NAME | SYNOPSIS | DESCRIPTION | OPTIONS | FILES | BUGS | SEE ALSO | COPYRIGHT | COLOPHON

GPROF(1)                             GNU                            GPROF(1)

NAME         top

       gprof - display call graph profile data

SYNOPSIS         top

       gprof [ -[abcDhilLrsTvwxyz] ] [ -[ACeEfFJnNOpPqQZ][name] ]
        [ -I dirs ] [ -d[num] ] [ -k from/to ]
        [ -m min-count ] [ -R map_file ] [ -t table-length ]
        [ --[no-]annotated-source[=name] ]
        [ --[no-]exec-counts[=name] ]
        [ --[no-]flat-profile[=name] ] [ --[no-]graph[=name] ]
        [ --[no-]time=name] [ --all-lines ] [ --brief ]
        [ --debug[=level] ] [ --function-ordering ]
        [ --file-ordering map_file ] [ --directory-path=dirs ]
        [ --display-unused-functions ] [ --file-format=name ]
        [ --file-info ] [ --help ] [ --line ] [ --inline-file-names ]
        [ --min-count=n ] [ --no-static ] [ --print-path ]
        [ --separate-files ] [ --static-call-graph ] [ --sum ]
        [ --table-length=len ] [ --traditional ] [ --version ]
        [ --width=n ] [ --ignore-non-functions ]
        [ --demangle[=STYLE] ] [ --no-demangle ]
        [--external-symbol-table=name]
        [ image-file ] [ profile-file ... ]

DESCRIPTION         top

       "gprof" produces an execution profile of C, Pascal, or Fortran77
       programs.  The effect of called routines is incorporated in the
       profile of each caller.  The profile data is taken from the call
       graph profile file (gmon.out default) which is created by programs
       that are compiled with the -pg option of "cc", "pc", and "f77".  The
       -pg option also links in versions of the library routines that are
       compiled for profiling.  "Gprof" reads the given object file (the
       default is "a.out") and establishes the relation between its symbol
       table and the call graph profile from gmon.out.  If more than one
       profile file is specified, the "gprof" output shows the sum of the
       profile information in the given profile files.

       "Gprof" calculates the amount of time spent in each routine.  Next,
       these times are propagated along the edges of the call graph.  Cycles
       are discovered, and calls into a cycle are made to share the time of
       the cycle.

       Several forms of output are available from the analysis.

       The flat profile shows how much time your program spent in each
       function, and how many times that function was called.  If you simply
       want to know which functions burn most of the cycles, it is stated
       concisely here.

       The call graph shows, for each function, which functions called it,
       which other functions it called, and how many times.  There is also
       an estimate of how much time was spent in the subroutines of each
       function.  This can suggest places where you might try to eliminate
       function calls that use a lot of time.

       The annotated source listing is a copy of the program's source code,
       labeled with the number of times each line of the program was
       executed.

OPTIONS         top

       These options specify which of several output formats "gprof" should
       produce.

       Many of these options take an optional symspec to specify functions
       to be included or excluded.  These options can be specified multiple
       times, with different symspecs, to include or exclude sets of
       symbols.

       Specifying any of these options overrides the default (-p -q), which
       prints a flat profile and call graph analysis for all functions.

       "-A[symspec]"
       "--annotated-source[=symspec]"
           The -A option causes "gprof" to print annotated source code.  If
           symspec is specified, print output only for matching symbols.

       "-b"
       "--brief"
           If the -b option is given, "gprof" doesn't print the verbose
           blurbs that try to explain the meaning of all of the fields in
           the tables.  This is useful if you intend to print out the
           output, or are tired of seeing the blurbs.

       "-C[symspec]"
       "--exec-counts[=symspec]"
           The -C option causes "gprof" to print a tally of functions and
           the number of times each was called.  If symspec is specified,
           print tally only for matching symbols.

           If the profile data file contains basic-block count records,
           specifying the -l option, along with -C, will cause basic-block
           execution counts to be tallied and displayed.

       "-i"
       "--file-info"
           The -i option causes "gprof" to display summary information about
           the profile data file(s) and then exit.  The number of histogram,
           call graph, and basic-block count records is displayed.

