MYSQL(1)                   MariaDB Database System                  MYSQL(1)

NAME         top

       mysql - the MariaDB command-line tool

SYNOPSIS         top

       mysql [options] db_name

DESCRIPTION         top

       mysql is a simple SQL shell (with GNU readline capabilities). It
       supports interactive and non-interactive use. When used
       interactively, query results are presented in an ASCII-table format.
       When used non-interactively (for example, as a filter), the result is
       presented in tab-separated format. The output format can be changed
       using command options.

       If you have problems due to insufficient memory for large result
       sets, use the --quick option. This forces mysql to retrieve results
       from the server a row at a time rather than retrieving the entire
       result set and buffering it in memory before displaying it. This is
       done by returning the result set using the mysql_use_result() C API
       function in the client/server library rather than

       Using mysql is very easy. Invoke it from the prompt of your command
       interpreter as follows:

           shell> mysql db_name


           shell> mysql --user=user_name --password=your_password db_name

       Then type an SQL statement, end it with “;”, \g, or \G and press

       Typing Control-C causes mysql to attempt to kill the current
       statement. If this cannot be done, or Control-C is typed again before
       the statement is killed, mysql exits.

       You can execute SQL statements in a script file (batch file) like

           shell> mysql db_name < script.sql >

MYSQL OPTIONS         top

       mysql supports the following options, which can be specified on the
       command line or in the [mysql], [client], [client-server] or [client-
       mariadb] option file groups.  mysql also supports the options for
       processing option files.

       ·   --help, -?, -I

           Display a help message and exit.

       ·   --abort-source-on-error

           Abort 'source filename' operations in case of errors.

       ·   --auto-rehash

           Enable automatic rehashing. This option is on by default, which
           enables database, table, and column name completion. Use
           --disable-auto-rehash, --no-auto-rehash,  or --skip-auto-rehash
           to disable rehashing. That causes mysql to start faster, but you
           must issue the rehash command if you want to use name completion.

           To complete a name, enter the first part and press Tab. If the
           name is unambiguous, mysql completes it. Otherwise, you can press
           Tab again to see the possible names that begin with what you have
           typed so far. Completion does not occur if there is no default

       ·   --auto-vertical-output

           Automatically switch to vertical output mode if the result is
           wider than the terminal width.

       ·   --batch, -B

           Print results using tab as the column separator, with each row on
           a new line. With this option, mysql does not use the history

           Batch mode results in nontabular output format and escaping of
           special characters. Escaping may be disabled by using raw mode;
           see the description for the --raw option.

       ·   --binary-mode

           By default, ASCII '\0' is disallowed and '\r\n' is translated to
           '\n'. This switch turns off both features, and also turns off
           parsing of all client commands except \C and DELIMITER, in non-
           interactive mode (for input piped to mysql or loaded using the
           'source' command). This is necessary when processing output from
           mysqlbinlog that may contain blobs.

       ·   --character-sets-dir=path

           The directory where character sets are installed.

       ·   --column-names

           Write column names in results.

       ·   --column-type-info, -m

           Display result set metadata.

       ·   --comments, -c

           Whether to preserve comments in statements sent to the server.
           The default is --skip-comments (discard comments), enable with
           --comments (preserve comments).

       ·   --compress, -C

           Compress all information sent between the client and the server
           if both support compression.

       ·   --connect-timeout=seconds

           Set the number of seconds before connection timeout. (Default
           value is 0.)

       ·   --database=db_name, -D db_name

           The database to use.

       ·   --debug[=debug_options], -# [debug_options]

           Write a debugging log. A typical debug_options string is
           ´d:t:o,file_name´. The default is ´d:t:o,/tmp/mysql.trace´.

       ·   --debug-check

           Print some debugging information when the program exits.

       ·   --debug-info, -T

           Prints debugging information and memory and CPU usage statistics
           when the program exits.

       ·   --default-auth=name

           Default authentication client-side plugin to use.

       ·   --default-character-set=charset_name

           Use charset_name as the default character set for the client and

           A common issue that can occur when the operating system uses utf8
           or another multi-byte character set is that output from the mysql
           client is formatted incorrectly, due to the fact that the MariaDB
           client uses the latin1 character set by default. You can usually
           fix such issues by using this option to force the client to use
           the system character set instead.

