NAME | SYNOPSIS | DESCRIPTION | OPTIONS | CAVEATS | CONFIGURATION | FILES | SEE ALSO | COLOPHON

GPASSWD(1)                      User Commands                     GPASSWD(1)

NAME         top

       gpasswd - administer /etc/group and /etc/gshadow

SYNOPSIS         top

       gpasswd [option] group

DESCRIPTION         top

       The gpasswd command is used to administer /etc/group, and
       /etc/gshadow. Every group can have administrators, members and a
       password.

       System administrators can use the -A option to define group
       administrator(s) and the -M option to define members. They have all
       rights of group administrators and members.

       gpasswd called by a group administrator with a group name only
       prompts for the new password of the group.

       If a password is set the members can still use newgrp(1) without a
       password, and non-members must supply the password.

   Notes about group passwords
       Group passwords are an inherent security problem since more than one
       person is permitted to know the password. However, groups are a
       useful tool for permitting co-operation between different users.

OPTIONS         top

       Except for the -A and -M options, the options cannot be combined.

       The options which apply to the gpasswd command are:

       -a, --add user
           Add the user to the named group.

       -d, --delete user
           Remove the user from the named group.

       -h, --help
           Display help message and exit.

       -Q, --root CHROOT_DIR
           Apply changes in the CHROOT_DIR directory and use the
           configuration files from the CHROOT_DIR directory.

       -r, --remove-password
           Remove the password from the named group. The group password will
           be empty. Only group members will be allowed to use newgrp to
           join the named group.

       -R, --restrict
           Restrict the access to the named group. The group password is set
           to "!". Only group members with a password will be allowed to use
           newgrp to join the named group.

       -A, --administrators user,...
           Set the list of administrative users.

       -M, --members user,...
           Set the list of group members.

CAVEATS         top

       This tool only operates on the /etc/groupand /etc/gshadow files.
       Thus you cannot change any NIS or LDAP group. This must be performed
       on the corresponding server.

CONFIGURATION         top

       The following configuration variables in /etc/login.defs change the
       behavior of this tool:

       ENCRYPT_METHOD (string)
           This defines the system default encryption algorithm for
           encrypting passwords (if no algorithm are specified on the
           command line).

           It can take one of these values: DES (default), MD5, SHA256,
           SHA512.

           Note: this parameter overrides the MD5_CRYPT_ENAB variable.

           Note: This only affect the generation of group passwords. The
           generation of user passwords is done by PAM and subject to the
           PAM configuration. It is recommended to set this variable
           consistently with the PAM configuration.

       MAX_MEMBERS_PER_GROUP (number)
           Maximum members per group entry. When the maximum is reached, a
           new group entry (line) is started in /etc/group (with the same
           name, same password, and same GID).

           The default value is 0, meaning that there are no limits in the
           number of members in a group.

           This feature (split group) permits to limit the length of lines
           in the group file. This is useful to make sure that lines for NIS
           groups are not larger than 1024 characters.

           If you need to enforce such limit, you can use 25.

           Note: split groups may not be supported by all tools (even in the
           Shadow toolsuite). You should not use this variable unless you
           really need it.

       MD5_CRYPT_ENAB (boolean)
           Indicate if passwords must be encrypted using the MD5-based
           algorithm. If set to yes, new passwords will be encrypted using
           the MD5-based algorithm compatible with the one used by recent
           releases of FreeBSD. It supports passwords of unlimited length
           and longer salt strings. Set to no if you need to copy encrypted
           passwords to other systems which don't understand the new
           algorithm. Default is no.

           This variable is superseded by the ENCRYPT_METHOD variable or by
           any command line option used to configure the encryption
           algorithm.

           This variable is deprecated. You should use ENCRYPT_METHOD.

           Note: This only affect the generation of group passwords. The
           generation of user passwords is done by PAM and subject to the
           PAM configuration. It is recommended to set this variable
           consistently with the PAM configuration.

       SHA_CRYPT_MIN_ROUNDS (number), SHA_CRYPT_MAX_ROUNDS (number)
           When ENCRYPT_METHOD is set to SHA256 or SHA512, this defines the
           number of SHA rounds used by the encryption algorithm by default
           (when the number of rounds is not specified on the command line).

           With a lot of rounds, it is more difficult to brute forcing the
           password. But note also that more CPU resources will be needed to
           authenticate users.

           If not specified, the libc will choose the default number of
           rounds (5000).

           The values must be inside the 1000-999,999,999 range.

           If only one of the SHA_CRYPT_MIN_ROUNDS or SHA_CRYPT_MAX_ROUNDS
           values is set, then this value will be used.

           If SHA_CRYPT_MIN_ROUNDS > SHA_CRYPT_MAX_ROUNDS, the highest value
           will be used.

           Note: This only affect the generation of group passwords. The
           generation of user passwords is done by PAM and subject to the
           PAM configuration. It is recommended to set this variable
           consistently with the PAM configuration.

FILES         top

       /etc/group
           Group account information.

       /etc/gshadow
           Secure group account information.

SEE ALSO         top

       newgrp(1), groupadd(8), groupdel(8), groupmod(8), grpck(8), group(5),
       gshadow(5).

COLOPHON         top

       This page is part of the shadow-utils (utilities for managing
       accounts and shadow password files) project.  Information about the
       project can be found at ⟨http://pkg-shadow.alioth.debian.org/⟩.  If
       you have a bug report for this manual page, see 
       ⟨http://pkg-shadow.alioth.debian.org/getinvolved.php⟩.  This page was
       obtained from the project's upstream Git repository 
       ⟨git://anonscm.debian.org/git/pkg-shadow/shadow.git⟩ on 2017-03-13.
       If you discover any rendering problems in this HTML version of the
       page, or you believe there is a better or more up-to-date source for
       the page, or you have corrections or improvements to the information
       in this COLOPHON (which is not part of the original manual page),
       send a mail to man-pages@man7.org

shadow-utils 4.4                 02/18/2017                       GPASSWD(1)