PROLOG | NAME | SYNOPSIS | DESCRIPTION | RETURN VALUE | ERRORS | EXAMPLES | APPLICATION USAGE | RATIONALE | FUTURE DIRECTIONS | SEE ALSO | COPYRIGHT

TIMES(3P)                 POSIX Programmer's Manual                TIMES(3P)

PROLOG         top

       This manual page is part of the POSIX Programmer's Manual.  The Linux
       implementation of this interface may differ (consult the
       corresponding Linux manual page for details of Linux behavior), or
       the interface may not be implemented on Linux.

NAME         top

       times — get process and waited-for child process times

SYNOPSIS         top

       #include <sys/times.h>

       clock_t times(struct tms *buffer);

DESCRIPTION         top

       The times() function shall fill the tms structure pointed to by
       buffer with time-accounting information. The tms structure is defined
       in <sys/times.h>.

       All times are measured in terms of the number of clock ticks used.

       The times of a terminated child process shall be included in the
       tms_cutime and tms_cstime elements of the parent when wait(),
       waitid(), or waitpid() returns the process ID of this terminated
       child. If a child process has not waited for its children, their
       times shall not be included in its times.

        *  The tms_utime structure member is the CPU time charged for the
           execution of user instructions of the calling process.

        *  The tms_stime structure member is the CPU time charged for
           execution by the system on behalf of the calling process.

        *  The tms_cutime structure member is the sum of the tms_utime and
           tms_cutime times of the child processes.

        *  The tms_cstime structure member is the sum of the tms_stime and
           tms_cstime times of the child processes.

RETURN VALUE         top

       Upon successful completion, times() shall return the elapsed real
       time, in clock ticks, since an arbitrary point in the past (for
       example, system start-up time). This point does not change from one
       invocation of times() within the process to another. The return value
       may overflow the possible range of type clock_t.  If times() fails,
       (clock_t)−1 shall be returned and errno set to indicate the error.

ERRORS         top

       No errors are defined.

       The following sections are informative.

EXAMPLES         top

   Timing a Database Lookup
       The following example defines two functions, start_clock() and
       end_clock(), that are used to time a lookup. It also defines
       variables of type clock_t and tms to measure the duration of
       transactions. The start_clock() function saves the beginning times
       given by the times() function. The end_clock() function gets the
       ending times and prints the difference between the two times.

           #include <sys/times.h>
           #include <stdio.h>
           ...
           void start_clock(void);
           void end_clock(char *msg);
           ...
           static clock_t st_time;
           static clock_t en_time;
           static struct tms st_cpu;
           static struct tms en_cpu;
           ...
           void
           start_clock()
           {
               st_time = times(&st_cpu);
           }

           /* This example assumes that the result of each subtraction
              is within the range of values that can be represented in
              an integer type. */
           void
           end_clock(char *msg)
           {
               en_time = times(&en_cpu);

               fputs(msg,stdout);
               printf("Real Time: %jd, User Time %jd, System Time %jd\n",
                   (intmax_t)(en_time - st_time),
                   (intmax_t)(en_cpu.tms_utime - st_cpu.tms_utime),
                   (intmax_t)(en_cpu.tms_stime - st_cpu.tms_stime));
           }

APPLICATION USAGE         top

       Applications should use sysconf(_SC_CLK_TCK) to determine the number
       of clock ticks per second as it may vary from system to system.

RATIONALE         top

       The accuracy of the times reported is intentionally left unspecified
       to allow implementations flexibility in design, from uniprocessor to
       multi-processor networks.

       The inclusion of times of child processes is recursive, so that a
       parent process may collect the total times of all of its descendants.
       But the times of a child are only added to those of its parent when
       its parent successfully waits on the child. Thus, it is not
       guaranteed that a parent process can always see the total times of
       all its descendants; see also the discussion of the term ``realtime''
       in alarm(3p).

       If the type clock_t is defined to be a signed 32-bit integer, it
       overflows in somewhat more than a year if there are 60 clock ticks
       per second, or less than a year if there are 100. There are
       individual systems that run continuously for longer than that. This
       volume of POSIX.1‐2008 permits an implementation to make the
       reference point for the returned value be the start-up time of the
       process, rather than system start-up time.

       The term ``charge'' in this context has nothing to do with billing
       for services. The operating system accounts for time used in this
       way. That information must be correct, regardless of how that
       information is used.

FUTURE DIRECTIONS         top

       None.

SEE ALSO         top

       alarm(3p), exec(1p), fork(3p), sysconf(3p), time(3p), wait(3p),
       waitid(3p)

       The Base Definitions volume of POSIX.1‐2008, sys_times.h(0p)

COPYRIGHT         top

       Portions of this text are reprinted and reproduced in electronic form
       from IEEE Std 1003.1, 2013 Edition, Standard for Information
       Technology -- Portable Operating System Interface (POSIX), The Open
       Group Base Specifications Issue 7, Copyright (C) 2013 by the
       Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc and The Open
       Group.  (This is POSIX.1-2008 with the 2013 Technical Corrigendum 1
       applied.) In the event of any discrepancy between this version and
       the original IEEE and The Open Group Standard, the original IEEE and
       The Open Group Standard is the referee document. The original
       Standard can be obtained online at http://www.unix.org/online.html .

       Any typographical or formatting errors that appear in this page are
       most likely to have been introduced during the conversion of the
       source files to man page format. To report such errors, see
       https://www.kernel.org/doc/man-pages/reporting_bugs.html .

IEEE/The Open Group                 2013                           TIMES(3P)