       ·   --defaults-extra-file=filename

           Set filename as the file to read default options from after the
           global defaults files has been read.  Must be given as first

       ·   --defaults-file=filename

           Set filename as the file to read default options from, override
           global defaults files. Must be given as first option.

       ·   --defaults-group-suffix=suffix

           In addition to the groups named on the command line, read groups
           that have the given suffix.

       ·   --delimiter=str

           Set the statement delimiter. The default is the semicolon
           character (“;”).

       ·   --disable-named-commands

           Disable named commands. Use the \* form only, or use named
           commands only at the beginning of a line ending with a semicolon
           (“;”).  mysql starts with this option enabled by default.
           However, even with this option, long-format commands still work
           from the first line. See the section called “MYSQL COMMANDS”.

       ·   --execute=statement, -e statement

           Execute the statement and quit. Disables --force and history
           file. The default output format is like that produced with

       ·   --force, -f

           Continue even if an SQL error occurs. Sets --abort-source-on-
           error to 0.

       ·   --host=host_name, -h host_name

           Connect to the MariaDB server on the given host.

       ·   --html, -H

           Produce HTML output.

       ·   --ignore-spaces, -i

           Ignore spaces after function names. Allows one to have spaces
           (including tab characters and new line characters) between
           function name and '('. The drawback is that this causes built in
           functions to become reserved words.

       ·   --init-command=str

           SQL Command to execute when connecting to the MariaDB server.
           Will automatically be re-executed when reconnecting.

       ·   --line-numbers

           Write line numbers for errors. Disable this with

       ·   --local-infile[={0|1}]

           Enable or disable LOCAL capability for LOAD DATA INFILE. With no
           value, the option enables LOCAL. The option may be given as
           --local-infile=0 or --local-infile=1 to explicitly disable or
           enable LOCAL. Enabling LOCAL has no effect if the server does not
           also support it.

       ·   --max-allowed-packet=num

           Set the maximum packet length to send to or receive from the
           server. (Default value is 16MB, largest 1GB.)

       ·   --max-join-size=num

           Set the automatic limit for rows in a join when using
           --safe-updates. (Default value is 1,000,000.)

       ·   --named-commands, -G

           Enable named mysql commands. Long-format commands are allowed,
           not just short-format commands. For example, quit and \q both are
           recognized. Use --skip-named-commands to disable named commands.
           See the section called “MYSQL COMMANDS”. Disabled by default.

       ··   --net-buffer-lenght=size

           Set the buffer size for TCP/IP and socket communication. (Default
           value is 16KB.)

       ·   --no-auto-rehash, -A

           This has the same effect as --skip-auto-rehash. See the
           description for --auto-rehash.

       ·   --no-beep, -b

           Do not beep when errors occur.

       ·   --no-defaults

           Do not read default options from any option file. This must be
           given as the first argument.

       ·   --one-database, -o

           Ignore statements except those those that occur while the default
           database is the one named on the command line. This filtering is
           limited, and based only on USE statements. This is useful for
           skipping updates to other databases in the binary log.

       ·   --pager[=command]

           Use the given command for paging query output. If the command is
           omitted, the default pager is the value of your PAGER environment
           variable. Valid pagers are less, more, cat [> filename], and so
           forth. This option works only on Unix and only in interactive
           mode. To disable paging, use --skip-pager.  the section called
           “MYSQL COMMANDS”, discusses output paging further.

       ·   --password[=password], -p[password]

           The password to use when connecting to the server. If you use the
           short option form (-p), you cannot have a space between the
           option and the password. If you omit the password value following
           the --password or -p option on the command line, mysql prompts
           for one.

           Specifying a password on the command line should be considered
           insecure. You can use an option file to avoid giving the password
           on the command line.

       ·   --pipe, -W

           On Windows, connect to the server via a named pipe. This option
           applies only if the server supports named-pipe connections.

       ·   --plugin-dir=dir_name

           Directory for client-side plugins.

       ·   --port=port_num, -P port_num

           The TCP/IP port number to use for the connection or 0 for default
           to, in order of preference, my.cnf, $MYSQL_TCP_PORT,
           /etc/services, built-in default (3306).

       ·   --print-defaults

           Print the program argument list and exit. This must be given as
           the first argument.

       ·   --progress-reports

           Get progress reports for long running commands (such as ALTER
           TABLE). (Defaults to on; use --skip-progress-reports to disable.)

       ·   --prompt=format_str

           Set the prompt to the specified format. The special sequences
           that the prompt can contain are described in the section called
           “MYSQL COMMANDS”.

