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<pre> <span class="headline">wchar.h(0P)               POSIX Pro‐
grammer’s  Manual               wchar.h(0P)</span>  </pre> <h2><a
id="PROLOG" href="#PROLOG"></a>PROLOG  &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;  &nb‐
sp;        <a        href="#top_of_page"><span        class="top‐
link">top</span></a></h2><pre>
       This manual page is part of the POSIX Programmer’s Manual.
The Linux
       implementation of this interface may differ (consult the
       corresponding  Linux  manual page for details of Linux be‐
havior), or
       the interface may not be  implemented  on  Linux.   </pre>
<h2><a id="NAME" href="#NAME"></a>NAME  &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nb‐
sp;        <a        href="#top_of_page"><span        class="top‐
link">top</span></a></h2><pre>
       wchar.h — wide‐character handling </pre> <h2><a id="SYNOP‐
SIS" href="#SYNOPSIS"></a>SYNOPSIS  &nbsp; &nbsp;  &nbsp;  &nbsp;
<a              href="#top_of_page"><span             class="top‐
link">top</span></a></h2><pre>
       #include &lt;wchar.h&gt;  </pre>  <h2><a  id="DESCRIPTION"
href="#DESCRIPTION"></a>DESCRIPTION   &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;
<a             href="#top_of_page"><span              class="top‐
link">top</span></a></h2><pre>
       Some of the functionality described on this reference page
extends
       the ISO C standard. Applications shall define  the  appro‐
priate feature
       test   macro   (see   the   System  Interfaces  volume  of
POSIX.1‐2008, <i>Section</i>
       <i>2.2</i>, <i>The Compilation Environment</i>) to  enable
the visibility of these
       symbols in this header.

       The <i>&lt;wchar.h&gt;</i> header shall define the follow‐
ing types:

       <b>FILE        </b>As described in <i>&lt;stdio.h&gt;</i>.

       <b>locale_t       </b>As    described    in     <i>&lt;lo‐
cale.h&gt;</i>.

       <b>mbstate_t   </b>An object type other than an array type
that can hold the
                   conversion state information necessary to con‐
vert between
                   sequences  of (possibly multi‐byte) characters
and wide
                   characters.  If a codeset is being  used  such
that an
                   <b>mbstate_t  </b>needs  to preserve more than
two levels of
                   reserved state, the results are unspecified.

       <b>size_t         </b>As    described    in    <i>&lt;std‐
def.h&gt;</i>.

       <b>va_list             </b>As         described         in
<i>&lt;stdarg.h&gt;</i>.

       <b>wchar_t        </b>As    described    in    <i>&lt;std‐
def.h&gt;</i>.

       <b>wctype_t    </b>A scalar type of a data object that can
hold values which
                   represent locale‐specific character  classifi‐
cation.

       <b>wint_t       </b>An integer type capable of storing any
valid value of
                   <b>wchar_t </b>or WEOF.

       The tag <b>tm </b>shall be declared as  naming  an  incom‐
plete structure type,
       the    contents    of   which   are   described   in   the
<i>&lt;time.h&gt;</i> header.

       The implementation shall support one or  more  programming
environments
       in which the width of <b>wint_t </b>is no greater than the
width of type
       <b>long</b>.  The names of these programming  environments
can be obtained
       using  the <i>confstr</i>() function or the <i>getconf</i>
utility.

       The <i>&lt;wchar.h&gt;</i> header shall define the follow‐
ing macros:

       WCHAR_MAX   As described in <i>&lt;stdint.h&gt;</i>.

       WCHAR_MIN   As described in <i>&lt;stdint.h&gt;</i>.

       WEOF        Constant expression of type <b>wint_t </b>that
is returned by
                   several WP functions to indicate end‐of‐file.

       NULL        As described in <i>&lt;stddef.h&gt;</i>.

