PROLOG | NAME | SYNOPSIS | DESCRIPTION | OPTIONS | OPERANDS | STDIN | INPUT FILES | ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES | ASYNCHRONOUS EVENTS | STDOUT | STDERR | OUTPUT FILES | EXTENDED DESCRIPTION | EXIT STATUS | CONSEQUENCES OF ERRORS | APPLICATION USAGE | EXAMPLES | RATIONALE | FUTURE DIRECTIONS | SEE ALSO | COPYRIGHT

GET(1P)                   POSIX Programmer's Manual                  GET(1P)

PROLOG         top

       This manual page is part of the POSIX Programmer's Manual.  The Linux
       implementation of this interface may differ (consult the
       corresponding Linux manual page for details of Linux behavior), or
       the interface may not be implemented on Linux.

NAME         top

       get — get a version of an SCCS file (DEVELOPMENT)

SYNOPSIS         top

       get [−begkmnlLpst] [−c cutoff] [−i list] [−r SID] [−x list] file...

DESCRIPTION         top

       The get utility shall generate a text file from each named SCCS file
       according to the specifications given by its options.

       The generated text shall normally be written into a file called the
       g-file whose name is derived from the SCCS filename by simply
       removing the leading "s.".

OPTIONS         top

       The get utility shall conform to the Base Definitions volume of
       POSIX.1‐2008, Section 12.2, Utility Syntax Guidelines.

       The following options shall be supported:

       −r SID    Indicate the SCCS Identification String (SID) of the
                 version (delta) of an SCCS file to be retrieved. The table
                 shows, for the most useful cases, what version of an SCCS
                 file is retrieved (as well as the SID of the version to be
                 eventually created by delta if the −e option is also used),
                 as a function of the SID specified.

       −c cutoff Indicate the cutoff date-time, in the form:

                     YY[MM[DD[HH[MM[SS]]]]]

                 For the YY component, values in the range [69,99] shall
                 refer to years 1969 to 1999 inclusive, and values in the
                 range [00,68] shall refer to years 2000 to 2068 inclusive.

                 Note:     It is expected that in a future version of this
                           standard the default century inferred from a
                           2-digit year will change. (This would apply to
                           all commands accepting a 2-digit year as input.)

                 No changes (deltas) to the SCCS file that were created
                 after the specified cutoff date-time shall be included in
                 the generated text file. Units omitted from the date-time
                 default to their maximum possible values; for example, −c
                 7502 is equivalent to −c 750228235959.

                 Any number of non-numeric characters may separate the
                 various 2-digit pieces of the cutoff date-time. This
                 feature allows the user to specify a cutoff date in the
                 form: −c "77/2/2 9:22:25".

       −e        Indicate that the get is for the purpose of editing or
                 making a change (delta) to the SCCS file via a subsequent
                 use of delta.  The −e option used in a get for a particular
                 version (SID) of the SCCS file shall prevent further get
                 commands from editing on the same SID until delta is
                 executed or the j (joint edit) flag is set in the SCCS
                 file. Concurrent use of get −e for different SIDs is always
                 allowed.

                 If the g-file generated by get with a −e option is
                 accidentally ruined in the process of editing, it may be
                 regenerated by re-executing the get command with the −k
                 option in place of the −e option.

                 SCCS file protection specified via the ceiling, floor, and
                 authorized user list stored in the SCCS file shall be
                 enforced when the −e option is used.

       −b        Use with the −e option to indicate that the new delta
                 should have an SID in a new branch as shown in the table
                 below. This option shall be ignored if the b flag is not
                 present in the file or if the retrieved delta is not a leaf
                 delta. (A leaf delta is one that has no successors on the
                 SCCS file tree.)

                 Note:     A branch delta may always be created from a non-
                           leaf delta.

       −i list   Indicate a list of deltas to be included (forced to be
                 applied) in the creation of the generated file. The list
                 has the following syntax:

                     <list> ::= <range> | <list> , <range>
                     <range> ::= SID | SID − SID

                 SID, the SCCS Identification of a delta, may be in any form
                 shown in the ``SID Specified'' column of the table in the
                 EXTENDED DESCRIPTION section, except that the result of
                 supplying a partial SID is unspecified. A diagnostic
                 message shall be written if the first SID in the range is
                 not an ancestor of the second SID in the range.

       −x list   Indicate a list of deltas to be excluded (forced not to be
                 applied) in the creation of the generated file. See the −i
                 option for the list format.

       −k        Suppress replacement of identification keywords (see below)
                 in the retrieved text by their value. The −k option shall
                 be implied by the −e option.

       −l        Write a delta summary into an l-file.

       −L        Write a delta summary to standard output. All informative
                 output that normally is written to standard output shall be
                 written to standard error instead, unless the −s option is
                 used, in which case it shall be suppressed.