       ·   --protocol={TCP|SOCKET|PIPE|MEMORY}

           The connection protocol to use for connecting to the server. It
           is useful when the other connection parameters normally would
           cause a protocol to be used other than the one you want.

       ·   --quick, -q

           Do not cache each query result, print each row as it is received.
           This may slow down the server if the output is suspended. With
           this option, mysql does not use the history file.

       ·   --raw, -r

           For tabular output, the “boxing” around columns enables one
           column value to be distinguished from another. For nontabular
           output (such as is produced in batch mode or when the --batch or
           --silent option is given), special characters are escaped in the
           output so they can be identified easily. Newline, tab, NUL, and
           backslash are written as \n, \t, \0, and \\. The --raw option
           disables this character escaping.

           The following example demonstrates tabular versus nontabular
           output and the use of raw mode to disable escaping:

               % mysql
               mysql> SELECT CHAR(92);
               | CHAR(92) |
               | \        |
               % mysql -s
               mysql> SELECT CHAR(92);
               % mysql -s -r
               mysql> SELECT CHAR(92);

       ·   --reconnect

           If the connection to the server is lost, automatically try to
           reconnect. A single reconnect attempt is made each time the
           connection is lost. Enabled by default, to disable use
           --skip-reconnect or --disable-reconnect.

       ·   --safe-updates, --i-am-a-dummy, -U

           Allow only those UPDATE and DELETE statements that specify which
           rows to modify by using key values. If you have set this option
           in an option file, you can override it by using --safe-updates on
           the command line. See the section called “MYSQL TIPS”, for more
           information about this option.

       ·   --secure-auth

           Do not send passwords to the server in old (pre-4.1.1) format.
           This prevents connections except for servers that use the newer
           password format.

       ·   --select-limit=limit

           Set automatic limit for SELECT when using --safe-updates.
           (Default value is 1,000.)

       ·   --server-arg=name

           Send name as a parameter to the embedded server.

       ·   --show-warnings

           Cause warnings to be shown after each statement if there are any.
           This option applies to interactive and batch mode.

       ·   --sigint-ignore

           Ignore SIGINT signals (typically the result of typing Control-C).

       ·   --silent, -s

           Silent mode. Produce less output. This option can be given
           multiple times to produce less and less output.

           This option results in nontabular output format and escaping of
           special characters. Escaping may be disabled by using raw mode;
           see the description for the --raw option.

       ·   --skip-auto-rehash

           Disable automatic rehashing. Synonym for --disable-auto-rehash.

       ·   --skip-column-names, -N

           Do not write column names in results.

       ·   --skip-line-numbers, -L

           Do not write line numbers for errors. Useful when you want to
           compare result files that include error messages.

       ·   --socket=path, -S path

           For connections to localhost, the Unix socket file to use, or, on
           Windows, the name of the named pipe to use.

       ·   --ssl

           Enable SSL for connection (automatically enabled with other
           flags). Disable with --skip-ssl.

       ·   --ssl-ca=name

           CA file in PEM format (check OpenSSL docs, implies --ssl).

       ·   --ssl-capath=name

           CA directory (check OpenSSL docs, implies --ssl).

       ·   --ssl-cert=name

           X509 cert in PEM format (check OpenSSL docs, implies --ssl).

       ·   --ssl-cipher=name

           SSL cipher to use (check OpenSSL docs, implies --ssl).

       ·   --ssl-key=name

           X509 key in PEM format (check OpenSSL docs, implies --ssl).

       ·   --ssl-crl=name

           Certificate revocation list (check OpenSSL docs, implies --ssl).

       ·   --ssl-crlpath=name

           Certificate revocation list path (check OpenSSL docs, implies

       ·   --ssl-verify-server-cert

           Verify server's "Common Name" in its cert against hostname used
           when connecting. This option is disabled by default.

       ·   --table, -t

           Display output in table format. This is the default for
           interactive use, but can be used to produce table output in batch

       ·   --tee=file_name

           Append a copy of output to the given file. This option works only
           in interactive mode.  the section called “MYSQL COMMANDS”,
           discusses tee files further.

       ·   --unbuffered, -n

           Flush the buffer after each query.

       ·   --user=user_name, -u user_name

           The MariaDB user name to use when connecting to the server.