       Inclusion of the <i>&lt;wchar.h&gt;</i>  header  may  make
visible all symbols from
       the             headers            <i>&lt;ctype.h&gt;</i>,
<i>&lt;string.h&gt;</i>,   <i>&lt;stdarg.h&gt;</i>,   <i>&lt;std‐
def.h&gt;</i>, <i>&lt;stdio.h&gt;</i>,
       <i>&lt;stdlib.h&gt;</i>, and <i>&lt;time.h&gt;</i>.

       The  following shall be declared as functions and may also
be defined
       as macros. Function prototypes shall be provided  for  use
with ISO C
       standard compilers.

           <b>wint_t        btowc(int);</b>
           <b>wint_t        fgetwc(FILE *);</b>
           <b>wchar_t       *fgetws(wchar_t  *restrict, int, FILE
*restrict);</b>
           <b>wint_t        fputwc(wchar_t, FILE *);</b>
           <b>int           fputws(const wchar_t *restrict,  FILE
*restrict);</b>
           <b>int           fwide(FILE *, int);</b>
           <b>int              fwprintf(FILE   *restrict,   const
wchar_t *restrict, ...);</b>
           <b>int           fwscanf(FILE *restrict, const wchar_t
*restrict, ...);</b>
           <b>wint_t        getwc(FILE *);</b>
           <b>wint_t        getwchar(void);</b>
           <b>int           iswalnum(wint_t);</b>
           <b>int           iswalpha(wint_t);</b>
           <b>int           iswcntrl(wint_t);</b>
           <b>int           iswctype(wint_t, wctype_t);</b>
           <b>int           iswdigit(wint_t);</b>
           <b>int           iswgraph(wint_t);</b>
           <b>int           iswlower(wint_t);</b>
           <b>int           iswprint(wint_t);</b>
           <b>int           iswpunct(wint_t);</b>
           <b>int           iswspace(wint_t);</b>
           <b>int           iswupper(wint_t);</b>
           <b>int           iswxdigit(wint_t);</b>
           <b>size_t         mbrlen(const char *restrict, size_t,
mbstate_t *restrict);</b>
           <b>size_t        mbrtowc(wchar_t *restrict, const char
*restrict, size_t,</b>
                             <b>mbstate_t *restrict);</b>
           <b>int           mbsinit(const mbstate_t *);</b>
           <b>size_t         mbsnrtowcs(wchar_t  *restrict, const
char **restrict,</b>
                             <b>size_t,  size_t,  mbstate_t  *re‐
strict);</b>
           <b>size_t         mbsrtowcs(wchar_t  *restrict,  const
char **restrict, size_t,</b>
                             <b>mbstate_t *restrict);</b>
           <b>FILE          *open_wmemstream(wchar_t  **,  size_t
*);</b>
           <b>wint_t        putwc(wchar_t, FILE *);</b>
           <b>wint_t        putwchar(wchar_t);</b>
           <b>int                swprintf(wchar_t      *restrict,
size_t,</b>
                             <b>const     wchar_t      *restrict,
...);</b>
           <b>int           swscanf(const wchar_t *restrict,</b>
                             <b>const      wchar_t     *restrict,
...);</b>
           <b>wint_t        towlower(wint_t);</b>
           <b>wint_t        towupper(wint_t);</b>
           <b>wint_t        ungetwc(wint_t, FILE *);</b>
           <b>int             vfwprintf(FILE   *restrict,   const
wchar_t *restrict, va_list);</b>
           <b>int              vfwscanf(FILE   *restrict,   const
wchar_t *restrict, va_list);</b>
           <b>int               vswprintf(wchar_t      *restrict,
size_t,</b>
                             <b>const      wchar_t     *restrict,
va_list);</b>
           <b>int            vswscanf(const  wchar_t   *restrict,
const wchar_t *restrict,</b>
                             <b>va_list);</b>
           <b>int             vwprintf(const  wchar_t  *restrict,
va_list);</b>
           <b>int            vwscanf(const   wchar_t   *restrict,
va_list);</b>
           <b>wchar_t        *wcpcpy(wchar_t   *restrict,   const
wchar_t *restrict);</b>
           <b>wchar_t       *wcpncpy(wchar_t   *restrict,   const
wchar_t *restrict, size_t);</b>
           <b>size_t         wcrtomb(char *restrict, wchar_t, mb‐
state_t *restrict);</b>
           <b>int            wcscasecmp(const  wchar_t  *,  const
wchar_t *);</b>