       −p        Write the text retrieved from the SCCS file to the standard
                 output. No g-file shall be created. All informative output
                 that normally goes to the standard output shall go to
                 standard error instead, unless the −s option is used, in
                 which case it shall disappear.

       −s        Suppress all informative output normally written to
                 standard output.  However, fatal error messages (which
                 shall always be written to the standard error) shall remain
                 unaffected.

       −m        Precede each text line retrieved from the SCCS file by the
                 SID of the delta that inserted the text line in the SCCS
                 file. The format shall be:

                     "%s\t%s", <SID>, <text line>

       −n        Precede each generated text line with the %M%
                 identification keyword value (see below). The format shall
                 be:

                     "%s\t%s", <%M% value>, <text line>

                 When both the −m and −n options are used, the <text line>
                 shall be replaced by the −m option-generated format.

       −g        Suppress the actual retrieval of text from the SCCS file.
                 It is primarily used to generate an l-file, or to verify
                 the existence of a particular SID.

       −t        Use to access the most recently created (top) delta in a
                 given release (for example, −r 1), or release and level
                 (for example, −r 1.2).

OPERANDS         top

       The following operands shall be supported:

       file      A pathname of an existing SCCS file or a directory. If file
                 is a directory, the get utility shall behave as though each
                 file in the directory were specified as a named file,
                 except that non-SCCS files (last component of the pathname
                 does not begin with s.)  and unreadable files shall be
                 silently ignored.

                 If exactly one file operand appears, and it is '−', the
                 standard input shall be read; each line of the standard
                 input is taken to be the name of an SCCS file to be
                 processed. Non-SCCS files and unreadable files shall be
                 silently ignored.

STDIN         top

       The standard input shall be a text file used only if the file operand
       is specified as '−'.  Each line of the text file shall be interpreted
       as an SCCS pathname.

INPUT FILES         top

       The SCCS files shall be files of an unspecified format.

ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES         top

       The following environment variables shall affect the execution of
       get:

       LANG      Provide a default value for the internationalization
                 variables that are unset or null. (See the Base Definitions
                 volume of POSIX.1‐2008, Section 8.2, Internationalization
                 Variables for the precedence of internationalization
                 variables used to determine the values of locale
                 categories.)

       LC_ALL    If set to a non-empty string value, override the values of
                 all the other internationalization variables.

       LC_CTYPE  Determine the locale for the interpretation of sequences of
                 bytes of text data as characters (for example, single-byte
                 as opposed to multi-byte characters in arguments and input
                 files).

       LC_MESSAGES
                 Determine the locale that should be used to affect the
                 format and contents of diagnostic messages written to
                 standard error, and informative messages written to
                 standard output (or standard error, if the −p option is
                 used).

       NLSPATH   Determine the location of message catalogs for the
                 processing of LC_MESSAGES.

       TZ        Determine the timezone in which the times and dates written
                 in the SCCS file are evaluated. If the TZ variable is unset
                 or NULL, an unspecified system default timezone is used.

ASYNCHRONOUS EVENTS         top

       Default.

STDOUT         top

       For each file processed, get shall write to standard output the SID
       being accessed and the number of lines retrieved from the SCCS file,
       in the following format:

           "%s\n%d lines\n", <SID>, <number of lines>

       If the −e option is used, the SID of the delta to be made shall
       appear after the SID accessed and before the number of lines
       generated, in the POSIX locale:

           "%s\nnew delta %s\n%d lines\n", <SID accessed>,
               <SID to be made>, <number of lines>

       If there is more than one named file or if a directory or standard
       input is named, each pathname shall be written before each of the
       lines shown in one of the preceding formats:

           "\n%s:\n", <pathname>

       If the −L option is used, a delta summary shall be written following
       the format specified below for l-files.

       If the −i option is used, included deltas shall be listed following
       the notation, in the POSIX locale:

           "Included:\n"

       If the −x option is used, excluded deltas shall be listed following
       the notation, in the POSIX locale:

           "Excluded:\n"

       If the −p or −L options are specified, the standard output shall
       consist of the text retrieved from the SCCS file.

STDERR         top

       The standard error shall be used only for diagnostic messages, except
       if the −p or −L options are specified, it shall include all
       informative messages normally sent to standard output.

OUTPUT FILES         top

       Several auxiliary files may be created by get.  These files are known
       generically as the g-file, l-file, p-file, and z-file.  The letter
       before the <hyphen> is called the tag.  An auxiliary filename shall
       be formed from the SCCS filename: the application shall ensure that
       the last component of all SCCS filenames is of the form s.module-
       name; the auxiliary files shall be named by replacing the leading s
       with the tag. The g-file shall be an exception to this scheme: the g-
       file is named by removing the s.  prefix. For example, for s.xyz.c,
       the auxiliary filenames would be xyz.c, l.xyz.c, p.xyz.c, and
       z.xyz.c, respectively.