       ·   --verbose, -v

           Verbose mode. Produce more output about what the program does.
           This option can be given multiple times to produce more and more
           output. (For example, -v -v -v produces table output format even
           in batch mode.)

       ·   --version, -V

           Display version information and exit.

       ·   --vertical, -E

           Print query output rows vertically (one line per column value).
           Without this option, you can specify vertical output for
           individual statements by terminating them with \G.

       ·   --wait, -w

           If the connection cannot be established, wait and retry instead
           of aborting.

       ·   --xml, -X

           Produce XML output.  The output when --xml is used with mysql
           matches that of mysqldump --xml. See mysqldump(1) for details.

           The XML output also uses an XML namespace, as shown here:

               shell> mysql --xml -uroot -e "SHOW VARIABLES LIKE ´version%´"
               <?xml version="1.0"?>
               <resultset statement="SHOW VARIABLES LIKE ´version%´" xmlns:xsi="">
               <field name="Variable_name">version</field>
               <field name="Value">5.0.40-debug</field>
               <field name="Variable_name">version_comment</field>
               <field name="Value">Source distribution</field>
               <field name="Variable_name">version_compile_machine</field>
               <field name="Value">i686</field>
               <field name="Variable_name">version_compile_os</field>
               <field name="Value">suse-linux-gnu</field>

           You can also set the following variables by using

           ·   connect_timeout

               The number of seconds before connection timeout. (Default
               value is 0.)

           ·   max_allowed_packet

               The maximum packet length to send to or receive from the
               server. (Default value is 16MB.)

           ·   max_join_size

               The automatic limit for rows in a join when using
               --safe-updates. (Default value is 1,000,000.)

           ·   net_buffer_length

               The buffer size for TCP/IP and socket communication. (Default
               value is 16KB.)

           ·   select_limit

               The automatic limit for SELECT statements when using
               --safe-updates. (Default value is 1,000.)

           On Unix, the mysql client writes a record of executed statements
           to a history file. By default, this file is named .mysql_history
           and is created in your home directory. To specify a different
           file, set the value of the MYSQL_HISTFILE environment variable.

           The .mysql_history should be protected with a restrictive access
           mode because sensitive information might be written to it, such
           as the text of SQL statements that contain passwords.

           If you do not want to maintain a history file, first remove
           .mysql_history if it exists, and then use either of the following

           ·   Set the MYSQL_HISTFILE variable to /dev/null. To cause this
               setting to take effect each time you log in, put the setting
               in one of your shell´s startup files.

           ·   Create .mysql_history as a symbolic link to /dev/null:

                   shell> ln -s /dev/null $HOME/.mysql_history

               You need do this only once.

MYSQL COMMANDS         top

       mysql sends each SQL statement that you issue to the server to be
       executed. There is also a set of commands that mysql itself
       interprets. For a list of these commands, type help or \h at the
       mysql> prompt:

           mysql> help
           List of all MySQL commands:
           Note that all text commands must be first on line and end with ´;´
           ?         (\?) Synonym for `help´.
           clear     (\c) Clear command.
           connect   (\r) Reconnect to the server. Optional arguments are db and host.
           delimiter (\d) Set statement delimiter.
           edit      (\e) Edit command with $EDITOR.
           ego       (\G) Send command to mysql server, display result vertically.
           exit      (\q) Exit mysql. Same as quit.
           go        (\g) Send command to mysql server.
           help      (\h) Display this help.
           nopager   (\n) Disable pager, print to stdout.
           notee     (\t) Don´t write into outfile.
           pager     (\P) Set PAGER [to_pager]. Print the query results via PAGER.
           print     (\p) Print current command.
           prompt    (\R) Change your mysql prompt.
           quit      (\q) Quit mysql.
           rehash    (\#) Rebuild completion hash.
           source    (\.) Execute an SQL script file. Takes a file name as an argument.
           status    (\s) Get status information from the server.
           system    (\!) Execute a system shell command.
           tee       (\T) Set outfile [to_outfile]. Append everything into given
           use       (\u) Use another database. Takes database name as argument.
           charset   (\C) Switch to another charset. Might be needed for processing
                          binlog with multi-byte charsets.
           warnings  (\W) Show warnings after every statement.
           nowarning (\w) Don´t show warnings after every statement.
           For server side help, type ´help contents´

       Each command has both a long and short form. The long form is not
       case sensitive; the short form is. The long form can be followed by
       an optional semicolon terminator, but the short form should not.