           <b>int            wcscasecmp_l(const  wchar_t *, const
wchar_t *, locale_t);</b>
           <b>wchar_t        *wcscat(wchar_t   *restrict,   const
wchar_t *restrict);</b>
           <b>wchar_t      *wcschr(const wchar_t *, wchar_t);</b>
           <b>int           wcscmp(const wchar_t *, const wchar_t
*);</b>
           <b>int            wcscoll(const   wchar_t   *,   const
wchar_t *);</b>
           <b>int             wcscoll_l(const  wchar_t  *,  const
wchar_t *, locale_t);</b>
           <b>wchar_t        *wcscpy(wchar_t   *restrict,   const
wchar_t *restrict);</b>
           <b>size_t          wcscspn(const   wchar_t   *,  const
wchar_t *);</b>
           <b>wchar_t      *wcsdup(const wchar_t *);</b>
           <b>size_t             wcsftime(wchar_t      *restrict,
size_t,</b>
                             <b>const  wchar_t  *restrict,  const
struct tm *restrict);</b>
           <b>size_t        wcslen(const wchar_t *);</b>
           <b>int           wcsncasecmp(const  wchar_t  *,  const
wchar_t *, size_t);</b>
           <b>int            wcsncasecmp_l(const wchar_t *, const
wchar_t *, size_t,</b>
                             <b>locale_t);</b>
           <b>wchar_t       *wcsncat(wchar_t   *restrict,   const
wchar_t *restrict, size_t);</b>
           <b>int             wcsncmp(const   wchar_t   *,  const
wchar_t *, size_t);</b>
           <b>wchar_t       *wcsncpy(wchar_t   *restrict,   const
wchar_t *restrict, size_t);</b>
           <b>size_t        wcsnlen(const wchar_t *, size_t);</b>
           <b>size_t          wcsnrtombs(char   *restrict,  const
wchar_t **restrict, size_t,</b>
                             <b>size_t, mbstate_t *restrict);</b>
           <b>wchar_t       *wcspbrk(const   wchar_t   *,   const
wchar_t *);</b>
           <b>wchar_t           *wcsrchr(const     wchar_t     *,
wchar_t);</b>
           <b>size_t          wcsrtombs(char   *restrict,   const
wchar_t **restrict,</b>
                             <b>size_t, mbstate_t *restrict);</b>
           <b>size_t        wcsspn(const wchar_t *, const wchar_t
*);</b>
           <b>wchar_t      *wcsstr(const wchar_t *restrict, const
wchar_t *restrict);</b>
           <b>double          wcstod(const   wchar_t   *restrict,
wchar_t **restrict);</b>
           <b>float           wcstof(const   wchar_t   *restrict,
wchar_t **restrict);</b>
           <b>wchar_t        *wcstok(wchar_t   *restrict,   const
wchar_t *restrict,</b>
                             <b>wchar_t **restrict);</b>
           <b>long            wcstol(const   wchar_t   *restrict,
wchar_t **restrict, int);</b>
           <b>long   double    wcstold(const  wchar_t  *restrict,
wchar_t **restrict);</b>
           <b>long  long      wcstoll(const  wchar_t   *restrict,
wchar_t **restrict, int);</b>
           <b>unsigned   long  wcstoul(const  wchar_t  *restrict,
wchar_t **restrict, int);</b>
           <b>unsigned long long</b>
                         <b>wcstoull(const   wchar_t   *restrict,
wchar_t **restrict, int);</b>
           <b>int               wcswidth(const     wchar_t     *,
size_t);</b>
           <b>size_t         wcsxfrm(wchar_t   *restrict,   const
wchar_t *restrict, size_t);</b>
           <b>size_t         wcsxfrm_l(wchar_t  *restrict,  const
wchar_t *restrict,</b>
                             <b>size_t, locale_t);</b>
           <b>int           wctob(wint_t);</b>
           <b>wctype_t      wctype(const char *);</b>
           <b>int           wcwidth(wchar_t);</b>
           <b>wchar_t       *wmemchr(const  wchar_t  *,  wchar_t,
size_t);</b>
           <b>int             wmemcmp(const   wchar_t   *,  const
wchar_t *, size_t);</b>
           <b>wchar_t       *wmemcpy(wchar_t   *restrict,   const
wchar_t *restrict, size_t);</b>
           <b>wchar_t       *wmemmove(wchar_t *, const wchar_t *,
size_t);</b>
           <b>wchar_t         *wmemset(wchar_t    *,     wchar_t,
size_t);</b>
           <b>int             wprintf(const   wchar_t  *restrict,
...);</b>
           <b>int             wscanf(const   wchar_t   *restrict,
...);</b>

