Detailed Table of Contents for The Linux Programming Interface

(Look here for the abbreviated table of contents, or here for a PDF version of the table of contents with page numbers.)

PREFACE

1   HISTORY AND STANDARDS

1.1   A Brief History of UNIX and C

1.2   A Brief History of Linux

1.2.1   The GNU Project

1.2.2   The Linux Kernel

1.3   Standardization

1.3.1   The C Programming Language

1.3.2   The First POSIX Standards

1.3.3   X/Open Company and The Open Group

1.3.4   SUSv3 and POSIX.1-2001

1.3.5   SUSv4 and POSIX.1-2008

1.3.6   UNIX Standards Timeline

1.3.7   Implementation Standards

1.3.8   Linux, Standards, and the Linux Standard Base

1.4   Summary

2   FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPTS

2.1   The Core Operating System: The Kernel

2.2   The Shell

2.3   Users and Groups

2.4   Single Directory Hierarchy, Directories, Links, and Files

2.5   File I/O Model

2.6   Programs

2.7   Processes

2.8   Memory Mappings

2.9   Static and Shared Libraries

2.10   Interprocess Communication and Synchronization

2.11   Signals

2.12   Threads

2.13   Process Groups and Shell Job Control

2.14   Sessions, Controlling Terminals, and Controlling Processes

2.15   Pseudoterminals

2.16   Date and Time

2.17   Client-Server Architecture

2.18   Realtime

2.19   The /proc File System

2.20   Summary

3   SYSTEM PROGRAMMING CONCEPTS

3.1   System Calls

3.2   Library Functions

3.3   The Standard C Library; The GNU C Library (glibc)

3.4   Handling Errors from System Calls and Library Functions

3.5   Notes on the Example Programs in This Book

3.5.1   Command-Line Options and Arguments

3.5.2   Common Functions and Header Files

3.6   Portability Issues

3.6.1   Feature Test Macros

3.6.2   System Data Types

3.6.3   Miscellaneous Portability Issues

3.7   Summary

3.8   Exercise

4   FILE I/O: THE UNIVERSAL I/O MODEL

4.1   Overview

4.2   Universality of I/O

4.3   Opening a File: open()

4.3.1   The open() flags Argument

4.3.2   Errors from open()

4.3.3   The creat() System Call

4.4   Reading from a File: read()

4.5   Writing to a File: write()

4.6   Closing a File: close()

4.7   Changing the File Offset: lseek()

4.8   Operations Outside the Universal I/O Model: ioctl()

4.9   Summary

4.10   Exercises

5   FILE I/O: FURTHER DETAILS

5.1   Atomicity and Race Conditions

5.2   File Control Operations: fcntl()

5.3   Open File Status Flags

5.4   Relationship Between File Descriptors and Open Files

5.5   Duplicating File Descriptors

5.6   File I/O at a Specified Offset: pread() and pwrite()

5.7   Scatter-Gather I/O: readv() and writev()

5.8   Truncating a File: truncate() and ftruncate()

5.9   Nonblocking I/O

5.10   I/O on Large Files

5.11   The /dev/fd Directory

5.12   Creating Temporary Files

5.13   Summary

5.14   Exercises

6   PROCESSES

6.1   Processes and Programs

6.2   Process ID and Parent Process ID

6.3   Memory Layout of a Process

6.4   Virtual Memory Management

6.5   The Stack and Stack Frames

6.6   Command-Line Arguments (argc, argv)

6.7   Environment List

6.8   Performing a Nonlocal Goto: setjmp() and longjmp()

6.9   Summary

6.10   Exercises

7   MEMORY ALLOCATION

7.1   Allocating Memory on the Heap

7.1.1   Adjusting the Program Break: brk() and sbrk()

7.1.2   Allocating Memory on the Heap: malloc() and free()

7.1.3   Implementation of malloc() and free()

7.1.4   Other Methods of Allocating Memory on the Heap

7.2   Allocating Memory on the Stack: alloca()

7.3   Summary

7.4   Exercises

8   USERS AND GROUPS

8.1   The Password File: /etc/passwd

8.2   The Shadow Password File: /etc/shadow

8.3   The Group File: /etc/group

8.4   Retrieving User and Group Information

8.5   Password Encryption and User Authentication

8.6   Summary

8.7   Exercises

9   PROCESS CREDENTIALS

9.1   Real User ID and Real Group ID

9.2   Effective User ID and Effective Group ID

9.3   Set-User-ID and Set-Group-ID Programs

9.4   Saved Set-User-ID and Saved Set-Group-ID

9.5   File-System User ID and File-System Group ID

9.6   Supplementary Group IDs

