GROFF_FILENAMES(7)    Miscellaneous Information Manual    GROFF_FILENAMES(7)

NAME         top

       groff_filenames — filename extensions for roff and groff

DESCRIPTION         top

       Since the evolution of roff in the 1970s, a whole bunch of filename
       extensions for roff files were used.

       The roff extensions refer to preprocessors or macro packages.  These
       extensions are fixed in all Unix-like operating systems.

       Later on, groff added some more extensions.  We will now write a
       man-page about these filename extensions.


       Each roff file can be optionally compressed.  That means that the
       total filename ends with a compressor name.  So the whole filename
       has the structure <name>.<extension>[.<compression>].

       Mostly known are the compressor extensions .Z, .gz, and .bzip2.
       Relatively new is .xz.

       From now on, we will ignore the compressions and only comment the
       structure <name>.<extension>.

MAN-PAGES         top

       The Unix manual pages are shortly named man-pages.  The man-page
       style is the best known part of the roff language.

       The extensions for man should be better documented.  So this is
       documented here.

       Files written in the man language use the following extension:

   Man-page Sections
       The traditional man-page <section> is a digit from 1 to 8.

              Classic man-page sections.

       Linux added the section number 9 for kernel man-pages.

              Linux kernel man-pages

       In older commercial Unix systems, the 3 characters l, n, and o were
       also used as section names.  This is today deprecated, but there are
       still documents in this format.

              Deprecated old man-page sections.

   Man-page Group Extensions
       The <group> extension in .<section>[<group>] is optional, but it can
       be any string of word characters.  Usually programmers use a group
       name that is already used, e.g.  x for X Window System documents or
       tk to refer to the tk programming language.


              is the man-page for groff in section 1 without a group

              is the man-page for the program xargs in section 1 and group
              posix; moreover it is compressed with gz (gzip).

              OpenSSL CONF library configuration files from section 5 with
              group ssl.

              man-page for the program dpkg-reconfigure in section 8 and
              group cdebconf.

   Source of Man-pages
       There are 2 roff languages for writing man-pages: man and mdoc.

       The names of these 2 styles are taken as extensions for the source
       code files of man-pages in the groff package.

              traditional Unix-like man-page format within groff source

              A temporary man-page file produced from a man-page by
              a run of make within the groff source package.

              Man-page format in BSD.

              Man-page format in heirloom roff .

              Files using this extension recognize both man-page formats in
              groff and other processors.


   Files Using Macro Packages
       The classical roff languages were interpreted by the traditional
       troff and nroff programs.

       There were several roff languages, each represented by a macro-
       package.  Each of these provided a suitable file name extension:

              roff file using the me macro package.

              roff file using the mm macro package

              roff file using the ms macro package

       All of these classical roff languages and their extensions are still
       very active in groff.

   Source Code for Macro Packages (TMAC Files)
       In traditional roff the source code for the macro packages was stored
       in TMAC files.  Their file names have the form:

              <package> is the name of the macro package without the leading
              m character, which is reintegrated by the option -m.

       For example, is the source for the man macro package.

       In the groff source, more suitable file names were integrated, see
       later on.

       Moreover, the following preprocessors were used as filename

              for the integration of chemical formulas

              for the mathematical use of equations

              graphical tool

              for tables with tbl

              for files using the prefer preprocessor

   Classical Roff Files
              for files using the roff language of any kind


       GNU roff groff is the actual roff standard, both for classical roff
       and new extensions.  So even the used new extensions in the source
       code should be regarded as actual standard.  The following extensions
       are used instead of classical .t or .tr:

              general ending for files using the groff language

   Source Code for Macro Packages (TMAC Files)
       As the classical form tmac.<package_without_m>, of the TMAC file
       names is quite strange, groff added the following structures:


   Files Using new Macro Packages
       Groff uses the following new macro packages:

              file with swedish mm macros for groff

              files written in the groff macro package mom

              files written in HTML-like groff macros.

   Preprocessors and Postprocessors
              a new tbl format.  See groff_hdtbl(7).

              files written for the graphical grap processor.

              for including gremlin(1), pictures, see grn(1).

              transform this file with pdfroff of the groff system

SEE ALSO         top

       History and future
              roff(7), man-pages(7), groff_diff(7), groff(7)

              uncompress(1posix), gzip2(1), bzip2(1), xz(1)

       A man-page of the naming form name(n) can be read in text mode by
              man n name
       or in graphical mode (PDF) by
              groffer n name

       Gunnar Ritter's Heirloom roff project⟩.  You can get this
       package with the shell command:
              $ git clone

COPYING         top

       Copyright © 2013-2014 Free Software Foundation, Inc.

       This file is part of groff, a free software project.  You can
       redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of the GNU General
       Public License version 2 (GPL2) as published by the Free Software
       Foundation (FSF).

       The license text can be found in the internet at 

AUTHORS         top

       This file was written by Bernd Warken ⟨⟩.

COLOPHON         top

       This page is part of the groff (GNU troff) project.  Information
       about the project can be found at 
       ⟨⟩.  If you have a bug report for
       this manual page, see ⟨⟩.  This
       page was obtained from the tarball groff-1.22.3.tar.gz fetched from
       ⟨⟩ on 2017-03-13.  If you discover any
       rendering problems in this HTML version of the page, or you believe
       there is a better or more up-to-date source for the page, or you have
       corrections or improvements to the information in this COLOPHON
       (which is not part of the original manual page), send a mail to

Groff Version 1.22.3           4 November 2014            GROFF_FILENAMES(7)