       <i>The  following  sections  are  informative.</i>  </pre>
<h2><a  id="APPLICATION_USAGE"  href="#APPLICATION_USAGE"></a>AP‐
PLICATION    USAGE     &nbsp;    &nbsp;    &nbsp;    &nbsp;    <a
href="#top_of_page"><span                             class="top‐
link">top</span></a></h2><pre>
       The  <i>iswblank</i>() function was a late addition to the
ISO C standard and
       was introduced at the same time as the ISO C standard  in‐
troduced
       <i>&lt;wctype.h&gt;</i>,   which   contains   all  of  the
<i>isw*</i>() functions. The Open
       Group Base Specifications had previously aligned with  the
MSE working
       draft  and  had  introduced  the rest of the <i>isw*</i>()
functions into
       <i>&lt;wchar.h&gt;</i>.  For backwards‐compatibility,  the
original set of <i>isw*</i>()
       functions,  without  <i>iswblank</i>(),  are permitted (as
part of the XSI
       option) in <i>&lt;wchar.h&gt;</i>.  For maximum portabili‐
ty, applications should
       include  <i>&lt;wctype.h&gt;</i> in order to obtain decla‐
rations for the <i>isw*</i>()
       functions. This compatibility has been  made  obsolescent.
</pre>   <h2><a   id="RATIONALE"  href="#RATIONALE"></a>RATIONALE
&nbsp;  &nbsp;   &nbsp;   &nbsp;   <a   href="#top_of_page"><span
class="top‐link">top</span></a></h2><pre>
       In  the  ISO C standard, the symbols referenced as XSI ex‐
tensions are
       in <i>&lt;wctype.h&gt;</i>.  Their presence here  is  thus
an  extension.   </pre>  <h2><a id="FUTURE_DIRECTIONS" href="#FU‐
TURE_DIRECTIONS"></a>FUTURE DIRECTIONS  &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nb‐
sp;        <a        href="#top_of_page"><span        class="top‐
link">top</span></a></h2><pre>
       None.    </pre>   <h2><a   id="SEE_ALSO"    href="#SEE_AL‐
SO"></a>SEE    ALSO     &nbsp;    &nbsp;    &nbsp;    &nbsp;   <a
href="#top_of_page"><span                             class="top‐
link">top</span></a></h2><pre>
       <a    href="../man0/ctype.h.0p.html">ctype.h(0p)</a>,   <a
href="../man0/locale.h.0p.html">locale.h(0p)</a>,              <a
href="../man0/stdarg.h.0p.html">stdarg.h(0p)</a>,              <a
href="../man0/stddef.h.0p.html">stddef.h(0p)</a>,              <a
href="../man0/stdint.h.0p.html">stdint.h(0p)</a>,
       <a    href="../man0/stdio.h.0p.html">stdio.h(0p)</a>,   <a
href="../man0/stdlib.h.0p.html">stdlib.h(0p)</a>,              <a
href="../man0/string.h.0p.html">string.h(0p)</a>,              <a
href="../man0/time.h.0p.html">time.h(0p)</a>,                  <a
href="../man0/wctype.h.0p.html">wctype.h(0p)</a>