9.7   Retrieving and Modifying Process Credentials

9.7.1   Retrieving and Modifying Real, Effective, and Saved Set IDs

9.7.2   Retrieving and Modifying File-System IDs

9.7.3   Retrieving and Modifying Supplementary Group IDs

9.7.4   Summary of Calls for Modifying Process Credentials

9.7.5   Example: Displaying Process Credentials

9.8   Summary

9.9   Exercises

10   TIME

10.1   Calendar Time

10.2   Time-Conversion Functions

10.2.1   Converting time_t to Printable Form

10.2.2   Converting Between time_t and Broken-Down Time

10.2.3   Converting Between Broken-Down Time and Printable Form

10.3   Timezones

10.4   Locales

10.5   Updating the System Clock

10.6   The Software Clock (Jiffies)

10.7   Process Time

10.8   Summary

10.9   Exercise

11   SYSTEM LIMITS AND OPTIONS

11.1   System Limits

11.2   Retrieving System Limits (and Options) at Run Time

11.3   Retrieving File-Related Limits (and Options) at Run Time

11.4   Indeterminate Limits

11.5   System Options

11.6   Summary

11.7   Exercises

12   SYSTEM AND PROCESS INFORMATION

12.1   The /proc File System

12.1.1   Obtaining Information About a Process: /proc/PID

12.1.2   System Information Under /proc

12.1.3   Accessing /proc Files

12.2   System Identification: uname()

12.3   Summary

12.4   Exercises

13   FILE I/O BUFFERING

13.1   Kernel Buffering of File I/O: The Buffer Cache

13.2   Buffering in the stdio Library

13.3   Controlling Kernel Buffering of File I/O

13.4   Summary of I/O Buffering

13.5   Giving the Kernel Hints About I/O Patterns: posix_fadvise()

13.6   Bypassing the Buffer Cache: Direct I/O

13.7   Mixing Library Functions and System Calls for File I/O

13.8   Summary

13.9   Exercises

14   FILE SYSTEMS

14.1   Device Special Files (Devices)

14.2   Disks and Partitions

14.3   File Systems

14.4   I-nodes

14.5   The Virtual File System (VFS)

14.6   Journaling File Systems

14.7   Single Directory Hierarchy and Mount Points

14.8   Mounting and Unmounting File Systems

14.8.1   Mounting a File System: mount()

14.8.2   Unmounting a File System: umount() and umount2()

14.9   Advanced Mount Features

14.9.1   Mounting a File System at Multiple Mount Points

14.9.2   Stacking Multiple Mounts on the Same Mount Point

14.9.3   Mount Flags That Are Per-Mount Options

14.9.4   Bind Mounts

14.9.5   Recursive Bind Mounts

14.10   A Virtual Memory File System: tmpfs

14.11   Obtaining Information About a File System: statvfs()

14.12   Summary

14.13   Exercise

15   FILE ATTRIBUTES

15.1   Retrieving File Information: stat()

15.2   File Timestamps

15.2.1   Changing File Timestamps with utime() and utimes()

15.2.2   Changing File Timestamps with utimensat() and futimens()

15.3   File Ownership

15.3.1   Ownership of New Files

15.3.2   Changing File Ownership: chown(), fchown(), and lchown()

15.4   File Permissions

15.4.1   Permissions on Regular Files

15.4.2   Permissions on Directories

15.4.3   Permission-Checking Algorithm

15.4.4   Checking File Accessibility: access()

15.4.5   Set-User-ID, Set-Group-ID, and Sticky Bits

15.4.6   The Process File Mode Creation Mask: umask()

15.4.7   Changing File Permissions: chmod() and fchmod()

15.5   I-node Flags (ext2 Extended File Attributes)

15.6   Summary

15.7   Exercises

16   EXTENDED ATTRIBUTES

16.1   Overview

16.2   Extended Attribute Implementation Details

16.3   System Calls for Manipulating Extended Attributes

16.4   Summary

16.5   Exercise

17   ACCESS CONTROL LISTS

17.1   Overview

17.2   ACL Permission-Checking Algorithm

17.3   Long and Short Text Forms for ACLs

17.4   The ACL_MASK Entry and the ACL Group Class

17.5   The getfacl and setfacl Commands

17.6   Default ACLs and File Creation

17.7   ACL Implementation Limits

17.8   The ACL API

17.9   Summary

17.10   Exercise

18   DIRECTORIES AND LINKS

18.1   Directories and (Hard) Links

18.2   Symbolic (Soft) Links

18.3   Creating and Removing (Hard) Links: link() and unlink()

18.4   Changing the Name of a File: rename()

18.5   Working with Symbolic Links: symlink() and readlink()

18.6   Creating and Removing Directories: mkdir() and rmdir()