       The use of short-form commands within multi-line /* ... */ comments
       is not supported.

       ·   help [arg], \h [arg], \? [arg], ? [arg]

           Display a help message listing the available mysql commands.

           If you provide an argument to the help command, mysql uses it as
           a search string to access server-side help. For more information,
           see the section called “MYSQL SERVER-SIDE HELP”.

       ·   charset charset_name, \C charset_name

           Change the default character set and issue a SET NAMES statement.
           This enables the character set to remain synchronized on the
           client and server if mysql is run with auto-reconnect enabled
           (which is not recommended), because the specified character set
           is used for reconnects.

       ·   clear, \c

           Clear the current input. Use this if you change your mind about
           executing the statement that you are entering.

       ·   connect [db_name host_name]], \r [db_name host_name]]

           Reconnect to the server. The optional database name and host name
           arguments may be given to specify the default database or the
           host where the server is running. If omitted, the current values
           are used.

       ·   delimiter str, \d str

           Change the string that mysql interprets as the separator between
           SQL statements. The default is the semicolon character (“;”).

           The delimiter can be specified as an unquoted or quoted argument.
           Quoting can be done with either single quote (´) or douple quote
           (") characters. To include a quote within a quoted string, either
           quote the string with the other quote character or escape the
           quote with a backslash (“\”) character. Backslash should be
           avoided outside of quoted strings because it is the escape
           character for MariaDB. For an unquoted argument, the delmiter is
           read up to the first space or end of line. For a quoted argument,
           the delimiter is read up to the matching quote on the line.

           When the delimiter recognized by mysql is set to something other
           than the default of “;”, instances of that character are sent to
           the server without interpretation. However, the server itself
           still interprets “;” as a statement delimiter and processes
           statements accordingly. This behavior on the server side comes
           into play for multiple-statement execution, and for parsing the
           body of stored procedures and functions, triggers, and events.

       ·   edit, \e

           Edit the current input statement.  mysql checks the values of the
           EDITOR and VISUAL environment variables to determine which editor
           to use. The default editor is vi if neither variable is set.

           The edit command works only in Unix.

       ·   ego, \G

           Send the current statement to the server to be executed and
           display the result using vertical format.

       ·   exit, \q

           Exit mysql.

       ·   go, \g

           Send the current statement to the server to be executed.

       ·   nopager, \n

           Disable output paging. See the description for pager.

           The nopager command works only in Unix.

       ·   notee, \t

           Disable output copying to the tee file. See the description for

       ·   nowarning, \w

           Enable display of warnings after each statement.

       ·   pager [command], \P [command]

           Enable output paging. By using the --pager option when you invoke
           mysql, it is possible to browse or search query results in
           interactive mode with Unix programs such as less, more, or any
           other similar program. If you specify no value for the option,
           mysql checks the value of the PAGER environment variable and sets
           the pager to that. Pager functionality works only in interactive

           Output paging can be enabled interactively with the pager command
           and disabled with nopager. The command takes an optional
           argument; if given, the paging program is set to that. With no
           argument, the pager is set to the pager that was set on the
           command line, or stdout if no pager was specified.

           Output paging works only in Unix because it uses the popen()
           function, which does not exist on Windows. For Windows, the tee
           option can be used instead to save query output, although it is
           not as convenient as pager for browsing output in some

       ·   print, \p

           Print the current input statement without executing it.

       ·   prompt [str], \R [str]

           Reconfigure the mysql prompt to the given string. The special
           character sequences that can be used in the prompt are described
           later in this section.

           If you specify the prompt command with no argument, mysql resets
           the prompt to the default of mysql>.

       ·   quit, \q

           Exit mysql.

       ·   rehash, \#

           Rebuild the completion hash that enables database, table, and
           column name completion while you are entering statements. (See
           the description for the --auto-rehash option.)

       ·   source file_name, \. file_name

           Read the named file and executes the statements contained
           therein. On Windows, you can specify path name separators as / or

       ·   status, \s

           Provide status information about the connection and the server
           you are using. If you are running in --safe-updates mode, status
           also prints the values for the mysql variables that affect your

       ·   system command, \! command

           Execute the given command using your default command interpreter.

           The system command works only in Unix.

       ·   tee [file_name], \T [file_name]

           By using the --tee option when you invoke mysql, you can log
           statements and their output. All the data displayed on the screen
           is appended into a given file. This can be very useful for
           debugging purposes also.  mysql flushes results to the file after
           each statement, just before it prints its next prompt. Tee
           functionality works only in interactive mode.