       The  System  Interfaces volume of POSIX.1‐2008, <i>Section
2.2</i>, <i>The</i>
       <i>Compilation             Environment</i>,             <a
href="../man3/btowc.3p.html">btowc(3p)</a>, <a href="../man3/con‐
fstr.3p.html">confstr(3p)</a>,                                 <a
href="../man3/fgetwc.3p.html">fgetwc(3p)</a>,
       <a     href="../man3/fgetws.3p.html">fgetws(3p)</a>,    <a
href="../man3/fputwc.3p.html">fputwc(3p)</a>,                  <a
href="../man3/fputws.3p.html">fputws(3p)</a>,                  <a
href="../man3/fwide.3p.html">fwide(3p)</a>, <a  href="../man3/fw‐
printf.3p.html">fwprintf(3p)</a>,
       <a    href="../man3/fwscanf.3p.html">fwscanf(3p)</a>,   <a
href="../man3/getwc.3p.html">getwc(3p)</a>,                    <a
href="../man3/getwchar.3p.html">getwchar(3p)</a>,              <a
href="../man3/iswalnum.3p.html">iswalnum(3p)</a>,              <a
href="../man3/iswalpha.3p.html">iswalpha(3p)</a>,
       <a   href="../man3/iswcntrl.3p.html">iswcntrl(3p)</a>,  <a
href="../man3/iswctype.3p.html">iswctype(3p)</a>,              <a
href="../man3/iswdigit.3p.html">iswdigit(3p)</a>,              <a
href="../man3/iswgraph.3p.html">iswgraph(3p)</a>,              <a
href="../man3/iswlower.3p.html">iswlower(3p)</a>,
       <a   href="../man3/iswprint.3p.html">iswprint(3p)</a>,  <a
href="../man3/iswpunct.3p.html">iswpunct(3p)</a>,              <a
href="../man3/iswspace.3p.html">iswspace(3p)</a>,              <a
href="../man3/iswupper.3p.html">iswupper(3p)</a>,
       <a href="../man3/iswxdigit.3p.html">iswxdigit(3p)</a>,  <a
href="../man3/mbrlen.3p.html">mbrlen(3p)</a>,                  <a
href="../man3/mbrtowc.3p.html">mbrtowc(3p)</a>,                <a
href="../man3/mbsinit.3p.html">mbsinit(3p)</a>,                <a
href="../man3/mbsrtowcs.3p.html">mbsrtowcs(3p)</a>,
       <a         href="../man3/open_memstream.3p.html">open_mem‐
stream(3p)</a>, <a href="../man3/putwc.3p.html">putwc(3p)</a>, <a
href="../man3/putwchar.3p.html">putwchar(3p)</a>,              <a
href="../man3/towlower.3p.html">towlower(3p)</a>,
       <a   href="../man3/towupper.3p.html">towupper(3p)</a>,  <a
href="../man3/ungetwc.3p.html">ungetwc(3p)</a>,                <a
href="../man3/vfwprintf.3p.html">vfwprintf(3p)</a>,            <a
href="../man3/vfwscanf.3p.html">vfwscanf(3p)</a>,              <a
href="../man3/wcrtomb.3p.html">wcrtomb(3p)</a>,
       <a   href="../man3/wcscasecmp.3p.html">wcscasecmp(3p)</a>,
<a        href="../man3/wcscat.3p.html">wcscat(3p)</a>,        <a
href="../man3/wcschr.3p.html">wcschr(3p)</a>,                  <a
href="../man3/wcscmp.3p.html">wcscmp(3p)</a>,                  <a
href="../man3/wcscoll.3p.html">wcscoll(3p)</a>,
       <a     href="../man3/wcscpy.3p.html">wcscpy(3p)</a>,    <a
href="../man3/wcscspn.3p.html">wcscspn(3p)</a>,                <a
href="../man3/wcsdup.3p.html">wcsdup(3p)</a>,                  <a
href="../man3/wcsftime.3p.html">wcsftime(3p)</a>,              <a
href="../man3/wcslen.3p.html">wcslen(3p)</a>,
       <a    href="../man3/wcsncat.3p.html">wcsncat(3p)</a>,   <a
href="../man3/wcsncmp.3p.html">wcsncmp(3p)</a>,                <a
href="../man3/wcsncpy.3p.html">wcsncpy(3p)</a>,                <a
href="../man3/wcspbrk.3p.html">wcspbrk(3p)</a>,                <a
href="../man3/wcsrchr.3p.html">wcsrchr(3p)</a>,
       <a  href="../man3/wcsrtombs.3p.html">wcsrtombs(3p)</a>, <a
href="../man3/wcsspn.3p.html">wcsspn(3p)</a>,                  <a
href="../man3/wcsstr.3p.html">wcsstr(3p)</a>,                  <a
href="../man3/wcstod.3p.html">wcstod(3p)</a>,                  <a
href="../man3/wcstok.3p.html">wcstok(3p)</a>,
       <a     href="../man3/wcstol.3p.html">wcstol(3p)</a>,    <a
href="../man3/wcstoul.3p.html">wcstoul(3p)</a>,                <a
href="../man3/wcswidth.3p.html">wcswidth(3p)</a>,              <a
href="../man3/wcsxfrm.3p.html">wcsxfrm(3p)</a>,                <a
href="../man3/wctob.3p.html">wctob(3p)</a>,
       <a     href="../man3/wctype.3p.html">wctype(3p)</a>,    <a
href="../man3/wcwidth.3p.html">wcwidth(3p)</a>,                <a
href="../man3/wmemchr.3p.html">wmemchr(3p)</a>,                <a
href="../man3/wmemcmp.3p.html">wmemcmp(3p)</a>,                <a
href="../man3/wmemcpy.3p.html">wmemcpy(3p)</a>,
       <a   href="../man3/wmemmove.3p.html">wmemmove(3p)</a>,  <a
href="../man3/wmemset.3p.html">wmemset(3p)</a>