18.7   Removing a File or Directory: remove()

18.8   Reading Directories: opendir() and readdir()

18.9   File Tree Walking: nftw()

18.10   The Current Working Directory of a Process

18.11   Operating Relative to a Directory File Descriptor

18.12   Changing the Root Directory of a Process: chroot()

18.13   Resolving a Pathname: realpath()

18.14   Parsing Pathname Strings: dirname() and basename()

18.15   Summary

18.16   Exercises

19   MONITORING FILE EVENTS

19.1   Overview

19.2   The inotify API

19.3   inotify Events

19.4   Reading inotify Events

19.5   Queue Limits and /proc Files

19.6   An Older System for Monitoring File Events: dnotify

19.7   Summary

19.8   Exercise

20   SIGNALS: FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPTS

20.1   Concepts and Overview

20.2   Signal Types and Default Actions

20.3   Changing Signal Dispositions: signal()

20.4   Introduction to Signal Handlers

20.5   Sending Signals: kill()

20.6   Checking for the Existence of a Process

20.7   Other Ways of Sending Signals: raise() and killpg()

20.8   Displaying Signal Descriptions

20.9   Signal Sets

20.10   The Signal Mask (Blocking Signal Delivery)

20.11   Pending Signals

20.12   Signals Are Not Queued

20.13   Changing Signal Dispositions: sigaction()

20.14   Waiting for a Signal: pause()

20.15   Summary

20.16   Exercises

21   SIGNALS: SIGNAL HANDLERS

21.1   Designing Signal Handlers

21.1.1   Signals Are Not Queued (Revisited)

21.1.2   Reentrant and Async-Signal-Safe Functions

21.1.3   Global Variables and the sig_atomic_t Data Type

21.2   Other Methods of Terminating a Signal Handler

21.2.1   Performing a Nonlocal Goto from a Signal Handler

21.2.2   Terminating a Process Abnormally: abort()

21.3   Handling a Signal on an Alternate Stack: sigaltstack()

21.4   The SA_SIGINFO Flag

21.5   Interruption and Restarting of System Calls

21.6   Summary

21.7   Exercise

22   SIGNALS: ADVANCED FEATURES

22.1   Core Dump Files

22.2   Special Cases for Signal Delivery, Disposition, and Handling

22.3   Interruptible and Uninterruptible Process Sleep States

22.4   Hardware-Generated Signals

22.5   Synchronous and Asynchronous Signal Generation

22.6   Timing and Order of Signal Delivery

22.7   Implementation and Portability of signal()

22.8   Realtime Signals

22.8.1   Sending Realtime Signals

22.8.2   Handling Realtime Signals

22.9   Waiting for a Signal Using a Mask: sigsuspend()

22.10   Synchronously Waiting for a Signal

22.11   Fetching Signals via a File Descriptor

22.12   Interprocess Communication with Signals

22.13   Earlier Signal APIs (System V and BSD)

22.14   Summary

22.15   Exercises

23   TIMERS AND SLEEPING

23.1   Interval Timers

23.2   Scheduling and Accuracy of Timers

23.3   Setting Timeouts on Blocking Operations

23.4   Suspending Execution for a Fixed Interval (Sleeping)

23.4.1   Low-Resolution Sleeping: sleep()

23.4.2   High-Resolution Sleeping: nanosleep()

23.5   POSIX Clocks

23.5.1   Retrieving the Value of a Clock: clock_gettime()

23.5.2   Setting the Value of a Clock: clock_settime()

23.5.3   Obtaining the Clock ID of a Specific Process or Thread

23.5.4   Improved High-Resolution Sleeping: clock_nanosleep()

23.6   POSIX Interval Timers

23.6.1   Creating a Timer: timer_create()

23.6.2   Arming and Disarming a Timer: timer_settime()

23.6.3   Retrieving the Current Value of a Timer: timer_gettime()

23.6.4   Deleting a Timer: timer_delete()

23.6.5   Notification via a Signal

23.6.6   Timer Overruns

23.6.7   Notification via a Thread

23.7   Timers That Notify via File Descriptors: the timerfd API

23.8   Summary

23.9   Exercises

24   PROCESS CREATION

24.1   Overview of fork(), exit(), wait(), and execve()

24.2   Creating a New Process: fork()

24.2.1   File Sharing Between Parent and Child

24.2.2   Memory Semantics of fork()

24.3   The vfork() System Call

24.4   Race Conditions After fork()

24.5   Avoiding Race Conditions by Synchronizing with Signals

24.6   Summary

25   PROCESS TERMINATION

