last looks through the file wtmp (which records all logins/logouts)
and prints information about connect times of users. Records are
printed from most recent to least recent. Records can be specified
by tty and username. tty names can be abbreviated:
is equivalent to
Multiple arguments can be specified:
last root console
will print all of the entries for the user root and all entries
logged in on the console tty.
The special users reboot and shutdown log in when the system reboots
or (surprise) shuts down.
will produce a record of reboot times.
If last is interrupted by a quit signal, it prints out how far its
search in the wtmp file had reached and then quits.
-n num,--lines num
Limit the number of lines that last outputs. This is
different from u*x last, which lets you specify the number
right after a dash.
-f filename,--file filename
Read from the file filename instead of the system's wtmp file.
When the wtmp file has a problem (a time-warp, missing record,
or whatever), print out an appropriate error.
Set the time warp leniency to num seconds. Records in wtmp
files might be slightly out of order (most notably when two
logins occur within a one-second period - the second one gets
written first). By default, this value is set to 60. If the
program notices this problem, time is not assigned to users
unless the --timewarps flag is used.
Set the time warp suspicious value to num seconds. If two
records in the wtmp file are farther than this number of
seconds apart, there is a problem with the wtmp file (or your
machine hasn't been used in a year). If the program notices
this problem, time is not assigned to users unless the
--timewarps flag is used.
When printing out the information, don't chop the number part
off of `ftp'XXXX entries.
Print out run level changes, shutdowns, and time changes in
addition to the normal records.
Print out all records in the wtmp file.
Some machines store the IP address of a connection in a utmp
record. Enabling this option makes last print the IP address
instead of the hostname.
By default, last tries to print each entry within in 80
columns. Use this option to instruct last to print out the
fields in the wtmp file with full field widths.
Print verbose internal information.
Print seconds when displaying dates.
Print year when displaying dates.
Print last's version number.
Prints the usage string and default locations of system files
to standard output and exits.
This page is part of the psacct (process accounting utilities)
project. Information about the project can be found at
⟨http://www.gnu.org/software/acct/⟩. If you have a bug report for
this manual page, see ⟨http://www.gnu.org/software/acct/⟩. This page
was obtained from the project's upstream Subversion repository
⟨svn://svn.savannah.gnu.org/acct/trunk⟩ on 2016-12-10. If you dis‐
cover any rendering problems in this HTML version of the page, or you
believe there is a better or more up-to-date source for the page, or
you have corrections or improvements to the information in this
COLOPHON (which is not part of the original manual page), send a mail
1997 August 19 LAST(1)