       "-I dirs"
       "--directory-path=dirs"
           The -I option specifies a list of search directories in which to
           find source files.  Environment variable GPROF_PATH can also be
           used to convey this information.  Used mostly for annotated
           source output.

       "-J[symspec]"
       "--no-annotated-source[=symspec]"
           The -J option causes "gprof" not to print annotated source code.
           If symspec is specified, "gprof" prints annotated source, but
           excludes matching symbols.

       "-L"
       "--print-path"
           Normally, source filenames are printed with the path component
           suppressed.  The -L option causes "gprof" to print the full
           pathname of source filenames, which is determined from symbolic
           debugging information in the image file and is relative to the
           directory in which the compiler was invoked.

       "-p[symspec]"
       "--flat-profile[=symspec]"
           The -p option causes "gprof" to print a flat profile.  If symspec
           is specified, print flat profile only for matching symbols.

       "-P[symspec]"
       "--no-flat-profile[=symspec]"
           The -P option causes "gprof" to suppress printing a flat profile.
           If symspec is specified, "gprof" prints a flat profile, but
           excludes matching symbols.

       "-q[symspec]"
       "--graph[=symspec]"
           The -q option causes "gprof" to print the call graph analysis.
           If symspec is specified, print call graph only for matching
           symbols and their children.

       "-Q[symspec]"
       "--no-graph[=symspec]"
           The -Q option causes "gprof" to suppress printing the call graph.
           If symspec is specified, "gprof" prints a call graph, but
           excludes matching symbols.

       "-t"
       "--table-length=num"
           The -t option causes the num most active source lines in each
           source file to be listed when source annotation is enabled.  The
           default is 10.

       "-y"
       "--separate-files"
           This option affects annotated source output only.  Normally,
           "gprof" prints annotated source files to standard-output.  If
           this option is specified, annotated source for a file named
           path/filename is generated in the file filename-ann.  If the
           underlying file system would truncate filename-ann so that it
           overwrites the original filename, "gprof" generates annotated
           source in the file filename.ann instead (if the original file
           name has an extension, that extension is replaced with .ann).

       "-Z[symspec]"
       "--no-exec-counts[=symspec]"
           The -Z option causes "gprof" not to print a tally of functions
           and the number of times each was called.  If symspec is
           specified, print tally, but exclude matching symbols.

       "-r"
       "--function-ordering"
           The --function-ordering option causes "gprof" to print a
           suggested function ordering for the program based on profiling
           data.  This option suggests an ordering which may improve paging,
           tlb and cache behavior for the program on systems which support
           arbitrary ordering of functions in an executable.

           The exact details of how to force the linker to place functions
           in a particular order is system dependent and out of the scope of
           this manual.

       "-R map_file"
       "--file-ordering map_file"
           The --file-ordering option causes "gprof" to print a suggested .o
           link line ordering for the program based on profiling data.  This
           option suggests an ordering which may improve paging, tlb and
           cache behavior for the program on systems which do not support
           arbitrary ordering of functions in an executable.

           Use of the -a argument is highly recommended with this option.

           The map_file argument is a pathname to a file which provides
           function name to object file mappings.  The format of the file is
           similar to the output of the program "nm".

                   c-parse.o:00000000 T yyparse
                   c-parse.o:00000004 C yyerrflag
                   c-lang.o:00000000 T maybe_objc_method_name
                   c-lang.o:00000000 T print_lang_statistics
                   c-lang.o:00000000 T recognize_objc_keyword
                   c-decl.o:00000000 T print_lang_identifier
                   c-decl.o:00000000 T print_lang_type
                   ...

           To create a map_file with GNU "nm", type a command like "nm
           --extern-only --defined-only -v --print-file-name program-name".

       "-T"
       "--traditional"
           The -T option causes "gprof" to print its output in "traditional"
           BSD style.

       "-w width"
       "--width=width"
           Sets width of output lines to width.  Currently only used when
           printing the function index at the bottom of the call graph.