25.1   Terminating a Process: _exit() and exit()

25.2   Details of Process Termination

25.3   Exit Handlers

25.4   Interactions Between fork(), stdio Buffers, and _exit()

25.5   Summary

25.6   Exercise

26   MONITORING CHILD PROCESSES

26.1   Waiting on a Child Process

26.1.1   The wait() System Call

26.1.2   The waitpid() System Call

26.1.3   The Wait Status Value

26.1.4   Process Termination from a Signal Handler

26.1.5   The waitid() System Call

26.1.6   The wait3() and wait4() System Calls

26.2   Orphans and Zombies

26.3   The SIGCHLD Signal

26.3.1   Establishing a Handler for SIGCHLD

26.3.2   Delivery of SIGCHLD for Stopped Children

26.3.3   Ignoring Dead Child Processes

26.4   Summary

26.5   Exercises

27   PROGRAM EXECUTION

27.1   Executing a New Program: execve()

27.2   The exec() Library Functions

27.2.1   The PATH Environment Variable

27.2.2   Specifying Program Arguments As a List

27.2.3   Passing the Caller's Environment to the New Program

27.2.4   Executing a File Referred to by a Descriptor: fexecve()

27.3   Interpreter Scripts

27.4   File Descriptors and exec()

27.5   Signals and exec()

27.6   Executing a Shell Command: system()

27.7   Implementing system()

27.8   Summary

27.9   Exercises

28   PROCESS CREATION AND PROGRAM EXECUTION IN MORE DETAIL

28.1   Process Accounting

28.2   The clone() System Call

28.2.1   The clone() flags Argument

28.2.2   Extensions to waitpid() for Cloned Children

28.3   Speed of Process Creation

28.4   Effect of exec() and fork() on Process Attributes

28.5   Summary

28.6   Exercise

29   THREADS: INTRODUCTION

29.1   Overview

29.2   Background Details of the Pthreads API

29.3   Thread Creation

29.4   Thread Termination

29.5   Thread IDs

29.6   Joining with a Terminated Thread: pthread_join()

29.7   Detaching a Thread: pthread_detach()

29.8   Thread Attributes

29.9   Threads Versus Processes

29.10   Summary

29.11   Exercises

30   THREADS: THREAD SYNCHRONIZATION

30.1   Protecting Accesses to Shared Variables: Mutexes

30.1.1   Statically Allocated Mutexes

30.1.2   Locking and Unlocking a Mutex

30.1.3   Performance of Mutexes

30.1.4   Mutex Deadlocks

30.1.5   Dynamically Initializing a Mutex

30.1.6   Mutex Attributes

30.1.7   Mutex Types

30.2   Signaling Changes of State: Condition Variables

30.2.1   Statically Allocated Condition Variables

30.2.2   Signaling and Waiting on Condition Variables

30.2.3   Testing a Condition Variable's Predicate

30.2.4   Example Program: Joining Any Terminated Thread

30.2.5   Dynamically Allocated Condition Variables

30.3   Summary

30.4   Exercises

31   THREADS: THREAD SAFETY AND PER-THREAD STORAGE

31.1   Thread Safety (and Reentrancy Revisited)

31.2   One-Time Initialization

31.3   Thread-Specific Data

31.3.1   Thread-Specific Data from the Library Function's Perspective

31.3.2   Overview of the Thread-Specific Data API

31.3.3   Details of the Thread-Specific Data API

31.3.4   Employing the Thread-Specific Data API

31.3.5   Thread-Specific Data Implementation Limits

31.4   Thread-Local Storage

31.5   Summary

31.6   Exercises

32   THREADS: THREAD CANCELLATION

32.1   Canceling a Thread

32.2   Cancellation State and Type

32.3   Cancellation Points

32.4   Testing for Thread Cancellation

32.5   Cleanup Handlers

32.6   Asynchronous Cancelability

32.7   Summary

32.8   Exercises

33   THREADS: FURTHER DETAILS

33.1   Thread Stacks

33.2   Threads and Signals

33.2.1   How the UNIX Signal Model Maps to Threads

33.2.2   Manipulating the Thread Signal Mask

33.2.3   Sending a Signal to a Thread

33.2.4   Dealing with Asynchronous Signals Sanely

33.3   Threads and Process Control

33.4   Thread Implementation Models

33.5   Linux Implementations of POSIX Threads

33.5.1   LinuxThreads

33.5.2   NPTL

33.5.3   Which Threading Implementation?

33.6   Advanced Features of the Pthreads API

33.7   Summary

33.8   Exercises

34   PROCESS GROUPS, SESSIONS, AND JOB CONTROL

34.1   Overview

34.2   Process Groups

34.3   Sessions

34.4   Controlling Terminals and Controlling Processes