       The g-file, which contains the generated text, shall be created in
       the current directory (unless the −p option is used). A g-file shall
       be created in all cases, whether or not any lines of text were
       generated by the get.  It shall be owned by the real user. If the −k
       option is used or implied, the g-file shall be writable by the owner
       only (read-only for everyone else); otherwise, it shall be read-only.
       Only the real user need have write permission in the current
       directory.

       The l-file shall contain a table showing which deltas were applied in
       generating the retrieved text. The l-file shall be created in the
       current directory if the −l option is used; it shall be read-only and
       it is owned by the real user.  Only the real user need have write
       permission in the current directory.

       Lines in the l-file shall have the following format:

           "%c%c%c %s\t%s %s\n", <code1>, <code2>, <code3>,
               <SID>, <date-time>, <login>

       where the entries are:

       <code1>   A <space> if the delta was applied; '*' otherwise.

       <code2>   A <space> if the delta was applied or was not applied and
                 ignored; '*' if the delta was not applied and was not
                 ignored.

       <code3>   A character indicating a special reason why the delta was
                 or was not applied:

                 I     Included.

                 X     Excluded.

                 C     Cut off (by a −c option).

       <date-time>
                 Date and time (using the format of the date utility's
                 %y/%m/%d %T conversion specification format) of creation.

       <login>   Login name of person who created delta.

       The comments and MR data shall follow on subsequent lines, indented
       one <tab>.  A blank line shall terminate each entry.

       The p-file shall be used to pass information resulting from a get
       with a −e option along to delta.  Its contents shall also be used to
       prevent a subsequent execution of get with a −e option for the same
       SID until delta is executed or the joint edit flag, j, is set in the
       SCCS file. The p-file shall be created in the directory containing
       the SCCS file and the application shall ensure that the effective
       user has write permission in that directory. It shall be writable by
       owner only, and owned by the effective user. Each line in the p-file
       shall have the following format:

           "%s %s %s %s%s%s\n", <g-file SID>,
               <SID of new delta>, <login-name of real user>,
               <date-time>, <i-value>, <x-value>

       where <i‐value> uses the format "" if no −i option was specified, and
       shall use the format:

           " −i%s", <−i option option-argument>

       if a −i option was specified and <x‐value> uses the format "" if no
       −x option was specified, and shall use the format:

           " −x%s", <−x option option-argument>

       if a −x option was specified. There can be an arbitrary number of
       lines in the p-file at any time; no two lines shall have the same new
       delta SID.

       The z-file shall serve as a lock-out mechanism against simultaneous
       updates. Its contents shall be the binary process ID of the command
       (that is, get) that created it. The z-file shall be created in the
       directory containing the SCCS file for the duration of get.  The same
       protection restrictions as those for the p-file shall apply for the
       z-file.  The z-file shall be created read-only.

EXTENDED DESCRIPTION         top

   ┌────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────┐
   │                Determination of SCCS Identification String                 │
   ├────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────┤
   │  SID*      −b Keyletter          Other             SID       SID of Delta  │
   │Specified      Used†           Conditions        Retrieved   to be Created  │
   ├────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────┤
   │none‡            no        R defaults to mR      mR.mL       mR.(mL+1)      │
   ├────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────┤
   │none‡           yes        R defaults to mR      mR.mL       mR.mL.(mB+1).1 │
   ├────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────┤
   │R                no        R > mR                mR.mL       R.1***         │
   ├────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────┤
   │R                no        R = mR                mR.mL       mR.(mL+1)      │
   ├────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────┤
   │R               yes        R > mR                mR.mL       mR.mL.(mB+1).1 │
   ├────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────┤
   │R               yes        R = mR                mR.mL       mR.mL.(mB+1).1 │
   ├────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────┤
   │R                −         R < mR and R does     hR.mL**     hR.mL.(mB+1).1 │
   │                           not exist                                        │
   ├────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────┤
   │R                −         Trunk successor in    R.mL        R.mL.(mB+1).1  │
   │                           release > R and R                                │
   │                           exists                                           │
   ├────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────┤
   │R.L              no        No trunk successor    R.L         R.(L+1)        │
   ├────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────┤
   │R.L             yes        No trunk successor    R.L         R.L.(mB+1).1   │
   ├────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────┤
   │R.L              −         Trunk successor in    R.L         R.L.(mB+1).1   │
   │                           release ≥ R                                      │
   ├────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────┤
   │R.L.B            no        No branch successor   R.L.B.mS    R.L.B.(mS+1)   │
   ├────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────┤
   │R.L.B           yes        No branch successor   R.L.B.mS    R.L.(mB+1).1   │
   ├────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────┤
   │R.L.B.S          no        No branch successor   R.L.B.S     R.L.B.(S+1)    │
   ├────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────┤
   │R.L.B.S         yes        No branch successor   R.L.B.S     R.L.(mB+1).1   │
   ├────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────┤
   │R.L.B.S          −         Branch successor      R.L.B.S     R.L.(mB+1).1   │
   └────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────┘
       *       R, L, B, and S are the release, level, branch, and sequence
               components of the SID, respectively; m means maximum. Thus,
               for example, R.mL means ``the maximum level number within
               release R''; R.L.(mB+1).1 means ``the first sequence number
               on the new branch (that is, maximum branch number plus one)
               of level L within release R''. Note that if the SID specified
               is of the form R.L, R.L.B, or R.L.B.S, each of the specified
               components shall exist.