       "-x"
       "--all-lines"
           This option affects annotated source output only.  By default,
           only the lines at the beginning of a basic-block are annotated.
           If this option is specified, every line in a basic-block is
           annotated by repeating the annotation for the first line.  This
           behavior is similar to "tcov"'s -a.

       "--demangle[=style]"
       "--no-demangle"
           These options control whether C++ symbol names should be
           demangled when printing output.  The default is to demangle
           symbols.  The "--no-demangle" option may be used to turn off
           demangling. Different compilers have different mangling styles.
           The optional demangling style argument can be used to choose an
           appropriate demangling style for your compiler.

   Analysis Options
       "-a"
       "--no-static"
           The -a option causes "gprof" to suppress the printing of
           statically declared (private) functions.  (These are functions
           whose names are not listed as global, and which are not visible
           outside the file/function/block where they were defined.)  Time
           spent in these functions, calls to/from them, etc., will all be
           attributed to the function that was loaded directly before it in
           the executable file.  This option affects both the flat profile
           and the call graph.

       "-c"
       "--static-call-graph"
           The -c option causes the call graph of the program to be
           augmented by a heuristic which examines the text space of the
           object file and identifies function calls in the binary machine
           code.  Since normal call graph records are only generated when
           functions are entered, this option identifies children that could
           have been called, but never were.  Calls to functions that were
           not compiled with profiling enabled are also identified, but only
           if symbol table entries are present for them.  Calls to dynamic
           library routines are typically not found by this option.  Parents
           or children identified via this heuristic are indicated in the
           call graph with call counts of 0.

       "-D"
       "--ignore-non-functions"
           The -D option causes "gprof" to ignore symbols which are not
           known to be functions.  This option will give more accurate
           profile data on systems where it is supported (Solaris and HPUX
           for example).

       "-k from/to"
           The -k option allows you to delete from the call graph any arcs
           from symbols matching symspec from to those matching symspec to.

       "-l"
       "--line"
           The -l option enables line-by-line profiling, which causes
           histogram hits to be charged to individual source code lines,
           instead of functions.  This feature only works with programs
           compiled by older versions of the "gcc" compiler.  Newer versions
           of "gcc" are designed to work with the "gcov" tool instead.

           If the program was compiled with basic-block counting enabled,
           this option will also identify how many times each line of code
           was executed.  While line-by-line profiling can help isolate
           where in a large function a program is spending its time, it also
           significantly increases the running time of "gprof", and
           magnifies statistical inaccuracies.

       "--inline-file-names"
           This option causes "gprof" to print the source file after each
           symbol in both the flat profile and the call graph. The full path
           to the file is printed if used with the -L option.

       "-m num"
       "--min-count=num"
           This option affects execution count output only.  Symbols that
           are executed less than num times are suppressed.

       "-nsymspec"
       "--time=symspec"
           The -n option causes "gprof", in its call graph analysis, to only
           propagate times for symbols matching symspec.

       "-Nsymspec"
       "--no-time=symspec"
           The -n option causes "gprof", in its call graph analysis, not to
           propagate times for symbols matching symspec.

       "-Sfilename"
       "--external-symbol-table=filename"
           The -S option causes "gprof" to read an external symbol table
           file, such as /proc/kallsyms, rather than read the symbol table
           from the given object file (the default is "a.out"). This is
           useful for profiling kernel modules.

       "-z"
       "--display-unused-functions"
           If you give the -z option, "gprof" will mention all functions in
           the flat profile, even those that were never called, and that had
           no time spent in them.  This is useful in conjunction with the -c
           option for discovering which routines were never called.

   Miscellaneous Options
       "-d[num]"
       "--debug[=num]"
           The -d num option specifies debugging options.  If num is not
           specified, enable all debugging.

       "-h"
       "--help"
           The -h option prints command line usage.

       "-Oname"
       "--file-format=name"
           Selects the format of the profile data files.  Recognized formats
           are auto (the default), bsd, 4.4bsd, magic, and prof (not yet
           supported).

       "-s"
       "--sum"
           The -s option causes "gprof" to summarize the information in the
           profile data files it read in, and write out a profile data file
           called gmon.sum, which contains all the information from the
           profile data files that "gprof" read in.  The file gmon.sum may
           be one of the specified input files; the effect of this is to
           merge the data in the other input files into gmon.sum.