34.5   Foreground and Background Process Groups

34.6   The SIGHUP Signal

34.6.1   Handling of SIGHUP by the Shell

34.6.2   SIGHUP and Termination of the Controlling Process

34.7   Job Control

34.7.1   Using Job Control Within the Shell

34.7.2   Implementing Job Control

34.7.3   Handling Job-Control Signals

34.7.4   Orphaned Process Groups (and SIGHUP Revisited)

34.8   Summary

34.9   Exercises

35   PROCESS PRIORITIES AND SCHEDULING

35.1   Process Priorities (Nice Values)

35.2   Overview of Realtime Process Scheduling

35.2.1   The SCHED_RR Policy

35.2.2   The SCHED_FIFO Policy

35.2.3   The SCHED_BATCH and SCHED_IDLE Policies

35.3   Realtime Process Scheduling API

35.3.1   Realtime Priority Ranges

35.3.2   Modifying and Retrieving Policies and Priorities

35.3.3   Relinquishing the CPU

35.3.4   The SCHED_RR Time Slice

35.4   CPU Affinity

35.5   Summary

35.6   Exercises

36   PROCESS RESOURCES

36.1   Process Resource Usage: getrusage()

36.2   Process Resource Limits: getrlimit() and setrlimit()

36.3   Details of Specific Resource Limits

36.4   Summary

36.5   Exercises

37   DAEMONS

37.1   Overview

37.2   Creating a Daemon

37.3   Guidelines for Writing Daemons

37.4   Using SIGHUP to Reinitialize a Daemon

37.5   Logging Messages and Errors Using syslog

37.5.1   Overview

37.5.2   The syslog API

37.5.3   The /etc/syslog.conf File

37.6   Summary

37.7   Exercise

38   WRITING SECURE PRIVILEGED PROGRAMS

38.1   Is a Set-User-ID or Set-Group-ID Program Required?

38.2   Operate with Least Privilege

38.3   Be Careful when Executing a Program

38.4   Avoid Exposing Sensitive Information

38.5   Confine the Process

38.6   Beware of Signals and Race Conditions

38.7   Pitfalls when Performing File Operations and File I/O

38.8   Don't Trust Inputs or the Environment

38.9   Beware of Buffer Overruns

38.10   Beware of Denial-of-Service Attacks

38.11   Check for Failures; Fail Safely

38.12   Summary

38.13   Exercises

39   CAPABILITIES

39.1   Rationale for Capabilities

39.2   The Linux Capabilities

39.3   Process and File Capabilities

39.3.1   Process Capabilities

39.3.2   File Capabilities

39.3.3   Purpose of the Process Permitted and Effective Capability Sets

39.3.4   Purpose of the File Permitted and Effective Capability Sets

39.3.5   Purpose of the Process and File Inheritable Sets

39.3.6   Assigning and Viewing File Capabilities from the Shell

39.4   The Modern Capabilities Implementation

39.5   Transformation of Process Capabilities During exec()

39.5.1   Capability Bounding Set

39.5.2   Preserving root Semantics

39.6   Effect on Process Capabilities of Changing User IDs

39.7   Changing Process Capabilities Programmatically

39.8   Creating Capabilities-Only Environments

39.9   Discovering the Capabilities Required by a Program

39.10   Older Kernels and Systems Without File Capabilities

39.11   Summary

39.12   Exercise

40   LOGIN ACCOUNTING

40.1   Overview of the utmp and wtmp Files

40.2   The utmpx API

40.3   The utmpx Structure

40.4   Retrieving Information from the utmp and wtmp Files

40.5   Retrieving the Login Name: getlogin()

40.6   Updating the utmp and wtmp Files for a Login Session

40.7   The lastlog File

40.8   Summary

40.9   Exercises

41   FUNDAMENTALS OF SHARED LIBRARIES

41.1   Object Libraries

41.2   Static Libraries

41.3   Overview of Shared Libraries

41.4   Creating and Using Shared Libraries—A First Pass

41.4.1   Creating a Shared Library

41.4.2   Position-Independent Code

41.4.3   Using a Shared Library

41.4.4   The Shared Library Soname

41.5   Useful Tools for Working with Shared Libraries

41.6   Shared Library Versions and Naming Conventions

41.7   Installing Shared Libraries

41.8   Compatible Versus Incompatible Libraries

41.9   Upgrading Shared Libraries

41.10   Specifying Library Search Directories in an Object File

41.11   Finding Shared Libraries at Run Time

41.12   Run-Time Symbol Resolution

41.13   Using a Static Library Instead of a Shared Library

41.14   Summary

41.15   Exercise

42   ADVANCED FEATURES OF SHARED LIBRARIES

