This manual page describes the GNU -mwww macro package, which is part
of the groff document formatting system. The manual page is very a
basic guide, and the html device driver (grohtml) has been completely
rewritten but still remains as in an alpha state. It has been
included into the distribution so that a lot of people have a chance
to test it. Note that this macro file is automatically called (via
the troffrc file) if you use -Thtml or -Txhtml.
To see the hyperlinks in action, please format this man page with the
Here is a summary of the functions found in this macro set.
.JOBNAME split output into multiple files
.HX automatic heading level cut off
.BCL specify colours on a web page
.BGIMG specify background image
.URL create a url using two parameters
.FTP create an ftp reference
.MTO create a html email address
.FTP create an ftp reference
.TAG generate an html name
.IMG include an image file
.PIMG include png image
.MPIMG place png on the margin and wrap text around it
.HnS begin heading
.HnE end heading
.LK emit automatically collected links.
.HR produce a horizontal rule
.NHR suppress automatic generation of rules.
.HTL only generate HTML title
.HEAD add data to <head> block
.ULS unorder list begin
.ULE unorder list end
.OLS ordered list begin
.OLE ordered list end
.DLS definition list begin
.DLE definition list end
.LI insert a list item
.DC generate a drop capital
.HTML pass an html raw request to the device driver
.CDS code example begin
.CDE code example end
.ALN place links on left of main text.
.LNS start a new two-column table with links in the left.
.LNE end the two-column table.
.LINKSTYLE initialize default url attributes.
Output of the pic, eqn, refer, and tbl preprocessors is acceptable as
Split output into multiple HTML files. A file is split
whenever a .SH or .NH 1 is encountered. Its argument is the
file stem name for future output files. This option is
equivalent to grohtml's -j option.
.HX n Specify the cut off depth when generating links from section
headings. For example, a parameter of 2 would cause grohtml
to generate a list of links for .NH 1 and .NH 2 but not for
.NH 3. Whereas
tells grohtml that no heading links should be created at all.
Another method for turning automatic headings off is by
issuing the the command line switch -P-l to groff.
.BCL foreground background active not-visited visited
This macro takes five parameters: foreground, background,
active hypertext link, hypertext link not yet visited, and
visited hypertext link colour.
the only parameter to this macro is the background image file.
.URL url [description] [after]
generates a URL using either one, two or three arguments. The
first parameter is the actual URL, the second is the name of
the link, and the third is optional stuff to be printed
immediately afterwards. If description and after are absent
then the url becomes the anchor text. Hyphenation is disabled
while printing the actual URL; explicit breakpoints should be
inserted with the \: escape. Here is how to encode foo
.URL http://\:foo.\:org/ foo :
If this is processed by a device other than -Thtml or -Txhtml
it appears as:
The URL macro can be of any type; for example we can reference
Eric Raymond's pic guide ⟨pic.html⟩ by:
.URL pic.html "Eric Raymond's pic guide".MTO address [description] [after]
Generate an email html reference. The first argument is
mandatory as the email address. The optional second argument
is the text you see in your browser. If an empty argument is
given, address is used instead. An optional third argument is
stuff printed immediately afterwards. Hyphenation is disabled
while printing the actual email address. For example, Joe
User ⟨firstname.lastname@example.org⟩ was achieved by the following macro:
.MTO email@example.com "Joe User"
Note that all the URLs actually are treated as consuming no
textual space in groff. This could be considered as a bug
since it causes some problems. To circumvent this, www.tmac
inserts a zero-width character which expands to a harmless
space (only if run with -Thtml or -Txhtml).
.FTP url [description] [after]
indicates that data can be obtained via ftp. The first
argument is the url and the second is the browser text. A
third argument, similar to the macros above, is intended for
stuff printed immediately afterwards. The second and the
third parameter are optional. Hyphenation is disabled while
printing the actual URL. As an example, here the location of
the GNU ftp server ⟨ftp://ftp.gnu.org/⟩. The macro example
above was specified by:
.FTP ftp://\:ftp.gnu.org/ "GNU ftp server" ..TAG name
Generates an html name tag from its argument. This can then
be referenced using the URL ⟨2⟩ macro. As you can see, you
must precede the tag name with # since it is a local
reference. This link was achieved via placing a TAG in the
URL description above; the source looks like this:
.TP.B URLgenerates.TAG URLa URL using either two or three arguments.....IMG [-R|-L|-C] filename [width] [height]
Include a picture into the document. The first argument is
the horizontal location: right, left, or center (-R, -L, or
-C). Alignment is centered by default (-C). The second
argument is the filename. The optional third and fourth
arguments are the width and height. If the width is absent it
defaults to 1 inch. If the height is absent it defaults to
the width. This maps onto an html img tag. If you are
including a png image then it is advisable to use the PIMG
.PIMG [-R|-L|-C] filename [width [height]]
Include an image in PNG format. This macro takes exactly the
same parameters as the IMG macro; it has the advantage of
working with postscript and html devices also since it can
automatically convert the image into the EPS format, using the
following programs of the netpbm package: pngtopnm, pnmcrop,
and pnmtops. If the document isn't processed with -Thtml or
-Txhtml it is necessary to use the -U option of groff.