           You can enable this feature interactively with the tee command.
           Without a parameter, the previous file is used. The tee file can
           be disabled with the notee command. Executing tee again
           re-enables logging.

       ·   use db_name, \u db_name

           Use db_name as the default database.

       ·   warnings, \W

           Enable display of warnings after each statement (if there are

       Here are a few tips about the pager command:

       ·   You can use it to write to a file and the results go only to the

               mysql> pager cat > /tmp/log.txt

           You can also pass any options for the program that you want to
           use as your pager:

               mysql> pager less -n -i -S

       ·   In the preceding example, note the -S option. You may find it
           very useful for browsing wide query results. Sometimes a very
           wide result set is difficult to read on the screen. The -S option
           to less can make the result set much more readable because you
           can scroll it horizontally using the left-arrow and right-arrow
           keys. You can also use -S interactively within less to switch the
           horizontal-browse mode on and off. For more information, read the
           less manual page:

               shell> man less

       ·   The -F and -X options may be used with less to cause it to exit
           if output fits on one screen, which is convenient when no
           scrolling is necessary:

               mysql> pager less -n -i -S -F -X

       ·   You can specify very complex pager commands for handling query

               mysql> pager cat | tee /dr1/tmp/res.txt \
                         | tee /dr2/tmp/res2.txt | less -n -i -S

           In this example, the command would send query results to two
           files in two different directories on two different file systems
           mounted on /dr1 and /dr2, yet still display the results onscreen
           via less.

       You can also combine the tee and pager functions. Have a tee file
       enabled and pager set to less, and you are able to browse the results
       using the less program and still have everything appended into a file
       the same time. The difference between the Unix tee used with the
       pager command and the mysql built-in tee command is that the built-in
       tee works even if you do not have the Unix tee available. The
       built-in tee also logs everything that is printed on the screen,
       whereas the Unix tee used with pager does not log quite that much.
       Additionally, tee file logging can be turned on and off interactively
       from within mysql. This is useful when you want to log some queries
       to a file, but not others.

       The prompt command reconfigures the default mysql> prompt. The string
       for defining the prompt can contain the following special sequences.

       │Option Description                │
       │\c     │ A counter that increments  │
       │       │ for each statement you     │
       │       │ issue                      │
       │\D     │ The full current date      │
       │\d     │ The default database       │
       │\h     │ The server host            │
       │\l     │ The current delimiter      │
       │       │ (new in 5.1.12)            │
       │\m     │ Minutes of the current     │
       │       │ time                       │
       │\n     │ A newline character        │
       │\O     │ The current month in       │
       │       │ three-letter format (Jan,  │
       │       │ Feb, ...)                  │
       │\o     │ The current month in       │
       │       │ numeric format             │
       │\P     │ am/pm                      │
       │\p     │ The current TCP/IP port    │
       │       │ or socket file             │
       │\R     │ The current time, in       │
       │       │ 24-hour military time      │
       │       │ (0–23)                     │
       │\r     │ The current time,          │
       │       │ standard 12-hour time      │
       │       │ (1–12)                     │
       │\S     │ Semicolon                  │
       │\s     │ Seconds of the current     │
       │       │ time                       │
       │\t     │ A tab character            │
       │\U     │                            │
       │       │        Your full           │
       │       │        user_name@host_name │
       │       │        account name        │
       │\u     │ Your user name             │
       │\v     │ The server version         │
       │\w     │ The current day of the     │
       │       │ week in three-letter       │
       │       │ format (Mon, Tue, ...)     │
       │\Y     │ The current year, four     │
       │       │ digits                     │
       │\y     │ The current year, two      │
       │       │ digits                     │
       │\_     │ A space                    │
       │\      │ A space (a space follows   │
       │       │ the backslash)             │
       │\´     │ Single quote               │
       │\"     │ Double quote               │
       │\\     │ A literal “\” backslash    │
       │       │ character                  │
       │\x     │                            │
       │       │        x, for any “x” not  │
       │       │        listed above        │

       You can set the prompt in several ways:

       ·   Use an environment variable.  You can set the MYSQL_PS1
           environment variable to a prompt string. For example:

               shell> export MYSQL_PS1="(\u@\h) [\d]> "