42.1   Dynamically Loaded Libraries

42.1.1   Opening a Shared Library

42.1.2   Diagnosing Errors from the dlopen API

42.1.3   Obtaining the Address of a Symbol: dlsym()

42.1.4   Closing a Shared Library: dlclose()

42.1.5   Obtaining Information About Loaded Symbols: dladdr()

42.1.6   Accessing Symbols in the Main Program

42.2   Controlling Symbol Visibility

42.3   Linker Version Scripts

42.3.1   Controlling Symbol Visibility with Version Scripts

42.3.2   Symbol Versioning

42.4   Initialization and Finalization Functions

42.5   Preloading Shared Libraries

42.6   Monitoring the Dynamic Linker: LD_DEBUG

42.7   Summary

42.8   Exercises

43   INTERPROCESS COMMUNICATION OVERVIEW

43.1   A Taxonomy of IPC Facilities

43.2   Communication Facilities

43.3   Synchronization Facilities

43.4   Comparing IPC Facilities

43.5   Summary

43.6   Exercises

44   PIPES AND FIFOS

44.1   Overview

44.2   Creating and Using Pipes

44.3   Pipes As a Method of Process Synchronization

44.4   Using Pipes to Connect Filters

44.5   Talking to a Shell Command via a Pipe: popen() and pclose()

44.6   Pipes and stdio Buffering

44.7   FIFOs

44.8   A Client-Server Application Using FIFOs

44.9   Nonblocking I/O

44.10   Semantics of read() and write() on Pipes and FIFOs

44.11   Summary

44.12   Exercises

45   INTRODUCTION TO SYSTEM V IPC

45.1   API Overview

45.2   IPC Keys

45.3   Associated Data Structure and Object Permissions

45.4   IPC Identifiers and Client-Server Applications

45.5   Algorithm Employed by System V IPC get Calls

45.6   The ipcs and ipcrm Commands

45.7   Obtaining a List of All IPC Objects

45.8   IPC Limits

45.9   Summary

45.10   Exercises

46   SYSTEM V MESSAGE QUEUES

46.1   Creating or Opening a Message Queue: msgget()

46.2   Exchanging Messages

46.2.1   Sending Messages: msgsnd()

46.2.2   Receiving Messages: msgrcv()

46.3   Message Queue Control Operations: msgctl()

46.4   Message Queue Associated Data Structure

46.5   Message Queue Limits

46.6   Displaying All Message Queues on the System

46.7   Client-Server Programming with Message Queues

46.8   A File-Server Application Using Message Queues

46.9   Disadvantages of System V Message Queues

46.10   Summary

46.11   Exercises

47   SYSTEM V SEMAPHORES

47.1   Overview

47.2   Creating or Opening a Semaphore Set: semget()

47.3   Semaphore Control Operations: semctl()

47.4   Semaphore Associated Data Structure

47.5   Semaphore Initialization

47.6   Semaphore Operations: semop()

47.7   Handling of Multiple Blocked Semaphore Operations

47.8   Semaphore Undo Values

47.9   Implementing a Binary Semaphores Protocol

47.10   Semaphore Limits

47.11   Disadvantages of System V Semaphores

47.12   Summary

47.13   Exercises

48   SYSTEM V SHARED MEMORY

48.1   Overview

48.2   Creating or Opening a Shared Memory Segment: shmget()

48.3   Using Shared Memory: shmat() and shmdt()

48.4   Example: Transferring Data Via Shared Memory

48.5   Location of Shared Memory Segments in Virtual Memory

48.6   Storing Pointers in Shared Memory

48.7   Shared Memory Control Operations: shmctl()

48.8   Shared Memory Associated Data Structure

48.9   Shared Memory Limits

48.10   Summary

48.11   Exercises

49   MEMORY MAPPINGS

49.1   Overview

49.2   Creating a Mapping: mmap()

49.3   Unmapping a Mapped Region: munmap()

49.4   File Mappings

49.4.1   Private File Mappings

49.4.2   Shared File Mappings

49.4.3   Boundary Cases

49.4.4   Memory Protection and File Access Mode Interactions

49.5   Synchronizing a Mapped Region: msync()

49.6   Additional mmap() Flags

49.7   Anonymous Mappings

49.8   Remapping a Mapped Region: mremap()

49.9   The MAP_NORESERVE Flag and Swap Space Overcommitting

49.10   The MAP_FIXED Flag

49.11   Nonlinear Mappings: remap_file_pages()

49.12   Summary

49.13   Exercises

50   VIRTUAL MEMORY OPERATIONS

50.1   Changing Memory Protection: mprotect()

50.2   Memory Locking: mlock() and mlockall()

50.3   Determining Memory Residence: mincore()

50.4   Advising Future Memory Usage Patterns: madvise()

50.5   Summary

50.6   Exercises