.MPIMG [-R|-L] [-G gap] filename [width [height]]
Place a PNG image on the margin and wrap text around it. The
first parameters are optional. The alignment: left or right
(-L or -R) specifies the margin where the picture is placed
at. The default alignment is left (-L). Optionally, -G gap
can be used to arrange a gap between the picture and the text
that wraps around it. The default gap width is zero.
The first non-optional argument is the filename. The optional
following arguments are the width and height. If the width is
absent it defaults to 1 inch. If the height is absent it
defaults to the width. Example:
.MPIMG -L -G 2c foo.png 3c 1.5c
The height and width may also be given as percentages. The
PostScript device calculates the width from the .l register
and the height from the .p register. For example:
.MPIMG -L -G 2c foo.png 15%.HnS n Begin heading. The numeric heading level n is specified by
the first parameter. Use this macro if your headings contain
URL, FTP or MTO macros. Example:
.HnS 1.HRGNU Troff.URL http://groff.ffii.org (Groff)— a.URL http://www.gnu.org/ GNUproject.Hosted by.URL http://ffii.org/ FFII ..HR.HnE
In this case you might wish to disable automatic links to
headings. This can be done via -P-l from the command line.
.HnE End heading.
.LK Force grohtml to place the automatically generated links at
this position. If this manual page has been processed with
-Thtml or -Txhtml those links can be seen right here.
.HR Generate a full-width horizontal rule for -Thtml and -Txhtml.
No effect for all other devices.
.NHR Suppress generation of the top and bottom rules which grohtml
emits by default.
.HTL Generate an HTML title only. This differs from the TL macro
of the ms macro package which generates both an HTML title and
an <H1> heading. Use it to provide an HTML title as search
engine fodder but a graphic title in the document. The macro
terminates when a space or break is seen (.sp, .br).
.HEAD Add arbitrary HTML data to the <head> block. Ignored if not
processed with -Thtml or -Txhtml. Example:
.HEAD "<link \rel=""icon"" \type=""image/png"" \href=""http://foo.org//bar.png""/>".HTML All text after this macro is treated as raw html. If the
document is processed without -Thtml or -Txhtml then the macro
is ignored. Internally, this macro is used as a building
block for other higher-level macros.
For example, the BGIMG macro is defined as
.de BGIMG. HTML <body background=\\$1>...DC l text [color]
Produce a drop capital. The first parameter is the letter to
be dropped and enlarged, the second parameter text is the
adjoining text whose height the first letter should not
exceed. The optional third parameter is the color of the
dropped letter. It defaults to black.
.CDS Start displaying a code section in constant width font.
.CDE End code display
.ALN [color] [percentage]
Place section heading links automatically to the left of the
main text. The color argument is optional and if present
indicates which HTML background color is to be used under the
links. The optional percentage indicates the amount of width
to devote to displaying the links. The default values are
#eeeeee and 30 for color and percentage width, respectively.
This macro should only be called once at the beginning of the
document. After calling this macro each section heading emits
an HTML table consisting of the links in the left and the
section text on the right.
.LNS Start a new two-column table with links in the left column.
This can be called if the document has text before the first
.SH and if .ALN is used. Typically this is called just before
the first paragraph and after the main title as it indicates
that text after this point should be positioned to the right
of the left-hand navigational links.
.LNE End a two-column table. This should be called at the end of
the document if .ALN was used.
.LINKSTYLE color [ fontstyle [ openglyph closeglyph ] ]
Initialize default url attributes to be used if this macro set
is not used with the HTML device. The macro set initializes
itself with the following call
.LINKSTYLE blue C \[la] \[ra]
but these values will be superseded by a user call to
This page is part of the groff (GNU troff) project. Information
about the project can be found at
⟨http://www.gnu.org/software/groff/⟩. If you have a bug report for
this manual page, see ⟨http://www.gnu.org/software/groff/⟩. This
page was obtained from the tarball groff-1.22.3.tar.gz fetched from
⟨ftp://ftp.gnu.org/gnu/groff/⟩ on 2016-10-04. If you discover any
rendering problems in this HTML version of the page, or you believe
there is a better or more up-to-date source for the page, or you have
corrections or improvements to the information in this COLOPHON
(which is not part of the original manual page), send a mail to
Groff Version 1.22.3 4 November 2014 GROFF_WWW(7)