           Eventually you can run "gprof" again without -s to analyze the
           cumulative data in the file gmon.sum.

       "-v"
       "--version"
           The -v flag causes "gprof" to print the current version number,
           and then exit.

   Deprecated Options
       These options have been replaced with newer versions that use
       symspecs.

       "-e function_name"
           The -e function option tells "gprof" to not print information
           about the function function_name (and its children...) in the
           call graph.  The function will still be listed as a child of any
           functions that call it, but its index number will be shown as
           [not printed].  More than one -e option may be given; only one
           function_name may be indicated with each -e option.

       "-E function_name"
           The "-E function" option works like the "-e" option, but time
           spent in the function (and children who were not called from
           anywhere else), will not be used to compute the percentages-of-
           time for the call graph.  More than one -E option may be given;
           only one function_name may be indicated with each -E option.

       "-f function_name"
           The -f function option causes "gprof" to limit the call graph to
           the function function_name and its children (and their
           children...).  More than one -f option may be given; only one
           function_name may be indicated with each -f option.

       "-F function_name"
           The -F function option works like the "-f" option, but only time
           spent in the function and its children (and their children...)
           will be used to determine total-time and percentages-of-time for
           the call graph.  More than one -F option may be given; only one
           function_name may be indicated with each -F option.  The -F
           option overrides the -E option.

FILES         top

       "a.out"
           the namelist and text space.

       "gmon.out"
           dynamic call graph and profile.

       "gmon.sum"
           summarized dynamic call graph and profile.

BUGS         top

       The granularity of the sampling is shown, but remains statistical at
       best.  We assume that the time for each execution of a function can
       be expressed by the total time for the function divided by the number
       of times the function is called.  Thus the time propagated along the
       call graph arcs to the function's parents is directly proportional to
       the number of times that arc is traversed.

       Parents that are not themselves profiled will have the time of their
       profiled children propagated to them, but they will appear to be
       spontaneously invoked in the call graph listing, and will not have
       their time propagated further.  Similarly, signal catchers, even
       though profiled, will appear to be spontaneous (although for more
       obscure reasons).  Any profiled children of signal catchers should
       have their times propagated properly, unless the signal catcher was
       invoked during the execution of the profiling routine, in which case
       all is lost.

       The profiled program must call "exit"(2) or return normally for the
       profiling information to be saved in the gmon.out file.

SEE ALSO         top

       monitor(3), profil(2), cc(1), prof(1), and the Info entry for gprof.

       "An Execution Profiler for Modular Programs", by S. Graham, P.
       Kessler, M. McKusick; Software - Practice and Experience, Vol. 13,
       pp. 671-685, 1983.

       "gprof: A Call Graph Execution Profiler", by S. Graham, P. Kessler,
       M. McKusick; Proceedings of the SIGPLAN '82 Symposium on Compiler
       Construction, SIGPLAN Notices, Vol. 17, No  6, pp. 120-126, June
       1982.

COPYRIGHT         top

       Copyright (c) 1988-2016 Free Software Foundation, Inc.

       Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document
       under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.3 or
       any later version published by the Free Software Foundation; with no
       Invariant Sections, with no Front-Cover Texts, and with no Back-Cover
       Texts.  A copy of the license is included in the section entitled
       "GNU Free Documentation License".

COLOPHON         top

       This page is part of the binutils (a collection of tools for working
       with executable binaries) project.  Information about the project can
       be found at ⟨http://www.gnu.org/software/binutils/⟩.  If you have a
       bug report for this manual page, see 
       ⟨http://sourceware.org/bugzilla/enter_bug.cgi?product=binutils⟩.  This
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       ⟨git://sourceware.org/git/binutils-gdb.git⟩ on 2016-07-16.  If you
       discover any rendering problems in this HTML version of the page, or
       you believe there is a better or more up-to-date source for the page,
       or you have corrections or improvements to the information in this
       COLOPHON (which is not part of the original manual page), send a mail
       to man-pages@man7.org

binutils-2.26.51                 2016-07-16                         GPROF(1)