51   INTRODUCTION TO POSIX IPC

51.1   API Overview

51.2   Comparison of System V IPC and POSIX IPC

51.3   Summary

52   POSIX MESSAGE QUEUES

52.1   Overview

52.2   Opening, Closing, and Unlinking a Message Queue

52.3   Relationship Between Descriptors and Message Queues

52.4   Message Queue Attributes

52.5   Exchanging Messages

52.5.1   Sending Messages: mq_send()

52.5.2   Receiving Messages: mq_receive()

52.5.3   Sending and Receiving Messages with a Timeout

52.6   Message Notification

52.6.1   Receiving Notification via a Signal

52.6.2   Receiving Notification via a Thread

52.7   Linux-Specific Features

52.8   Message Queue Limits

52.9   Comparison of POSIX and System V Message Queues

52.10   Summary

52.11   Exercises

53   POSIX SEMAPHORES

53.1   Overview

53.2   Named Semaphores

53.2.1   Opening a Named Semaphore

53.2.2   Closing a Semaphore

53.2.3   Removing a Named Semaphore

53.3   Semaphore Operations

53.3.1   Waiting on a Semaphore

53.3.2   Posting a Semaphore

53.3.3   Retrieving the Current Value of a Semaphore

53.4   Unnamed Semaphores

53.4.1   Initializing an Unnamed Semaphore

53.4.2   Destroying an Unnamed Semaphore

53.5   Comparisons with Other Synchronization Techniques

53.6   Semaphore Limits

53.7   Summary

53.8   Exercises

54   POSIX SHARED MEMORY

54.1   Overview

54.2   Creating Shared Memory Objects: shm_open()

54.3   Using Shared Memory Objects

54.4   Removing Shared Memory Objects: shm_unlink()

54.5   Comparisons Between Shared Memory APIs

54.6   Summary

54.7   Exercise

55   FILE LOCKING

55.1   Overview

55.2   File Locking with flock()

55.2.1   Semantics of Lock Inheritance and Release

55.2.2   Limitations of flock()

55.3   Record Locking with fcntl()

55.3.1   Deadlock

55.3.2   Example: An Interactive Locking Program

55.3.3   Example: A Library of Locking Functions

55.3.4   Lock Limits and Performance

55.3.5   Semantics of Lock Inheritance and Release

55.3.6   Lock Starvation and Priority of Queued Lock Requests

55.4   Mandatory Locking

55.5   The /proc/locks File

55.6   Running Just One Instance of a Program

55.7   Older Locking Techniques

55.8   Summary

55.9   Exercises

56   SOCKETS: INTRODUCTION

56.1   Overview

56.2   Creating a Socket: socket()

56.3   Binding a Socket to an Address: bind()

56.4   Generic Socket Address Structures: struct sockaddr

56.5   Stream Sockets

56.5.1   Listening for Incoming Connections: listen()

56.5.2   Accepting a Connection: accept()

56.5.3   Connecting to a Peer Socket: connect()

56.5.4   I/O on Stream Sockets

56.5.5   Connection Termination: close()

56.6   Datagram Sockets

56.6.1   Exchanging Datagrams: recvfrom() and sendto()

56.6.2   Using connect() with Datagram Sockets

56.7   Summary

57   SOCKETS: UNIX DOMAIN

57.1   UNIX Domain Socket Addresses: struct sockaddr_un

57.2   Stream Sockets in the UNIX Domain

57.3   Datagram Sockets in the UNIX Domain

57.4   UNIX Domain Socket Permissions

57.5   Creating a Connected Socket Pair: socketpair()

57.6   The Linux Abstract Socket Namespace

57.7   Summary

57.8   Exercises

58   SOCKETS: FUNDAMENTALS OF TCP/IP NETWORKS

58.1   Internets

58.2   Networking Protocols and Layers

58.3   The Data-Link Layer

58.4   The Network Layer: IP

58.5   IP Addresses

58.6   The Transport Layer

58.6.1   Port Numbers

58.6.2   User Datagram Protocol (UDP)

58.6.3   Transmission Control Protocol (TCP)

58.7   Requests for Comments (RFCs)

58.8   Summary

59   SOCKETS: INTERNET DOMAINS

59.1   Internet Domain Sockets

59.2   Network Byte Order

59.3   Data Representation

59.4   Internet Socket Addresses

59.5   Overview of Host and Service Conversion Functions

59.6   IPv6 and IPv4 Address Conversion: inet_pton() and inet_ntop()

59.7   Client-Server Example (Datagram Sockets)

59.8   Domain Name System (DNS)

59.9   The /etc/services File

59.10   Protocol-Independent Host and Service Conversion

59.10.1   The getaddrinfo() Function

59.10.2   Freeing addrinfo Lists: freeaddrinfo()

59.10.3   Diagnosing Errors: gai_strerror()

59.10.4   The getnameinfo() Function

