LN(1)                           User Commands                          LN(1)

NAME         top

       ln - make links between files

SYNOPSIS         top

       ln [OPTION]... [-T] TARGET LINK_NAME   (1st form)
       ln [OPTION]... TARGET                  (2nd form)
       ln [OPTION]... TARGET... DIRECTORY     (3rd form)
       ln [OPTION]... -t DIRECTORY TARGET...  (4th form)

DESCRIPTION         top

       In the 1st form, create a link to TARGET with the name LINK_NAME.  In
       the 2nd form, create a link to TARGET in the current directory.  In
       the 3rd and 4th forms, create links to each TARGET in DIRECTORY.
       Create hard links by default, symbolic links with --symbolic.  By
       default, each destination (name of new link) should not already
       exist.  When creating hard links, each TARGET must exist.  Symbolic
       links can hold arbitrary text; if later resolved, a relative link is
       interpreted in relation to its parent directory.

       Mandatory arguments to long options are mandatory for short options

              make a backup of each existing destination file

       -b     like --backup but does not accept an argument

       -d, -F, --directory
              allow the superuser to attempt to hard link directories (note:
              will probably fail due to system restrictions, even for the

       -f, --force
              remove existing destination files

       -i, --interactive
              prompt whether to remove destinations

       -L, --logical
              dereference TARGETs that are symbolic links

       -n, --no-dereference
              treat LINK_NAME as a normal file if it is a symbolic link to a

       -P, --physical
              make hard links directly to symbolic links

       -r, --relative
              create symbolic links relative to link location

       -s, --symbolic
              make symbolic links instead of hard links

       -S, --suffix=SUFFIX
              override the usual backup suffix

       -t, --target-directory=DIRECTORY
              specify the DIRECTORY in which to create the links

       -T, --no-target-directory
              treat LINK_NAME as a normal file always

       -v, --verbose
              print name of each linked file

       --help display this help and exit

              output version information and exit

       The backup suffix is '~', unless set with --suffix or
       SIMPLE_BACKUP_SUFFIX.  The version control method may be selected via
       the --backup option or through the VERSION_CONTROL environment
       variable.  Here are the values:

       none, off
              never make backups (even if --backup is given)

       numbered, t
              make numbered backups

       existing, nil
              numbered if numbered backups exist, simple otherwise

       simple, never
              always make simple backups

       Using -s ignores -L and -P.  Otherwise, the last option specified
       controls behavior when a TARGET is a symbolic link, defaulting to -P.

AUTHOR         top

       Written by Mike Parker and David MacKenzie.

REPORTING BUGS         top

       GNU coreutils online help: <>
       Report ln translation bugs to <>

COPYRIGHT         top

       Copyright © 2016 Free Software Foundation, Inc.  License GPLv3+: GNU
       GPL version 3 or later <>.
       This is free software: you are free to change and redistribute it.
       There is NO WARRANTY, to the extent permitted by law.

SEE ALSO         top

       link(2), symlink(2)

       Full documentation at: <>
       or available locally via: info '(coreutils) ln invocation'

COLOPHON         top

       This page is part of the coreutils (basic file, shell and text
       manipulation utilities) project.  Information about the project can
       be found at ⟨⟩.  If you have a
       bug report for this manual page, see 
       ⟨⟩.  This page was obtained from
       the tarball coreutils-8.25.tar.xz fetched from 
       ⟨⟩ on 2016-10-04.  If you discover
       any rendering problems in this HTML version of the page, or you
       believe there is a better or more up-to-date source for the page, or
       you have corrections or improvements to the information in this
       COLOPHON (which is not part of the original manual page), send a mail

GNU coreutils 8.25              January 2016                           LN(1)