       ·   Use a command-line option.  You can set the --prompt option on
           the command line to mysql. For example:

               shell> mysql --prompt="(\u@\h) [\d]> "
               (user@host) [database]>

       ·   Use an option file.  You can set the prompt option in the [mysql]
           group of any MariaDB option file, such as /etc/my.cnf or the
           .my.cnf file in your home directory. For example:

               prompt=(\\u@\\h) [\\d]>\\_

           In this example, note that the backslashes are doubled. If you
           set the prompt using the prompt option in an option file, it is
           advisable to double the backslashes when using the special prompt
           options. There is some overlap in the set of allowable prompt
           options and the set of special escape sequences that are
           recognized in option files. The overlap may cause you problems if
           you use single backslashes. For example, \s is interpreted as a
           space rather than as the current seconds value. The following
           example shows how to define a prompt within an option file to
           include the current time in HH:MM:SS> format:

               prompt="\\r:\\m:\\s> "

       ·   Set the prompt interactively.  You can change your prompt
           interactively by using the prompt (or \R) command. For example:

               mysql> prompt (\u@\h) [\d]>\_
               PROMPT set to ´(\u@\h) [\d]>\_´
               (user@host) [database]>
               (user@host) [database]> prompt
               Returning to default PROMPT of mysql>


           mysql> help search_string

       If you provide an argument to the help command, mysql uses it as a
       search string to access server-side help. The proper operation of
       this command requires that the help tables in the mysql database be
       initialized with help topic information.

       If there is no match for the search string, the search fails:

           mysql> help me
           Nothing found
           Please try to run ´help contents´ for a list of all accessible topics

       Use help contents to see a list of the help categories:

           mysql> help contents
           You asked for help about help category: "Contents"
           For more information, type ´help <item>´, where <item> is one of the
           following categories:
              Account Management
              Data Definition
              Data Manipulation
              Data Types
              Functions and Modifiers for Use with GROUP BY
              Geographic Features
              Language Structure
              Storage Engines
              Stored Routines
              Table Maintenance

       If the search string matches multiple items, mysql shows a list of
       matching topics:

           mysql> help logs
           Many help items for your request exist.
           To make a more specific request, please type ´help <item>´,
           where <item> is one of the following topics:
              SHOW BINARY LOGS
              SHOW ENGINE
              SHOW LOGS

       Use a topic as the search string to see the help entry for that

           mysql> help show binary logs
           Name: ´SHOW BINARY LOGS´
           Lists the binary log files on the server. This statement is used as
           part of the procedure described in [purge-binary-logs], that shows how
           to determine which logs can be purged.
           mysql> SHOW BINARY LOGS;
           | Log_name      | File_size |
           | binlog.000015 |    724935 |
           | binlog.000016 |    733481 |


       The mysql client typically is used interactively, like this:

           shell> mysql db_name

       However, it is also possible to put your SQL statements in a file and
       then tell mysql to read its input from that file. To do so, create a
       text file text_file that contains the statements you wish to execute.
       Then invoke mysql as shown here:

           shell> mysql db_name < text_file

       If you place a USE db_name statement as the first statement in the
       file, it is unnecessary to specify the database name on the command

           shell> mysql < text_file

       If you are already running mysql, you can execute an SQL script file
       using the source command or \.  command:

           mysql> source file_name
           mysql> \. file_name

       Sometimes you may want your script to display progress information to
       the user. For this you can insert statements like this:

           SELECT ´<info_to_display>´ AS ´ ´;

       The statement shown outputs <info_to_display>.

       You can also invoke mysql with the --verbose option, which causes
       each statement to be displayed before the result that it produces.

       mysql ignores Unicode byte order mark (BOM) characters at the
       beginning of input files. Presence of a BOM does not cause mysql to
       change its default character set. To do that, invoke mysql with an
       option such as --default-character-set=utf8.

MYSQL TIPS         top

       This section describes some techniques that can help you use mysql
       more effectively.