59.11   Client-Server Example (Stream Sockets)

59.12   An Internet Domain Sockets Library

59.13   Obsolete APIs for Host, Service, and Address Conversion

59.13.1   The inet_aton() and inet_ntoa() Functions

59.13.2   The gethostbyname() and gethostbyaddr() Functions

59.13.3   The getservbyname() and getservbyport() Functions

59.14   UNIX Versus Internet Domain Sockets

59.15   Further Information

59.16   Summary

59.17   Exercises

60   SOCKETS: SERVER DESIGN

60.1   Iterative and Concurrent Servers

60.2   An Iterative UDP echo Server

60.3   A Concurrent TCP echo Server

60.4   Other Concurrent Server Designs

60.5   The inetd (Internet Superserver) Daemon

60.6   Summary

60.7   Exercises

61   SOCKETS: ADVANCED TOPICS

61.1   Partial Reads and Writes on Stream Sockets

61.2   The shutdown() system call

61.3   Socket-Specific I/O System Calls: recv() and send()

61.4   The sendfile() System Call

61.5   Retrieving Socket Addresses: getsockname() and getpeername()

61.6   A Closer Look at TCP

61.6.1   Format of a TCP Segment

61.6.2   TCP Sequence Numbers and Acknowledgements

61.6.3   TCP State Machine and State Transition Diagram

61.6.4   TCP Connection Establishment

61.6.5   TCP Connection Termination

61.6.6   Calling shutdown() on a TCP Socket

61.6.7   The TIME_WAIT State

61.7   Monitoring Sockets: netstat

61.8   Using tcpdump to Monitor TCP Traffic

61.9   Socket Options: setsockopt() and getsockopt()

61.10   The SO_REUSEADDR Socket Option

61.11   Inheritance of File Flags and Socket Options across accept()

61.12   TCP Versus UDP

61.13   Advanced Features

61.13.1   Out-of-Band Data

61.13.2   The sendmsg() and recvmsg() System Calls

61.13.3   Passing File Descriptors

61.13.4   Receiving Sender Credentials

61.13.5   Sequenced-Packet Sockets

61.13.6   SCTP and DCCP Transport-Layer Protocols

61.14   Summary

61.15   Exercises

62   TERMINALS

62.1   Overview

62.2   Retrieving and Modifying Terminal Attributes

62.3   The stty Command

62.4   Terminal Special Characters

62.5   Terminal Flags

62.6   Terminal I/O Modes

62.6.1   Canonical Mode

62.6.2   Noncanonical Mode

62.6.3   Cooked, Cbreak, and Raw Modes

62.7   Terminal Line Speed (Bit Rate)

62.8   Terminal Line Control

62.9   Terminal Window Size

62.10   Terminal Identification

62.11   Summary

62.12   Exercises

63   ALTERNATIVE I/O MODELS

63.1   Overview

63.1.1   Level-Triggered and Edge-Triggered Notification

63.1.2   Employing Nonblocking I/O with Alternative I/O Models

63.2   I/O Multiplexing

63.2.1   The select() System Call

63.2.2   The poll() System Call

63.2.3   When Is a File Descriptor Ready?

63.2.4   Comparison of select() and poll()

63.2.5   Problems with select() and poll()

63.3   Signal-Driven I/O

63.3.1   When Is "I/O Possible" Signaled?

63.3.2   Refining the Use of Signal-Driven I/O

63.4   The epoll API

63.4.1   Creating an epoll Instance: epoll_create()

63.4.2   Modifying the epoll Interest List: epoll_ctl()

63.4.3   Waiting for Events: epoll_wait()

63.4.4   A Closer Look at epoll Semantics

63.4.5   Performance of epoll Versus I/O Multiplexing

63.4.6   Edge-Triggered Notification

63.5   Waiting on Signals and File Descriptors

63.5.1   The pselect() System Call

63.5.2   The Self-Pipe Trick

63.6   Summary

63.7   Exercises

64   PSEUDOTERMINALS

64.1   Overview

64.2   UNIX 98 Pseudoterminals

64.2.1   Opening an Unused Master: posix_openpt()

64.2.2   Changing Slave Ownership and Permissions: grantpt()

64.2.3   Unlocking the Slave: unlockpt()

64.2.4   Obtaining the Name of the Slave: ptsname()

64.3   Opening a Pseudoterminal Master: ptyMasterOpen()

64.4   Connecting Two Processes with a Pseudoterminal: ptyFork()

64.5   Pseudoterminal I/O

64.6   Implementing script(1)

64.7   Terminal Attributes and Window Size

64.8   BSD Pseudoterminals

64.9   Summary

64.10   Exercises

A   TRACING SYSTEM CALLS

B   PARSING COMMAND-LINE OPTIONS

C   CASTING THE NULL POINTER

D   KERNEL CONFIGURATION

E   FURTHER SOURCES OF INFORMATION

F   SOLUTIONS TO SELECTED EXERCISES

BIBLIOGRAPHY

INDEX