An option is breaking, when the program just writes the information
that was asked for and then stops. All other arguments will be
ignored by that. The breaking options are here
-h | --help
Print help information with a short explanation of options to
-v | --version
Print version information to standard output.
So far, there are only filespec and breaking options.
filespec arguments are file names or the minus sign - for standard
input. As usual, the argument -- can be used in order to let all
following arguments mean file names, even if the names begin with a
minus character -.
Pinyin parts in groff files are enclosed by two .pinyin requests with
different arguments. The starting request is
and the ending request is
Pinyin is used for writing the Chinese language in a European-like
(romanization) way. The Chinese language consists of more than 400
syllables, each with one of 5 different tones. In Pinyin, such toned
syllables can be appended to word-like connections.
The Chinese language is based on about 411 defined syllables, see
In Pinyin, each syllable consists of 1 to 6 European-like letters,
the normal ASCII characters in upper and lower case, the only unusual
characters are the U dieresis (umlaut) in both cases, i.e. [a-zA-ZüÜ].
In the groff gpinyin input, all ASCII letters are written as usual.
But the u/U dieresis can be written as either as \['u] or ue in lower
case or \['U], Ue, UE in upper case.
Each syllable has exactly one of 5 defined tones. The 5th tone is
not written at all, but each tone 1 to 4 is written as an accent
above a defined vowel within the syllable.
In the source file, these tones are written by adding a number 0 to 5
after the syllable name.
In each writing, the tone numbers 1 to 4 are transformed into accents
The 1st tone is the horizontal macron \[a-] ¯ , similar to a minus or
sub character, but on top of the vowel. In each source file, write
the 1st tone as syllable1.
The 2nd tone is the accute accent \[aa] ´. In each source file,
write the 2nd tone as syllable2.
The 3rd tone is the caron sign, \[ah] ˇ , which looks a bit like a
small v above the vowel. In each source file, write the 3rd tone as
The 4th tone is the grave accent \[ga] `. In each source file, write
the 4th tone as syllable4.
The 5th tone is the no-tone. The numbers 0 and 5 can be used for the
(no-tone). The no-tone number can be omitted, when the syllable is
the end of some word. But within a word of syllables, one of the no-tone numbers 0 or 5 must be written.
This page is part of the groff (GNU troff) project. Information
about the project can be found at
⟨http://www.gnu.org/software/groff/⟩. If you have a bug report for
this manual page, see ⟨http://www.gnu.org/software/groff/⟩. This
page was obtained from the tarball groff-1.22.3.tar.gz fetched from
⟨ftp://ftp.gnu.org/gnu/groff/⟩ on 2017-04-25. If you discover any
rendering problems in this HTML version of the page, or you believe
there is a better or more up-to-date source for the page, or you have
corrections or improvements to the information in this COLOPHON
(which is not part of the original manual page), send a mail to
Groff Version 1.22.3 4 November 2014 GPINYIN(1)