       **      hR is the highest existing release that is lower than the
               specified, nonexistent, release R.

       ***     This is used to force creation of the first delta in a new
               release.

       †       The −b option is effective only if the b flag is present in
               the file. An entry of '−' means ``irrelevant''.

       ‡       This case applies if the d (default SID) flag is not present
               in the file. If the d flag is present in the file, then the
               SID obtained from the d flag is interpreted as if it had been
               specified on the command line.  Thus, one of the other cases
               in this table applies.

   System Date and Time
       When a g-file is generated, the creation time of deltas in the SCCS
       file may be taken into account. If any of these times are apparently
       in the future, the behavior is unspecified.

   Identification Keywords
       Identifying information shall be inserted into the text retrieved
       from the SCCS file by replacing identification keywords with their
       value wherever they occur. The following keywords may be used in the
       text stored in an SCCS file:

       %M%       Module name: either the value of the m flag in the file, or
                 if absent, the name of the SCCS file with the leading s.
                 removed.

       %I%       SCCS identification (SID) (%R%.%L% or %R%.%L%.%B%.%S%) of
                 the retrieved text.

       %R%       Release.

       %L%       Level.

       %B%       Branch.

       %S%       Sequence.

       %D%       Current date (YY/MM/DD).

       %H%       Current date (MM/DD/YY).

       %T%       Current time (HH:MM:SS).

       %E%       Date newest applied delta was created (YY/MM/DD).

       %G%       Date newest applied delta was created (MM/DD/YY).

       %U%       Time newest applied delta was created (HH:MM:SS).

       %Y%       Module type: value of the t flag in the SCCS file.

       %F%       SCCS filename.

       %P%       SCCS absolute pathname.

       %Q%       The value of the q flag in the file.

       %C%       Current line number. This keyword is intended for
                 identifying messages output by the program, such as ``this
                 should not have happened'' type errors. It is not intended
                 to be used on every line to provide sequence numbers.

       %Z%       The four-character string "@(#)" recognizable by what.

       %W%       A shorthand notation for constructing what strings:

                     %W%=%Z%%M%<tab>%I%

       %A%       Another shorthand notation for constructing what strings:

                     %A%=%Z%%Y%%M%%I%%Z%

EXIT STATUS         top

       The following exit values shall be returned:

        0    Successful completion.

       >0    An error occurred.

CONSEQUENCES OF ERRORS         top

       Default.

       The following sections are informative.

APPLICATION USAGE         top

       Problems can arise if the system date and time have been modified
       (for example, put forward and then back again, or unsynchronized
       clocks across a network) and can also arise when different values of
       the TZ environment variable are used.

       Problems of a similar nature can also arise for the operation of the
       delta utility, which compares the previous file body against the
       working file as part of its normal operation.

EXAMPLES         top

       None.

RATIONALE         top

       None.

FUTURE DIRECTIONS         top

       None.

SEE ALSO         top

       admin(1p), delta(1p), prs(1p), what(1p)

       The Base Definitions volume of POSIX.1‐2008, Chapter 8, Environment
       Variables, Section 12.2, Utility Syntax Guidelines

COPYRIGHT         top

       Portions of this text are reprinted and reproduced in electronic form
       from IEEE Std 1003.1, 2013 Edition, Standard for Information
       Technology -- Portable Operating System Interface (POSIX), The Open
       Group Base Specifications Issue 7, Copyright (C) 2013 by the
       Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc and The Open
       Group.  (This is POSIX.1-2008 with the 2013 Technical Corrigendum 1
       applied.) In the event of any discrepancy between this version and
       the original IEEE and The Open Group Standard, the original IEEE and
       The Open Group Standard is the referee document. The original
       Standard can be obtained online at http://www.unix.org/online.html .

       Any typographical or formatting errors that appear in this page are
       most likely to have been introduced during the conversion of the
       source files to man page format. To report such errors, see
       https://www.kernel.org/doc/man-pages/reporting_bugs.html .

IEEE/The Open Group                 2013                             GET(1P)