       The  Shell  and  Utilities  volume  of  POSIX.1‐2008,   <a
href="../man1/getconf.1p.html">getconf(1p)</a>    </pre>   <h2><a
id="COPYRIGHT"  href="#COPYRIGHT"></a>COPYRIGHT   &nbsp;   &nbsp;
&nbsp;    &nbsp;    <a    href="#top_of_page"><span   class="top‐
link">top</span></a></h2><pre>
       Portions of this text  are  reprinted  and  reproduced  in
electronic form
       from  IEEE Std 1003.1, 2013 Edition, Standard for Informa‐
tion
       Technology ‐‐ Portable Operating System Interface (POSIX),
The Open
       Group  Base  Specifications Issue 7, Copyright (C) 2013 by
the
       Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc and
The Open
       Group.  (This is POSIX.1‐2008 with the 2013 Technical Cor‐
rigendum 1
       applied.) In the event of  any  discrepancy  between  this
version and
       the  original IEEE and The Open Group Standard, the origi‐
nal IEEE and
       The Open Group Standard is the referee document. The orig‐
inal
       Standard     can     be     obtained    online    at    <a
href="http://www.unix.org/online.html">http://www.unix.org/on‐
line.html</a> .

       Any typographical or formatting errors that appear in this
page are
       most likely to have been introduced during the  conversion
of the
       source  files  to  man page format. To report such errors,
see
       <a      href="https://www.kernel.org/doc/man‐pages/report‐
ing_bugs.html">https://www.kernel.org/doc/man‐pages/report‐
ing_bugs.html</a> .

<span class="footline">IEEE/The Open  Group                  2013
wchar.h(0P)</span> </pre>

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