NAME | SYNOPSIS | DESCRIPTION | OPTIONS | FILES | AUTHOR | SEE ALSO | COLOPHON

LAST(1)                    General Commands Manual                   LAST(1)

NAME         top

       last - list logins on the system

SYNOPSIS         top

       last   [ -num | -n num | --lines num ]
              [ -f filename | --file filename ]
              [ people ...  ] [ ttys ...  ]
              [ --complain ] [ --no-truncate-ftp-entries ]
              [ -x | --more-records ] [ -a | --all-records ]
              [ --tw-leniency num ] [ --tw-suspicious num ]
              [ -i | --ip-address ] [ --debug ] [ -w | --wide ]
              [ -s | --print-seconds ] [ -y | --print-year ]
              [ -V | --version ] [ -h | --help ]

DESCRIPTION         top

       last looks through the file wtmp (which records all logins/logouts)
       and prints information about connect times of users. Records are
       printed from most recent to least recent.  Records can be specified
       by tty and username.  tty names can be abbreviated:
                                      last 0
       is equivalent to
                                    last tty0.

       Multiple arguments can be specified:
                                 last root console
       will print all of the entries for the user root and all entries
       logged in on the console tty.

       The special users reboot and shutdown log in when the system reboots
       or (surprise) shuts down.
                                    last reboot
       will produce a record of reboot times.

       If last is interrupted by a quit signal, it prints out how far its
       search in the wtmp file had reached and then quits.

OPTIONS         top

       -n num, --lines num
              Limit the number of lines that last outputs.  This is
              different from u*x last, which lets you specify the number
              right after a dash.
       -f filename, --file filename
              Read from the file filename instead of the system's wtmp file.
       --complain
              When the wtmp file has a problem (a time-warp, missing record,
              or whatever), print out an appropriate error.
       --tw-leniency num
              Set the time warp leniency to num seconds.  Records in wtmp
              files might be slightly out of order (most notably when two
              logins occur within a one-second period - the second one gets
              written first).  By default, this value is set to 60.  If the
              program notices this problem, time is not assigned to users
              unless the --timewarps flag is used.
       --tw-suspicious num
              Set the time warp suspicious value to num seconds.  If two
              records in the wtmp file are farther than this number of
              seconds apart, there is a problem with the wtmp file (or your
              machine hasn't been used in a year).  If the program notices
              this problem, time is not assigned to users unless the
              --timewarps flag is used.
       --no-truncate-ftp-entries
              When printing out the information, don't chop the number part
              off of `ftp'XXXX entries.
       -x, --more-records
              Print out run level changes, shutdowns, and time changes in
              addition to the normal records.
       -a, --all-records
              Print out all records in the wtmp file.
       -i, --ip-address
              Some machines store the IP address of a connection in a utmp
              record.  Enabling this option makes last print the IP address
              instead of the hostname.
       -w, --wide
              By default, last tries to print each entry within in 80
              columns.  Use this option to instruct last to print out the
              fields in the wtmp file with full field widths.
       --debug
              Print verbose internal information.
       -s, --print-seconds
              Print seconds when displaying dates.
       -y, --print-year
              Print year when displaying dates.
       -V, --version
              Print last's version number.
       -h, --help
              Prints the usage string and default locations of system files
              to standard output and exits.

FILES         top

       wtmp
              The system wide login record file. See wtmp(5) for further
              details.

AUTHOR         top

       The GNU accounting utilities were written by Noel Cragg
       <noel@gnu.ai.mit.edu>. The man page was added by Dirk Eddelbuettel
       <edd@qed.econ.queensu.ca>.

SEE ALSO         top

       who(1), wtmp(5)

COLOPHON         top

       This page is part of the psacct (process accounting utilities)
       project.  Information about the project can be found at 
       ⟨http://www.gnu.org/software/acct/⟩.  If you have a bug report for
       this manual page, see ⟨http://www.gnu.org/software/acct/⟩.  This page
       was obtained from the project's upstream Subversion repository 
       ⟨svn://svn.savannah.gnu.org/acct/trunk⟩ on 2016-09-01.  If you dis‐
       cover any rendering problems in this HTML version of the page, or you
       believe there is a better or more up-to-date source for the page, or
       you have corrections or improvements to the information in this
       COLOPHON (which is not part of the original manual page), send a mail
       to man-pages@man7.org

                               1997 August 19                        LAST(1)