Knowledge Base,
       available online at

AUTHOR         top

       MariaDB Foundation (

COLOPHON         top

       This page is part of the MariaDB (MariaDB database server) project.
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       If you have a bug report for this manual page, see
       ⟨⟩.  This page was
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MariaDB 10.1                     14/12/2015                 MYSQL_UPGRADE(1)