   Displaying Query Results Vertically
       Some query results are much more readable when displayed vertically,
       instead of in the usual horizontal table format. Queries can be
       displayed vertically by terminating the query with \G instead of a
       semicolon. For example, longer text values that include newlines
       often are much easier to read with vertical output:

           mysql> SELECT * FROM mails WHERE LENGTH(txt) < 300 LIMIT 300,1\G
           *************************** 1. row ***************************
             msg_nro: 3068
                date: 2000-03-01 23:29:50
           time_zone: +0200
           mail_from: Monty
             mail_to: "Thimble Smith" <>
                 sbj: UTF-8
                 txt: >>>>> "Thimble" == Thimble Smith writes:
           Thimble> Hi.  I think this is a good idea.  Is anyone familiar
           Thimble> with UTF-8 or Unicode? Otherwise, I´ll put this on my
           Thimble> TODO list and see what happens.
           Yes, please do that.
                file: inbox-jani-1
                hash: 190402944
           1 row in set (0.09 sec)

   Using the --safe-updates Option
       For beginners, a useful startup option is --safe-updates (or
       --i-am-a-dummy, which has the same effect). It is helpful for cases
       when you might have issued a DELETE FROM tbl_name statement but
       forgotten the WHERE clause. Normally, such a statement deletes all
       rows from the table. With --safe-updates, you can delete rows only by
       specifying the key values that identify them. This helps prevent

       When you use the --safe-updates option, mysql issues the following
       statement when it connects to the MariaDB server:

           SET sql_safe_updates=1, sql_select_limit=1000, sql_max_join_size=1000000;

       The SET statement has the following effects:

       ·   You are not allowed to execute an UPDATE or DELETE statement
           unless you specify a key constraint in the WHERE clause or
           provide a LIMIT clause (or both). For example:

               UPDATE tbl_name SET not_key_column=val WHERE key_column=val;
               UPDATE tbl_name SET not_key_column=val LIMIT 1;

       ·   The server limits all large SELECT results to 1,000 rows unless
           the statement includes a LIMIT clause.

       ·   The server aborts multiple-table SELECT statements that probably
           need to examine more than 1,000,000 row combinations.

       To specify limits different from 1,000 and 1,000,000, you can
       override the defaults by using the --select-limit and --max-join-size

           shell> mysql --safe-updates --select-limit=500 --max-join-size=10000

   Disabling mysql Auto-Reconnect
       If the mysql client loses its connection to the server while sending
       a statement, it immediately and automatically tries to reconnect once
       to the server and send the statement again. However, even if mysql
       succeeds in reconnecting, your first connection has ended and all
       your previous session objects and settings are lost: temporary
       tables, the autocommit mode, and user-defined and session variables.
       Also, any current transaction rolls back. This behavior may be
       dangerous for you, as in the following example where the server was
       shut down and restarted between the first and second statements
       without you knowing it:

           mysql> SET @a=1;
           Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.05 sec)
           mysql> INSERT INTO t VALUES(@a);
           ERROR 2006: MySQL server has gone away
           No connection. Trying to reconnect...
           Connection id:    1
           Current database: test
           Query OK, 1 row affected (1.30 sec)
           mysql> SELECT * FROM t;
           | a    |
           | NULL |
           1 row in set (0.05 sec)

       The @a user variable has been lost with the connection, and after the
       reconnection it is undefined. If it is important to have mysql
       terminate with an error if the connection has been lost, you can
       start the mysql client with the --skip-reconnect option.

COPYRIGHT         top

       Copyright 2007-2008 MySQL AB, 2008-2010 Sun Microsystems, Inc.,
       2010-2015 MariaDB Foundation

       This documentation is free software; you can redistribute it and/or
       modify it only under the terms of the GNU General Public License as
       published by the Free Software Foundation; version 2 of the License.

       This documentation is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
       but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
       General Public License for more details.

       You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
       along with the program; if not, write to the Free Software
       Foundation, Inc., 51 Franklin Street, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA
       02110-1301 USA or see

NOTES         top

        1. Bug#25946

SEE ALSO         top

       For more information, please refer to the MariaDB Knowledge Base,
       available online at

AUTHOR         top

       MariaDB Foundation (

COLOPHON         top

       This page is part of the MariaDB (MariaDB database server) project.
       Information about the project can be found at ⟨⟩.
       If you have a bug report for this manual page, see
       ⟨⟩.  This page was
       obtained from the project's upstream Git repository
       ⟨⟩ on 2018-10-29.  (At that time,
       the date of the most recent commit that was found in the repository
       was 2018-10-21.)  If you discover any rendering problems in this HTML
       version of the page, or you believe there is a better or more up-to-
       date source for the page, or you have corrections or improvements to
       the information in this COLOPHON (which is not part of the original
       manual page), send a mail to

MariaDB 10.1                     14/12/2015                         MYSQL(1)